Open Access Minireview Article

Potential of Indonesian Herbal Medicine, Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl, for Targeting Multiple Malignancy Signaling Pathways: An Introductory Overview

Ahmad Faried, Hendrikus Masang Ban Bolly, Leri Septiani, Dikdik Kurnia, Muhammad Zafrullah Arifin, Firman Fuad Wirakusumah

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/20760

A wide variety of natural compounds have been recognized for targeting multiple malignancy signaling pathways and inducing apoptosis in various cancer cell lines from different origins. The chemical compositions of those substances present in plants contribute to their significant biological and medicinal value. In this review, we summarized our current findings and knowledge of bioactive compounds isolated from the Indonesian medicinal herb, Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl, also known as Mahkota Dewa (MaDe) that originated from Papua province. A growing body of evidence from several countries suggests that the plant possesses potential for cancer therapy and chemoprevention. Exploring its mechanism in targeting multiple malignancy signaling pathways will provide valuable information for possible clinical applications in cancer management.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of In-vivo Neuropharmacological Effect of Sarcochlamys pulcherrima Leaf Extract in Animal Model

Mohammad Nazmul Alam, Md. Jainul Abeden, Md. Rafikul Islam, Mohammed Abu Sayeed, Sudipta Chowdhury, Md. Irfan Amin Chowdury, Israt Jahan Essha, Saima Farzana Taasin

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/21936

Aim: To evaluate in-vivo neuropharmacological effect of methanolic leaf extract of S. pulcherrima in animal model.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in the Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science and Engineering, International Islamic University Chittagong, during the period between September 2013 and April 2014.

Methodology: Neuropharmacological activity of crude methanolic extract of S. pulcherrima leaf was determined by using standard animal behavioral models. Such as hole cross test and open field test for exploratory activity, thiopental sodium induced sleeping times tests for sedative activity and elevated plus maze test for anxiolytic activity.

Results: Methanolic leaf extract of S. pulcherrima showed a significant dose dependent suppression of exploratory activity of swiss albino mice in hole cross and open field test respectively at both dose which is 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg (P<0.05). In the case of thiopental sodium induced hypnosis test, methanolic leaf extract exhibited significant sedative activity at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg doses respectively (P<0.05). At 400 mg/kg dose, significant anxiolytic activity was demonstrated by methanolic leaf extract of S. pulcherrima in elevated plus maze test (P<0.05). The results of this study exhibited that methanolic extract of S. pulcherrima leaf contains significant exploratory, sedative as well as medium anxiolytic activity.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Spasmolytic Action of Centaurium erythraea on Rabbit Jejunum is through Calcium Channel Blockade and NO Release

Alae Chda, Mohamed El Kabbaoui, Aziz Chokri, Kaouakib El Abida, Abdelali Tazi, Rachid Ben Cheikh

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/20374

Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess the antispasmodic effect of the aqueous extract from aerial parts of Centaurium erythraea (AECE) on isolated rabbit jejunum.

Methods: Myorelaxant and spasmolytic effects of AECE (0.3-10 mg/ml) were tested directly on spontaneous contractions and after spasm induction. To evaluate whether the effect of AECE involves a Ca2+ channel blockade, the tissues were placed in Ca2+-free Tyrode’s solution, then calcium was added in the presence of AECE. In addition, to investigate the involvement of the NO /cGMP pathway in the spasmolytic effect of AECE, the concentration-effect curve was achieved in the presence of L-NAME as a nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor, or ODQ as a specific cGMP inhibitor.

Results: Aqueous extract of Centaurium erythraea significantly reduced the jejunum’s spontaneous contractions (p<0.05). When the jejunum was incubated in Ca2+-free Tyrode’s solution or in high K+-Ca2+-free Tyrode’s solution, AECE significantly inhibited the recovery of spontaneous contraction as well as those induced by high K+ during Ca2+ supplementation. Also, AECE shifted to the right the concentration responses curve of high K+ induced jejunum contraction similarly to the effect produced by verapamil, a known calcium channel blocker, suggesting a presence of calcium antagonistic constituent(s) in AECE. By contrast, pretreatment with L-NAME or ODQ significantly reduced the antispasmodic effect, and shifted to the right the response curves of AECE, demonstrating the involvement of the NO pathway in this effect.

Conclusion: The main finding of our work suggests that AECE contains spasmolytic constituents mediating their effect at least through Ca2+ influx blockade and NO-cGMP pathway activation.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract Terminalia catappa L. on Pregnant Wistar Rats and Brain g-6pdh Activities

Nathaniel Ohiemi Amedu, Ukanu Paul Idoko, Olusegun Omotoso

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/21425

Aim: This study investigated the influence of an aqueous stem bark extract of Terminalia catappa on pregnant wistar rats and brain glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6PDH) activity.

Study Design: Forty-five adult female wistar rats at proestrus sexual cycle were caged overnight with sexually mature male rats of the same strain. The presence of sperm in the vagina lavage obtained the following morning confirmed coitus and was designated as day zero of pregnancy. The pregnant rats were randomly divided into five groups of nine each after confirmation of pregnancy.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Animal Holdings of the Department of Anatomy, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, between March 2014 and May, 2014.

Methodology: The Group A (control) animals were given feed and water liberally throughout the study. Group B received 400 mgkg/bwt of extract between 1-20 day, Group C received 400 mgkg/bwt between extract 1-6 day, Group D received 400 mgkg/bwt extract between 7-12 day and Group E received 400 mgkg/bwt extract between 13-20 day of gestation. The rats were sacrificed on day 20 of gestation, foetal morphologic measurements were taken as well as adult brain G-6PDH activity assayed.

Results: There was no statistical difference between the control and experimental groups of foetal body weight, crown-rump length, tail length, foetal brain weight and placental weight. Also, the adult brain G-6PDH activity level was not statistically different when the control and experimental groups were compared.

Conclusion: The dose of extract at 400 mgkg/bwt consumed during pregnancy, was  considered  as  relatively  safe,  as  it  did  not  cause abnormalities in foetus or influence changes in brain G-6PDH activity in adult rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Characterizations of Bergenin from Peltophorum pterocarpum Leaves and Its Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activities

Taiwo O. Elufioye, Efere M. Obuotor, Joseph M. Agbedahunsi, Saburi A. Adesanya

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/22548

Aims: The study identified a cholinesterase inhibitory constituent in P. pterocarpum, a medicinal plant used in Nigerian ethno-medicine for the management of memory loss.

Study Design: Activity directed phytochemical investigation of P. pterocarpum using in vitro anti cholinesterase assay and spectroscopic analysis of isolated compound.

Methodology: Combined chromatographic (VLC and CC) and spectroscopic (NMR and MS) analyses revealed bergenin as the major constituent of the most active ethyl acetate fraction of             P. pterocarpum.

Results: The extract, fractions and pure isolated bergenin tested for their AChE and BuChE inhibitory activities showed significant inhibition of both enzymes with bergenin having an IC50 of  (13.17 µM) towards AChE and  (14.60 µM) towards BuChE.

Conclusion: We conclude that Peltophorum pterocarpum may be good in traditional management of memory loss associated with AD and bergenin may be a good drug candidate for the treatment of AD after further investigations in AD models.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Crude Stem Bark Extracts of Anogeissus leiocarpus

Dahiru Ahmad Alhassan, Abdullahi Ibrahim Uba, Auwalu Umar Muhammad, Yakubu Ya’u Muhammad

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/22443

Aims: This study was aimed at screening of phytochemicals and evaluation of antimicrobial activity of stem bark of Anogeissus leiocarpus

Study Design: Stem bark of Anogeissus leiocapus was extracted using solvent extraction method; with ethanol, n-hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate and water soluble extracts. Each extract was screened for phytochemicals and tested for sensitivity against E. coli and Shigella dysenteriae.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was carried out at the department of Chemistry, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria. The duration of the study is 6 months, 2 weeks.

Methodology: The stem bark of the plant was dried, ground, sieved and stored at room temperature. The sieved powder (200 g) of Anogeissus leiocarpus was percolated with 95% Ethanol (1 l). Maceration was conducted using ethanol, n-hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate and water soluble extracts. Each extract was screened for phytochemicals and tested for sensitivity against E. coli and Shigella dysenteriae.

Results: Phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of alkaloid, tannins, flavonoids, steroids and sugars while antimicrobial activity test at various concentration showed that all the extracts had antimicrobial activity against E. coli (causative of diarrhea) and Shigella dysenteriae (causative of dysentery) at different concentrations with the exception of ethyl acetate soluble extract which showed no antimicrobial activity against E. coli.

Conclusion: Thus, the plant can be a potential source of bioactive compounds to be considered in the management of infectious diseases, notably diarrhea and dysentery.