Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Study, Antioxidant Analysis and Evaluation of the Larvicidal Potential against Aedes aegypti Larvae of Essential Oil of Ocimum basilicum Linn

Ryan da Silva Ramos, Alex Bruno Lobato Rodrigues, Raimundo Nonato Picanço Souto, Sheylla Susan Moreira da Silva de Almeida

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/18230

Aims: The purpose of this research was to accomplish chemical study, antioxidant analysis and evaluation of the larvicidal potential against Aedes aegypti larvae of essential oil from the leaves of O. basilicum Linn.

Location of the Study: Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry Laboratory, Department of Biological and Health Sciences, Federal University of Amapá (UNIFAP), between July 2013 and March 2014. Arthropoda Laboratory, Department of Biological and Health Sciences, Federal University of Amapá (UNIFAP) between September 2013 and March 2014.

Methodology: The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation; the identification and quantification of components was achieved with the use of GC-MS analysis. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the method of sequestration of DPPH. The essential oil was tested in the third larval state of the development of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. The third larval instar were exposed to different concentrations of the oil (500, 400, 300, 200 and 130 ppm) in triplicates.

Results: Chromatographic analysis identified that the major constituents found in essential oil of O. basilicum were limonene (13%), 1,8-cineole (15%), linalool (20%) and methyl chavicol (45%). In trials of free radicals sequestration, the essential oil showed (AA%) 67.35±1.11 in the highest concentration and inhibitory concentration, IC50 value of 61.517 mg/mL. The essential oil of O. basilicum showed larvicidal potential with CL50 of 67.22 ppm.

Conclusion: A more detailed study should be done to verify the larvicidal potential and biological mechanism of action, as several authors claimed that the constituent of essential oils affect the nervous system of the mosquito Aedes aegypti and the action mechanism is not yet fully elucidated. New studies demand the development of tests using samples of lower concentrations to verify the degree of toxicity in other animal species, including man, and preparation of formulations that may function as a natural alternative to combat mosquito larvae.


Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-oxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content of Methanolic Extract of Cleome viscosa L. Whole Plant and its Derived Fractions

T. O. Elufioye, J. O. Onoja

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/21668

Aim: The aim of this work is to evaluate the invitro antioxidant activity as well as estimate the total phenolic and flavonoid content of methanolic extract and fractions of Cleome viscosa L.

Study Design: Evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of Cleome viscosa L.

Methodology: Antioxidant activity of the methanol extract (MCV) and derived hexane (HCV) and ethyl acetate (ECV) fractions of Cleome viscosa L. was performed by DPPH radical scavenging, Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and phosphomolybdate assay. The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were also estimated using Folin-Ciocalteu and colorimetric aluminum chloride methods respectively.

Results: The ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest total phenolic content (77.33±4.21 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g of extract (r2=0.9646)) and total flavonoid content (71.677±8.125 mg of quercetin equivalent/g of extract (r2=0.9449)). In the DPPH radical scavenging test, the IC50value of MCV, ECV and HCV  was 0.91, 0.34 and 1.06 mg/mL, respectively also showing ethyl acetate fraction as the most active with activity comparable to that of standard ascorbic acid (AA) (IC500.034 mg/mL). The total antioxidant capacity was equally higher in ECV (384.70±7.37 mg of ascorbic acid equivalent/g of extract (r2=0.9843)) than in MCV and HCV which were 204.04±2.72 mg/g and 157.13±2.36 mg/g, respectively. The reducing activity on ferrous ion was ranked as ECV > MCV > HCV.

Conclusion: The study showed that C. viscosa has good antioxidant property, with the active compounds, which may be phenolic and flavonoid most extractible in ethyl acetate.


Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Activity of (Crassula ovata) Jade Plant on Different Strains of Bacteria

Mwangi Denis Muiruri, Wambura Mwangi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/19753

The Crassula ovata plant has been used for many years as an ornamental plant, and also as a medicinal plant in some communities like the Khoi of South Africa and in Chinese culture. Locally the plant is being used by homeowners who have it in their vicinity as a remedy for diarrhea and disinfecting wounds. However, the major problem of using this plant is its ineffectiveness to heal wounds and diarrhea in most cases where it is being used.  It brings about questions like does the Crassula ovata plants inhibit certain specific microorganisms, or is the concentration of the extract to blame, or the method used to extract the plant. The mode of extraction used in this study involved both aqueous extraction and methanolic extraction, to ensure all plant constituents are extracted for better results. The microorganisms that were tested against the plant extracts are the major day to day sources of diarrhea and wound infection. The plant extracts are used at varying concentrations. The observable results were quantitatively analyzed to see which plant extract and at which concentration causes the most inhibition on the microorganisms. The plant extract with the most inhibition was found to be the water extraction at the concentration of , and it would be recommended that the Crassula ovata plant be used to the specifications as observed in the study.


Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Characterization of Flavonoids in Urena lobata Leaves

Dixa Singh, V. S. Singh

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/21502

Aim: Urena lobata L. a member of Malvaceae family, is widely used as famine food in Africa. It is also used in traditional medicine system to cure gonorrhea, fever, wounds, toothache & rheumatism. The plant has already been tested for its antioxidant activity. The work was extended to investigate and identify the flavonoid glycosides present in the plant.

Methodology: Urena lobata leaves were dried, powdered and extracted with petroleum ether followed by methanol. The methanolic extract, after processing through different solvents, was used to obtain the Chemically active constituents .Column Chromatography and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) were used to isolate four compounds which were, in turn, subjected to spectroscopic analysis.

Results: The spectroscopic studies indicated that the four isolated compounds are (1) Quercetin, (2) Kaempferol, (3) Quercetin 3-0-rutinoside and (4) Kaempferol 3-0- β glucopyranoside.

Conclusion: The presence of flavonoids in the plant makes it an important ingredient of the traditional medicinal system. Since flavonoids are associated with antioxidant activity, their presence in the plant makes it an important food material.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anticoccidian Activity of Ethanol Roots Extract of Cassia sieberiana DC in Chickens

Alioune Dior Fall, Oubri Bassa Gbati, William Diatta, Rock Allister Lapo, Kady Diatta-Badji, Mbaye Dieng, Serigne Ibra Mbacke Dieng, Emmanuel Bassene, Louis Joseph Pangui

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/21343

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the anticoccidian activity of ethanol roots extract and fractions in chicken experimentally infested by oral administration of coccidia’s oocysts solution.

Methods: Ethanol roots extract was fractionated by column chromatography using a gradient polarity of solvents (dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol) and lead to these said fractions. For anticoccidian activity, « Leghorn » chicks were experimentally parasitized by oral administration of Coccidia oocysts solution (Eimeria sp). After detection of oocyts in the chicks droppings and treatments with the extract and fractions, the parasitological examination was carried out in order to determine the number of oocysts in 1 g of faeces.

Results: The study had shown that the ethanol extract was more active than the 3 fractions and the reference product (amprolium). The percentages of reduction of the OPG at the end of treatment in groups treated by the ethanol extract (10 and 5 mg/day) were respectively 88.63±7.89% and 74.39±6.81% while that of amprolium was only 58.42±5.78%. The dichloromethane fraction (0.131 mg/day) and the methanol fraction (7.225 mg/day) had similar reduction effect on coccidian (80±7.25 and 81.01±7.03% respectively.

Conclusion: The ethanol extract from the roots of Cassia sieberiana and its various fractions had shown an anticoccidian activity.


Open Access Review Article

Antimicrobial Potency of Plant Species: A Review

Fariba Sharififar, Mehdi Ansari, Tahereh Eslaminejad, Mandana Ohadi, Banafsheh Mobarrez, Mahboobeh Raeiszadeh, Shahram Kalantari, Touba Eslaminejad

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/20114

Aims: Applications of herbal medicine extracts as antimicrobials agents in human health and food protection as well as the analysis methods of the novel compounds, biosynthesis, and genetic regulation of them are describing in this work. According to the increasing prevalence of the antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, the alternative source of antibiotic production is necessary to replace. Plants are a valuable source in various secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, and terpenoids which have shown some inhibitory effect on different microorganisms. Nowadays, herbal medicines are finding their way into pharmaceuticals. There are several well-known drugs that are derived from plants used for different diseases and were top-selling pharmaceuticals in the world. ‘Thymol’ is a strong disinfectant from ‘Thyme’ for treating of edema and bronchospasm, ‘morphine’ which comes from ‘Papaver somniferum’, the powerful pain-killer, ‘L-dopa’ from ‘Mucuna deeringiana’ using as a cardiotonic, ‘taxol’ from the bark of ‘Taxus brevifolia’ as an anti-cancerous and ‘Rutin’ from ‘Orange’ using to treat sedation. In conclusion, plant medicine extracts have used in ancient medicine from several years ago, so identification of them and their compounds offer a chance to develop new drugs against diseases and according to this potential, need further work to approve reliability.

Study Design and Methodology: A review of the literature from the pioneering study of 2005 until 2015.

Place and Duration of Study: Pharmaceutics Research Centre (PRC), Institute of Neuro-pharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran between June 2014 and July 2015.

Conclusion: Plant medicine extracts have used in ancient medicine from several years ago, so identification of them and their compounds offer a chance to develop new drugs against diseases and according to this potential, need further work to approve reliability.