Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of the Antioxidant Activity of Aromatic Medicinal Plants of Moroccan Origin

Sara Houbairi, Inaam Elmiziani, Abdeslam Lamiri, Mohamed Essahli

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/19928

The purpose of this work is to appreciate different aromatic and medicinal plants from Morocco belonging to four different families, by chemical characterization and evaluation of their antioxidant activity.

The reducing efficiency of DPPH radical decreased in the following order: the essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllus, Thymus saturieoides, the oil of the Ricinus communis, the essential oil of Artemisia herba-alba, and Myrtus communis.


Open Access Original Research Article

Elemental and Fatty Acid Content of Four Medicinal Plants: Kaiempferia rotunda, Cuscuta reflexa, Centella asiatica and Asparagus racemosus

Ismet Ara Jahan, Proity Nayeeb Akbar, Mohammad Enayetullah, Nazir Ahmmad, Mohammad Nuruddin, Md Ranzu Ahmed

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/20312

Aims: The present study investigates the elemental and fatty acid content of four different medicinal plants, namely Kaiempferia rotunda, Cuscuta reflexa, Centella asiatica and Asparagus racemosus, grown in Bangladesh.

Methodology: Macro (Na, K), micro (Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, Cr) and heavy metal (Cd, As) elements were determined quantitatively by flame photometer and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) in the tubers of K. rotunda, the Arial parts of C. reflexa and C. asiatica, and the roots of A. racemosus. For the ascertainment of the fatty acid constituents, a gas chromatograph connected to mass spectrometer was used to analyze the methylated fatty acids.

Results: The elemental contents of the plants were determined in considerable amounts (Na: 6950-17030 ppm; K: 21460-63310 ppm; Mg: 1.95-1868.07 ppm; Mn: 0.603-26.14 ppm; Fe: 0.1028-0.4394 ppm; Cu: 0.1118-0.2117 ppm; Cd: 0.0005-0.0854 ppm; Cr: 1.844-28.91 ppm, respectively). The essential fatty acids for growth maintenance such as heneicosanoic acid (1.86-12.08%), pentadecanoic acid (0.6-40.15%), hexadecanoic acid (9.17-29.74%), heptadecanoic acid (0.73-4.42%) and octadecanoic acid (7.68-11.11%) were detected in decent amounts in all four of the plants, respectively.

Conclusion: It can be said that the investigated medicinal plants are a good source of the elements Na, K, Mg and Cr, whereas Cu, Cd and Mn are only present in trace amounts. Significant amounts of fatty acids were also detected that come with immense biological properties.  


Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Evaluation and GC-MS Analysis of Strobilanthes crispus Ethanolic Leaf Extract

Vuanghao Lim, Chuan Seng Yap, Hui Wen Chong, Mohamed Saleem Abdul Shukkoor, Madhavan Priya

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/20075

Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the potential antimicrobial activities of the ethanolic leaf extract of Strobilanthes crispus (S. crispus) by determining the susceptibilities of various strains of microbes to the extract and to profile the bioactive compounds in the extract using GC-MS.

Study Design:  In vitro assays, chromatography and spectrometry analysis.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at Integrative Medicine Cluster Lab, AMDI, USM and Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UCSI University, from July 2012 to December 2013.

Methodology: Anti-microbial activity was assessed using disc diffusion on Aspergillus brasiliensis, Candida albicans, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumonia. GC-MS analysis was used to profile the bioactive components of the plant part.

Results: The extract exhibited inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae at 200 mg/ml concentration, whereas no visible inhibition was observed against Aspergillus brasiliensis, Candida albicans, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. GC-MS analysis of the ethanolic extract revealed the presence of few constituents which include acetic acid, butyrolactone, and hexanedioic acid that have been described in the literature as proven antimicrobial agents.

Conclusion: These results suggest that the ethanolic leaf extract of Strobilanthes crispus (S. crispus) can be used as a nutraceutical against S. aureus and S. pneumoniae.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Ex-vivo Anti-arthritic, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-cancerous and Thrombolytic Activities of Mussaenda roxburghii Leaf

Md. Irfan Amin Chowdury, Mohammad Nazmul Alam, Sudipta Chowdhury, Md. Shahrear Biozid, Md. Faruk, Muhammad Moin Uddin Mazumdar, Ahmad Ibtehaz Chowdhury

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/20483

Aim: The current study evaluates the anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancerous and thrombolytic activities of methanolic extract of Mussaenda roxburghii leaf.

Place and Duration of study: This study was conducted in the Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science and Engineering, International Islamic University Chittagong, during the period between August 2013 and March 2014.

Methodology: Bovine serum albumin was used for the evaluation of anti-arthritic potential and methanolic plant extract was compared with diclofnac sodium. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by hypotonicity induced membrane lysis and methanolic plant extract was also compared with diclofenac sodium. Brine shrimp lethality bioassay was used to evaluate the anti-cancerous activity of methanolic extract of Mussaenda roxburghii. Evaluation thrombolytic activity of methanolic extract of Mussaenda roxburghii was investigated by clot lysis method and methanolic extract was compared with streptokinase.

Results: In the case of anti-denaturation, methanolic extract of Mussaenda roxburghii exhibited 42.15% of inhibition at 31.25 µg/ml and 80.33% of inhibition at 1000 µg/ml concentration. For anti-inflammatory effect, methanolic extract showed 53.79% and 86.93% of membrane stabilization activity at 31.25 µg/ml and 1000 µg/ml concentration respectively. The extract showed minimal anticancerous activity, lethal concentration (LC50) value of the extract was 282.03 μg/ml compared to vincristine sulphate (12.59 µg/ml). For the evaluation of the thrombolytic activity, methanolic leaf extract of Mussaenda roxburghii was treated with human blood. It showed promising activity which was about 49.09%.


Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of Ageratum conyzoides Linn. and Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach. & Thonn.) Extracts for Antibacterial Activity

Godfred Danso Fadehan, Daniel Boamah, Dominic Adotei Edoh, Offori Lartey, Mark Addo-Appenteng

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/20739

Aim: To investigate the antibacterial activities of Ageratum conyzoides and Alchornea cordifolia as part of the exploration for new and novel bioactive compounds.

Study Design: Aqueous and ethanol extracts were prepared and antibacterial effectiveness were assessed against common standard bacterial strains.

Place and Duration of Study: Centre for Plant Medicine Research (CPMR) Ghana, between March 2013 and October 2014.

Methodology: Crude aqueous and ethanolic extracts were prepared from the leaf of Ageratum conyzoides and Alchornea cordifolia. Antibacterial activities were analysed by well diffusion method against seven standard strains namely Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and             Proteus mirabilis.

Results: The organisms showed sensitivity to Alchornea cordifolia. Ethanol (70%) extract of this plant exhibited the highest sensitivity as compared to the other ethanolic and aqueous extracts. Klebsiella pneumonia was also sensitive to aqueous extract of Ageratum conyzoides.

Conclusion: The present study showed that Alchornea cordifolia is potential source of antibacterial agents and confirms its use in traditional medicine.


Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Dermal Irritation and Acute Toxicity Potential of Extracts from Synadenium glaucescens on Healthy Rabbits, Wistar Albino Rats and Albino Mice

Vitus A. Nyigo, Robinson Mdegela, Faith Mabiki, Hamisi M. Malebo

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/20763

Aim: This study was conceived for the purpose of evaluating dermal toxicity potentials of extracts from S. glaucescens which is known for many traditional application in human and animals including healing wounds, boils, HIV, worms and application on the swollen lymph nodes of cattle suffering from east coast fever (ECF). This followed the scanty availability of information regarding dermal toxicity of this and many other plants in Tanzania despite the growing practice of utilizing plant products and extracts respectively to control and treat  ectoparasites, and skin disorders. 

Materials and Methods: The dried plant materials were subjected to sequential solvent extraction using organic and aqueous solvents. All test animals were obtained from Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA), Tanzania. Thus, irritation, and acute dermal toxicity tests were respectively conducted in healthy rabbits and albino rats using the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidelines. Albino mice were used to test skin sensitization using method developed by Sailstad.

Results and Discussion: Irritation indices ranged from 3.2 and 0.05, thus according to Draize these are considered as mild and moderate irritants since none of them could reach PII of 5. On the other hand, findings from acute dermal toxicity tests showed no any overt signs of toxicity after two weeks of treatment. Similarly the extracts did not produce any sensitization reaction based on the mouse ear diameter taken by vernier calipers.

Conclusion: Findings from this study have shown that, extracts from dried plant of S. glaucescens exhibit neither sensitization nor acute dermal toxicity effects except for mild to moderate irritancy. The findings therefore suggests that extracts from dried plant parts of S. glaucescens under the short term use of different extracts from dried leaves and root barks applied on skin of animals do not cause any adverse effects both externally and internally.


Open Access Original Research Article

Inhibitory Effects of Plant Extracts and Putative Endophytic Actinomycetes from the Selected Members of Meliaceae Family against MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Ashba Hassan, Imran Sajid

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/22549

Aims: To isolate and screen endophytic actinomycetes and plant extracts from Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach for antibacterial effects against MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Study Design: Isolation and identification of the endophytic actinomycetes from plant tissues, cultivation of the selected strains, solvent extraction, screening of methanolic extracts for antibacterial activity against MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa, chemical profiling of the extracts.

Place and Duration: Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan, during July 2014 to June 2015.

Methodology: The endophytic actinomycetes were isolated by surface sterilization of the plant tissues. The methanolic crude extracts of the endophytic actinomycetes and extracts of plant tissues were prepared. Antibiotyping of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa was done using a panel of 13 antibiotics by disc diffusion assay. The antimicrobial activity of the methanolic extracts was determined by well diffusion assay, while the cytotoxicity of the extracts was determined by brine shrimp microwell cytotoxicity assay. The chemical profiling of the extracts was performed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/UV) analysis.

Results: 20 endophytic actinomycetes strains were isolated and screened from the selected plants, among them 17 strains were found to be active against MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with low cytotoxicity against Artemia salina. Antibiotics resistance profiling of the selected 21 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains confirmed them as multidrug resistant (MDR) strains based on their multiple antibiotics resistance (MAR) values. Metabolic profiling of the extracts through, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and HPLC exhibited an impressive chemical diversity of the active constituents in the endophytic actinomycetes and plant extracts.

Conclusion: The antibacterial activity of methanolic crude extracts of endophytic actinomycetes and plant tissues against MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa depicted the selected plants (Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach) as a promising source of commercially useful compounds to treat infections caused by MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa.