Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Activity and Phytochemistry Study of Combretum obanense Stem (Bak. F) Hutch. and Dalz

M. K. Tchimene, O. W. Obonga, C. E. C. Ugwoke, F. I. Nwafor, M. M. Iwu

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/19970

Objective: The objective of the present study was designed to test the antioxidant activity and phytochemical property of the methanol/ methylene chloride (1:1) extract of Combretum obanense.

Place and Duration of Study: The International Centre for Ethnomedicine and Drug Development (InterCEDD), 110 Aku Road Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria, between January 2014 and July 2014.

Methodology: We had assessed methanol/methylene chloride (1:1) stem extract of C. obanense, for antioxidant potentials with the help of DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) free radical scavenging, reducing power assay and phytochemical analysis.

Results: The extract was capable of neutralizing the DPPH free radicals via hydrogen donating activity by 78.09, 80.13, 80.54, 80.45, and 76.99% at concentrations of 25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 µg/ml respectively while reducing power extract ranging from 0.7490±0.0017 to 0.16470.0007.

Conclusion: The finding supports the traditional use of this plant in Nigeria traditional medicine. We recommend further research on these plant stem for possible isolation and characterization of the various active chemical substances which has the toxic and medicinal values.


Open Access Original Research Article

A 28- Day Oral Toxicity Study of Pseudocedrela kotschyi Methanol Extract in Sprague-Dawley Rats

Abubakar Kabiru, Danjuma Nuhu Muhammad, Maiha Balkisu Bello, Anuka Joseph Akpojo, Yam Mun Fei, Bello Shaibu Oricha, Yusoff Adlin, Hor Sook Yee, Mariam Ahmad, Zaini Muhammad Asmawi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/20199

Aims: To evaluate the safety profile of Pseudocedela kotschyi which is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of epilepsy, malaria, diarrhoea and pains, a 28 day sub chronic toxicity study was conducted was evaluated using the 28 day subchronic toxicity study.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in the Departments of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University Sains Malaysia, during the period between January 2013 and February 2014.

Methodology: The methanolic extract of P. kotschyi stem bark was evaluated for acute and sub chronic toxicity in female and male rats. In the acute oral toxicity study, a limit dose of 2000 mg/kg was administered to five non-pregnant female rats by oral gavage. They were observed for signs of toxicity/mortality for 14 days. In the sub chronic toxicity study 48 rats of both sexes were grouped into 4 groups of 12 animals (6 males, 6 females) and treated with P. kotschyi extract at a dose of 40, 200 and 1000 mg/kg respectively, the fourth group was considered as a control.

Results: The 28 days acute oral toxicity study of P. kotschyi demonstrated a lack of toxicity of the methanol extract. Parameters such as general behavioural changes were observed to be normal; moreover no death was recorded at the end of the study period. Assessment for signs of chronic toxicity indicated no abnormalities in the test groups as compared to the controls. Haematological and biochemical values in treated groups were normal in comparison with the control group. Insignificant changes in body weight, internal organ weight and general behaviour were considered to be incidental.

Conclusion: The stem bark methanol extract of P. kotschyi administered orally to female and male rats was relatively safe at the doses administered. We therefore conclude that toxic effects, if any occurred at doses higher than those used in our country.


Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening, Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Studies of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Combretum aculeatum vent.

Alioune Dior Fall, Awa Ndiaye Sy, Jean Baptiste Hzounda Fokou, Joël Olivier Ndiefi Fomi, Mbaye Dieng, Serigne Ibra Mbacké Dieng, Emmanuel Bassene

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/20294

Objectives: The present study aimed to identify the phytochemical groups of ethanol leaf extract of Combretum aculeatum Vent., and to evaluate the phenol content of extracts and their antioxidant activity.

Materials and Methods: Collected leaves were extracted with ethanol (95°). From the dried ethanol extract, 3 fractions were obtained after a liquid/liquid fractionation (hexane, ethyl acetate and water). Phytochemical screening of the raw extract was done using standard reactions. The phenol content was determined with Folin Denis reagent. Antioxidant activity was performed using 2, 2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl test (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and nitric oxide reducing tests.

Results: Tannins, flavonoids and mucilage were the main phytochemical constituents of the leaf extract. Antioxidant assay revealed ethanol extract and its polar fractions were more active. In DPPH assay, the aqueous fraction (IC50: 61.93±5.99 μg / ml) was more active than the ethanol extract, the ethyl acetate and hexane fractions with respective IC50 values 74.1±4.47 - 81.53±6.51 - 1710.33±71.15 µg/ml. In nitric oxide test the ethyl acetate fraction (IC50: 56.66±3.09 µg/ml) had shown a better ability to inhibit nitric oxide radical than the ethanol extract, the hexane and aqueous fractions (IC50: 84.33±9.80- 451.33±1.24- 101.33±4.10 µg/ml respectively). In FRAP assay the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions had shown a better activity than the leaf extract.

Conclusion: Ethanol leaf extract had shown antioxidant activity in the different assays. This biological activity may be due to both polar and non polar compounds.


Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical and Cytotoxic Studies of Rumex pictus Forssk. and Rumex vesicarius L. (Family Polygonaceae), Growing in Egypt

Nagwa M. Ammar, Nahla A. Ayoub, Sherweit H. El-Ahmady, Lamiaa T. Abou El-Kassem, Enaam M. Abou Zeid

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/19830

Aims: Rumex pictus Forssk. and Rumex vesicarius L., Family Polygonaceae, wildly growing in Egypt possess many biological activities. The current study was performed to study the phytochemical constituents and the in vitro cytotoxic activity of the successive extracts of the aerial parts of Rumex pictus and Rumex vesicarius.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacognosy, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt, between March 2014 and January 2015.

Methodology: The preliminary phytochemical screening of the aerial parts of Rumex pictus and Rumex vesicarius, revealed the presence of volatiles, phenolic compounds, sterols, terpenes and carbohydrates in both species. The volatile constituents were prepared from the fresh aerial parts of each of the plants by hydro-distillation and their chemical composition was identified using GC and GC/MS. The results revealed the presence of hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (7.29%) and o-xylene (5.63%) as the major components in R. pictus and R. vesicarius, respectively. The lipoidal content of the aerial parts of each species was prepared and analyzed after saponification by GC/MS. The results revealed the presence of unsaturated fatty acids as oleic (6.54%) in R. pictus and ricinoleic (13.7%) in R. vesicarius. Sterols including campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, α- and β-amyrin were present in both species while taraxasterol was detected only in R. pictus. The amino acid content of each of the species was analyzed and the results revealed the presence of phenylalanine, threonine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, histidine and lysine as essential amino acids in both species at different proportions. The study of carbohydrates revealed the presence of the free sugars glucose, fructose, sucrose and mannitol in both species with different percentages, while the polysaccharide content was prepared and analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively after hydrolysis by GC and GC/MS. Glucose, rhamnose, arabinose, galactose and ribose were detected in both species, while sorbitol was present in R. pictus only. The different successive extracts of the aerial parts of the two species were tested for their cytotoxic activity on breast cancer (MCF-7), lung carcinoma (A549) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines. The results revealed that the chloroformic extract of the aerial parts of R. pictus showed significant cytotoxic activity against hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line (IC50= 1.33 μg/mL) and lung carcinoma (A549) (IC50= 3.35 μg/mL) cell line when compared to Doxorubicin, while, the 70% methanolic extract of the aerial parts of R. pictus showed significant cytotoxic activity towards breast cancer (MCF7) cell line (IC50= 15.5 μg/mL). This is the first report of the cytotoxic activity of R.  pictus.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the preliminary phytochemical screening of the aerial parts of R. pictus and R. vesicarius (Family Polygonaceae) revealed the presence of a variety of constituents including volatile compounds, carbohydrates and /or glycosides, flavonoids, anthraquinones, sterols and/or terpenes, tannins and amino acids, as well as, significant cytotoxic activity of the different successive extracts with variable proportions.


Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Phenolic Antioxidants from Tectona grandis Leaves, Using Experimental Design

Emmanuel N. Koffi, Ibrahim Cissé, Amian B. B. Kassi, Paul R. Lozano, Augustin A. Adima, Emmanuel N. Assidjo, Yves- Alain Bekro

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/20338

Aims: This study aims to apply central composite design to optimize ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions in order to maximize simultaneously total polyphenols and antioxidant activity from aqueous leaves extract of Tectona grandis.

Study Design: Young teak leaves were collected in June 2011 from teak plantations in the center of Côte d’Ivoire. After harvesting, the dried leaves were packed and shipped to CIRAD laboratory (Montpellier, France), where they were stored until processed and analyzed.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out during season 2011-2012 in the CIRAD laboratory (Montpellier, France).

Methodology: Central composite design was used to simultaneous maximize ultrasound-assisted extraction of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity from Tectona grandis leaves. The design independent variables selected for this study were vegetal to liquid ratio (X1, leaves: citric acid; w:v), extraction time (X2, min) and solvent concentration (X3, citric acid concentration).

Results: Optimal condition obtained includes 10-2 N citric acid concentration, 16.25 g/L vegetal to citric acid ratio and 37.5 min for extraction. Under the above-mentioned condition, the experimental content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity from aqueous leaves extract of T. grandis were 1,310 µmol.g-1 GAE and 431 µmol.g-1 TE, respectively. These results were well matched with their predicted values which are 1,300 µmol.g-1 GAE and 429 µmol.g-1 TE for polyphenols and antioxidant activity, respectively.

Conclusion: Ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully optimized using central composite design to obtain an aqueous leaves extract of Tectona grandis, with optimized polyphenol content and antioxidant activity. Results indicated that this extraction method is a promising technique for extraction of phenolic antioxidants from T. grandis, as compared as infusion and decoction, and aqueous extracts of T. grandis leaves could be explored as a potential antioxidant agent for use in medicine against cardiovascular and cancer diseases.


Open Access Original Research Article

Bioassay-Guided Discovery of Antibacterial Agents: In vitro Susceptibility of Multi-drug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus to Psidium guajava Linn Extracts

D. Boamah, G. D. Fadehan, D. A. Edoh, S. Kaminta, B. Egyir, H. Blagogee, H. Brew-Daniels, S. Acheampong, M. Addo-Apenteng, A. A. Appiah

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/19180

Aims: Development of multi-drug resistance to antibiotics is a major health concern worldwide.  This study assessed the antibacterial activities of leaves extracts from Psidium guajava against multi-drug resistant Staphyllococcus aureus strains.

Study Design: Three (3) different extracts were prepared from the dried leaves of P. guajava and tested against the multi-drug resistant strains isolated from clinical samples.

Place and Duration of Study: Microbiology department, Centre for Plant Medicine Research. From October 2014 to March 2015.

Methodology: Absolute ethanol, 70% ethanol and aqueous extracts were prepared using maceration and concentrated by rotary evaporation techniques. The lyophilized materials were reconstituted in serial concentrations for antimicrobial assessments using the agar well diffusion method. The minimum inhibition concentration was determined by broth microdilutions method.

Results: Although, all the 14 strains exhibited various antibiotypes to 10 different commonly used antibiotics; none of them was resistant to the 3 extracts. There was 1/14 (KTHMDR-5) strain being highly susceptible to aqueous extract. In addition, the absolute ethanol extract was effective against 8/14 strains at 25 mg/ml and 4/14 strains at 12.5 mg/ml, whiles the aqueous extract was effective against 13/14 strains and 11/14 strains at 25 and 12.5 mg/ml respectively. The 70% ethanol extract showed much stronger activity against all the 14 strains than the aqueous and absolute ethanol extracts from 200 to 25 mg/ml with only 1/14 strain (KTHMDR-2) not being sensitive at a concentration of 12.5 mg/ml. The MIC values for all the strains were considerably low ranging from 0.78 to 6.25 mg/ml. There was a very strong significance difference (P < 0.0001) between the antimicrobial activities of 70% ethanol extract and the absolute ethanol.

Conclusion: The 14 multi-drug resistant S. aureus strains were susceptible to the 3 extracts with 70% ethanol extract exhibiting the most significant antimicrobial activity. Therefore, it is important to utilize this extract in drug formulations.