Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Chemical Structural Characterization of the Mixture of Two Related Phytosterols from Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae) Leaves

Peter Masoko, Vutshilo Nemudzivhadi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/18172

Aim: Ricinus communis, a member of the family Euphorbiaceace, is widely used in South African traditional medicine for the treatment of wounds, sores and boils. The plant was selected based on a high antibacterial activity demonstrated in a previous In vitro study. There is a need to isolate compounds that are responsible for antibacterial activity of R. communis leaves.

Methodology: The leaves of R. communis were milled to a fine powder and sequentially extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, acetone, and methanol using a serial exhaustive extraction method. Thin layer chromatography was used to analyse the phytochemical components of the extracts and bioautography for the presence of antibacterial compounds. A pure compound was isolated using column chromatography coupled with preparative thin layer chromatography and the structure was elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance.

Results: Hexane extracts had potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis and low activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The average minimum inhibitory concentration value of hexane crude extracts was 0.47 mg/ml, followed by extracts of dichloromethane (0.94 mg/ml), acetone (0.39 mg/ml) and methanol (1.49 mg/ml). The bioassay guided fractionation of the hexane extract led to the successful isolation of compound 1 at the Rf value of 0.40. Compound 1 was identified as a mixture of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol.

Conclusion: Compound 1 lost its antibacterial activity during the purification process.  This may lend support to the theory that some compounds present in plant extracts act synergistically to give a particular biological activity. This study represents the first report of the isolation of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol from the leaves of R. communis.


Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Moroccan Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

El- miziani Inaam, Houbairi Sara, Lhaloui Saadia, Essahli Mohamed, Lamiri Abdeslam

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/19955

Morocco contains a wide wealth of aromatic and medicinal plants; they constitute natural components, its valorization request a perfect knowledge of the properties to put in value. The present work has been the objective of the valorization of seven plants by studying their chemical compositions and their powers antioxidants by the method of 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyle (DPPH). This study classify the efficiency of oils studied in accordance with the values of IC50 obtained, the oregano and the eucalyptus have been identified the most effective with IC50 values are respectively 2.47±1.06 and 4.005±0.38 mg/mL, on the other hand the spearmint has shown no effectiveness antiradical whose IC50 was not achieved even by increasing its concentration up to 4000 mg/mL. 


Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of the Different Ethnopharmacological Activity of Fractional Root Extracts of Mussaenda roxburghii in in vitro Model

Farzana Akther Sumi, Prawej Ansari, Biswajit Sikder, Anaytulla ., Nadia Akter Zhumur, Mustafe Khalid Mohamed, Sabbir Anwar, Mitali Debnath, Rokibul Hasan

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/19315

Purpose: With this study, we wanted to reveal that the root extract of M. roxburghii has thrombolytic activity or not and targeted to estimate its toxicity, potentiality to inhibit inflammation by the inhibition of protein denaturation.

Methods: In vitro thrombolytic assay was used in the purpose of clot lysis capacity measurement of fractional crude extracts of M. roxburghii. We took streptokinase as a positive control. Brine shrimp lethality bioassay was performed to measure the toxic potentiality of the plant extracts. The in vitro anti-inflammatory assay was designed using egg protein model to check the percent protection rate of protein denaturation.

Results: In the thrombolytic assay, ethyl acetate extract of M. roxburghii showed significant (p <0.0001) clot lysis activity with 48.85±7.38%. The positive control Streptokinase results 76.90±9.01% and negative control water results very little, 7.55±3.33%. The apoptotic activity study showed good result with EC50 of 32.46 µg/ml with significant limit of <0.002. In in vitro anti-inflammatory study the ethyl acetate extract of M. roxburghii showed highest percent of inhibition with 48.43±2.23% (p<0.001).

Conclusions: From our study outcome, the ethyl acetate and dichlormethane extracts of root of M. roxburghii have good thrombolytic, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity. Hence, further study is needed to identify the phytochemicals incorporated with thrombolytic activity, the new chemicals may aid in the improvement of the treatment of atherosclerosis or embolism like diseases. We should also take result of pain inhibition and anti-cancer study, as well.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant and in vivo Wound Healing Activities of Clausena anisata

Nicholas Agyepong, Christian Agyare, Paul Poku Sampene Ossei, Yaw Duah Boakye

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/19792

Leaves of Clausena anisata are used in many parts of West Africa including Ghana for management of wounds and other skin infections. The study was to evaluate the in vivo wound healing and antioxidant properties of ethanol leaf extract of C. anisata. The wound healing activity of ethanol leaf extract of the C. anisata was investigated using excision wound model. The antioxidant activity was determined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method. For wound healing activity, concentrations of 7 and 10% w/w aqueous cream of the extract were used. The progression of wound healing was determined by the periodic assessment of the contraction of excision wounds and histological studies. The leaf extract cream (7% w/w) was found to significantly increase the rate of wound contraction (p<0.001) at days 13 to 19 compared to the untreated. The n-propyl gallate used as the reference antioxidant agent had IC50 of 4.19 μg/mL and that of the ethanol extract was 32.9 μg/mL. These findings may justify the medicinal uses of C. anisata for the management of wounds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Amelioration of Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug Induced Gastropathy by Nigella sativa Oil- An Experimental Study

Mohammed Nazer Hasan, Rahat Ali Khan, Mohammed Nasiruddin, Aijaz Ahmed Khan

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/19932

Aims: To evaluate the protective effect of Nigella sativa oil against Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced gastropathy.

Methodology: Thirty wistar albino rats (15-200 gm) of either sex were divided into five groups each containing six animals. Group I & II were administered distilled water 0.5 ml daily p.o for 5 days, Group III was administered distilled water 0.5 ml daily p.o for 5 days and ranitidine 30 mg/kg p.o on 5th  day and group IV & V were test groups, administered with Nigella sativa oil (NSO) at a dose of 1 & 2 ml/kg/day p.o respectively for 5 days. Except group I all groups were fasted for 36 hrs and on 5th day 1 hour after the last dose of ranitidine or test drug administration, aspirin 400 mg/kg p.o was administered in fasted rats. 5 hrs after aspirin administration the rats were sacrificed and gastric contents were analysed for pH and acid output while the stomach was taken out for ulcer index calculation and histological examination.

Results: Aspirin caused marked gastric damage evidenced in group II which was prevented by ranitidine as well as Nigella sativa oil (NSO). Among the test groups the protection was in a dose dependent manner.

Conclusion: Nigella sativa oil (NSO) showed a dose dependent protective effect against aspirin induced gastropathy.


Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Cytotoxic, Thrombolytic and Anthelmintic Activity of Extract of Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) Leave

A. T. M. Mostafa Kamal, Kazi Ashfak Ahmed Chowdhury, Md. Masud Rana, Azharul Islam, Estekhar Ahmad Khan, Md. Areeful Haque, Anaytulla ., Md. Moazzam Hossen Chy

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/17121

Aim of the Study: The study was aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic, thrombolytic and anthelmintic activity of methanolic extract of the stem of Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.).

Place and Duration of Study: The research was carried out in Department of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Chittagong, Bangladesh between January 2013 and November 2014.

Methodology: The study adopted cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp lethality, thrombolytic activity using red blood cell of human and anthelmintic activity by using aquarium worm Tubifex tubifex.

Results: The brine shrimp lethality bioassay was used to determine the cytotoxic activity of crude extract and LC50 values of the extract was found 130.617±0.82 μg/ml. Here vincristine sulphate was used as standard and the result of this positive control was found 8.50±0.16 μg/ml. The extract showed clot lytic activity (39.97±4.67%) as compared to standard streptokinase’s (48.82±2.35%) clot lytic activity in case of thrombolysis assay. The evaluation of anthelmintic activity was  determined by using Tubifex tubifex by using three concentrations viz.,5, 8 and 10 mg/ml of the extract was studied  which was mainly concerned with the determination of time require for paralysis and that of death of the worms. The result showed that as the dose increases, the activity also increases gradually. At highest concentration of 10 mg/ml the anthelmintic activity of the extract’s activity was found significant when compared with standard reference levamisole (1 mg/ml) and distilled water was used as control.

Conclusion: The results of this study substantiates that the methanol extract of the stem of Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) have moderate cytotoxic activity and significant thrombolytic activity and have anthelmintic activity in dose dependent manner, which could be further

exploited for their potential biological activity and might overcome the ever expensive synthetic.