Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activity of the Bioactive Fractions of Cyathula uncinulata (Amaranthaceae)

M. A. Bisi-Johnson, C. L. Obi, T. Hattori, Y. Oshima, B. B. Samuel, J. N. Eloff

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/18649

Cyathula uncinulata (Schrad.) Schinz is used in ethnomedicine in various parts of the world. This study isolated and characterized a bioactive compound from C. uncinulata based on its antibacterial activities. Separation of the bioactive compound from the ethyl acetate fractions of the plant was by solvent-solvent fractionation followed by repeated column chromatography. The structure of the compound was elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopic methods. The NMR spectra of the isolated compound showed that the compound with formula C22H38O7 and molecular weight 414.5329 has a long aliphatic chain made up of sugar and fatty acyl moiety. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of fractions of extracts ranges from 0.39 to 2.5 mg/ml. The MIC of the final purified compound was 0.34 mg/ml compared to the MIC of 0.19 of kanamycin indicating a reasonable bioactivity. This study thus supports the traditional use of C. uncinulata in the treatment of bacterial infections.


Open Access Original Research Article

Fatty Acids and Tocopherols Content in Fractionated Oils from Five Wild Oilseed Plants Native to Kahuzi-Biega National Park, Kivu-DR Congo

Kazadi Minzangi, Justin N. Kadima, Archileo N. Kaaya, Bertrand Matthäus, Patrick Van Damme, Bashwira Samvura, Dieudonné E. Mosibono, Katula Belesi, Pius T. Mpiana

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/19653

Aims: Most natural oils only have limited application in their crude forms, but fractionation can provide a variety of food applications. The objective  was to fractionate crude oils from five selected plants growing wild in Kahuzi-Biega National Park (KBNP) in DR Congo, to analyze fatty acids and tocopherols contents in their respective resulting olein and stearin fractions, and to evaluate whether fractionation improves food quality. 

Methods: Solvent fractionation of oil, Gas Chromatography (GC) for FAs analysis and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) for Tocopherols analysis were used. Studied plants include Carapa grandiflora (Meliaceae), Cardiospermum halicacabum (Sapindaceae), Maesopsis eminii (Rhamnaceae), Millettia dura (Fabaceae) and Pentaclethra macrophylla (Fabaceae).

Results: Fractionation gave the highest olein value yield (79.3%) from M. eminii oil and the highest stearin value yield (53.4%) from C. grandiflora oil. Eighteen FAs were detected, from plamitic acid (16:0) to very long chain FA cerotic acid (26:0). Differences were found between the profiles of fractions obtained and their corresponding crude oils. The profile of C. halicacabum olein is dominated by MUFAs (77%) and close to the known profile of olive oil (77%). In all olein and stearin fractions, unsaturated FAs dominated SFAs, contrary to the palm oil. M. dura and                P. macrophyla oils are richest in active vitamin E compounds (tocopherols, tocotrienol and plastochromanol) with the highest content 9.6 mg/100 g in M. dura stearin and olein fractions.

Conclusions: The solvent fractionation used is relatively efficient to modify the proportions of SFA-MUFA-PUFA content in olein and stearin fractions. By its profile, C. halicacabum olein has similarities with olive oil, and would thus be used as a substitute for this expensive oil after some adaptations. Fractionation allows adding nutritional value to crude oils by increasing essential unsaturated fatty acids like nevronic acid while reducing the levels of unwanted fatty acids such as behemic acid. The high content of tocopherols in M. dura stearines also adds nutritional value to future derivate food products. It would be possible to adjust the final cooling temperature of the crude oils in order to modify processing yield and generate fractions of different qualities.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antistress Potential of Negundin A from Vitex negundo in Acute Stress Induced Mice

Neha Tiwari, Ashutosh Mishra, Ganesh Bhatt, Anil Chaudhary

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/18752

Study Background: The current study has been designed to evaluate the antistress activity of bioactive compound, Negundin A from hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves of Vitex negundo. An attempt has been made to isolate the bioactive principle by resorting to bioactivity directed fractionation and column chromatographic technique. Isolated compound, Negundin A from leaves of Vitex negundo was investigated on acute physical stress stress (swimming endurance test), chemical stress (writhing test) and Acute restraint stress induced biochemical alterations in swiss mice. 

Methodology: The plant leaves were extracted with hexane followed by ethanol, the extract so obtained was fractionated using chloroform to obtain chloroform soluble fraction. Negundin A was isolated from chloroform soluble fraction using column chromatography and characterized by techniques like Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Nuclear magnetic resonance 1HNMR. Isolated compound was screened for antistress activity. The effect was assessed by Swimming endurance test, writhing test and estimation of various biochemical parameters in Acute restraint stress like glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and BUN levels at different doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight per oral. Diazepam (2 mg/kg, ip) was used as standard drug.

Results: Negundin A treated animals showed increase in swimming endurance time and reduced number of writhes in physical and chemical-induced stress models respectively.  Similarly, concomitant treatment with Negundin A at different doses showed marked decrease in blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and BUN level as compared to stress control in Acute restraint stress models.

Conclusion: This is the first report of antistress activity of Negundin A and isolation of Negundin A by column chromatography from hydroalcoholic exract. The results in present research indicate that the isolated compound Negundin A of Vitex negundo extract has significant antistress activity against a variety of biochemical and physiological perturbations in stress models.


Open Access Original Research Article

Seed Germination Studies in Rauvolfia serpentina (L.) Benth. ex Kurz.

P. R. Salvi, Rohan R. Patil, D. N. Mokat

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/15457

The roots of Rauvolfia serpentina are under use in traditional and modern systems of medicine. The wild population of this valued medicinal plant is in dwindling stage in the natural habitats due to over exploitation and different anthropogenic activities. Cross pollination, poor seed germination, niche habitat, etc. are also responsible for shrinking the population of plants.  Due to its potential to cure different diseases the demand for its roots has increased in several folds in national and international market, it is therefore essential to cultivate this drug yielding plant on large scale in the agricultural fields.  For the mass multiplication and production of quality planting material (QPMs) of this valuable drug there is prerequisite to develop techniques through sexual and asexual methods. In the present investigation effect of pre sowing treatments of GA3 on seed germination was studied and presented in the paper. The seed of pre-treated with scarification (T1) performed superior in respect of percent germination, growth rate index, mean daily germination, peak value and germination value as compared to other treatments.


Open Access Original Research Article

GC-MS Analysis of Phytocomponents and Antifungal Activities of Zanthoxylum acanthopodium DC. Collected from Manipur, India

Okram Zenita Devi, Kottapali Sreenivasa Rao, Ankita Bidalia, Radhapiyari Wangkheirakpam, Okram Mukherjee Singh

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/19353

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity and phytochemical analysis of Zanthoxylum acanthopodium to validate the folklore use of this plant.

Study Design: The present study was designed to evaluate the antifungal activity in different crude extracts of the Z. acanthopodium leaves followed by the characterization of chemical constituents in the extract which possess highest antifungal activity by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Botany, University of Delhi and Institute of Bioresources of Sustainable Development, Takyelpat Institutional Area, Imphal between December 2013 and May 2014.

Methodology: The antifungal activity of Z. acanthopodium leaf extracts in three organic solvents viz. petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and chloroform were investigated against 5 strains of fungi- Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigates, A. niger, Candida albicans and C. krusei by following agar well diffusion method. The characterization of bioactive compounds in petroleum ether extract was performed using GC-MS by electron ionization in scan mode.

Results: The extracts exhibited antifungal activity on two fungal species, namely C. albicans and C. krusei and the petroleum ether extract proved to possess high antifungal activity compared to the rest of the solvent extracts. The GC-MS analysis of petroleum ether extract of Z. acanthopodium leaves identified forty three compounds.

Conclusion: GC-MS study highlights the existence of various bioactive compounds in Z. acanthopodium. Paulownin is found as the major compound having highest peak area and it is reported to possess antifungal property which proves that petroleum ether crude extract of Z. acanthopodium could be used as a natural antifungal.


Open Access Review Article

A Review on Gongronema latifolium, an Extremely Useful Plant with Great Prospects

Olugbenga Morebise

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/19713

Gongronema latifolium is a plant that has a wide range of nutritional and ethnomedical uses in different tropical African communities. Scientific reports on the chemical composition and bioactivity (anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anticancer and allelopathic properties) of the plant material by different authors are discussed in this review. Future prospects of the plant extracts in the areas of herbal formulations, food preservation, alcoholic fermentation and beer production, drug discovery and allelopathy are also highlighted.