Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Medicinal Value Evaluation of Some Plants Used by the Ogiek in Management of Microbial Related Infections

O. Amuka, A. K. Machocho, P. O. Okemo, P. K. Mbugua

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/16295

Aim: The survey was targeted at documenting the indigenous plants that are used in the management of microbial related medical conditions within the Ogiek communities of Kenya.

Study Design: Purposive sampling approach was used to interview the traditional herbalist with the help of a questionnaire.

Place and Duration of the Study: Some 49 plants species used by the Ogiek, who are indigenous forest and forest product dwellers and users, in the management of microbial related conditions in human maladies were collected from the Mau Forest complex and prepared, for extractions and screened for antimicrobial activities at Kenyatta University and National Public Health Laboratories, Nairobi respectively. The plants were screened to ascertain their activities against selected human microbial infections.

Results: Crude methanol extracts from 16 species showed activities against various pathogenic organisms. There was also marked activities from two of the oils extracted from three species of the 16 plants.

Conclusion and Recommendations: Some plants have activities against selected microorganisms and this validates their continued use as medicine by the Ogiek communities and their neighbours as medicine. It has been suggested that further studies be done on the bioactive plant species to establish their bactericidal and fungicidal abilities; and their safety to humans to justify their continued use as medicine.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-angiogenic Rather than Pro-angiogenic and Wound Healing-Promoting Effects of Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) in a Zebra Fish Model of Tissue Regeneration and in Cultured Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

D. R. A. Mans, J. R. Toelsie, M. Djotaroeno, P. Friperson, J. Pawirodihardjo, I. Magali, R. C. Soekhoe, K. Oedairadjsingh, J. A. Hasrat, R. Bipat

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/19330

Aims: Plant-derived substances are extensively used for promoting wound healing in various traditional medicinal systems. In this study, extracts from such plants were evaluated for such properties using an animal model of tissue repair and angiogenesis and a cell culture model of proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was carried out for sixteen months at the Departments of Pharmacology and Physiology of the Faculty of Medical Sciences, Anton de Kom University, Paramaribo, Suriname.

Design and Methods: Aqueous extracts from parts of Aloe vera, Cinnamomum cassia, Lantana camara, Momordica charantia, Psidium guajava, and Solanum melongena were evaluated for their capacity to stimulate the regeneration of the amputated caudal fin of wild-type AB zebra fish embryos; the development of sub-intestinal vessels of Tg(fli1a:EGFP)y1/+ zebra fish embryos; the closure of scratch-wound gaps in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayers; and capillary-like structure formation by these cells in matrigel. The data obtained were compared to those found with untreated controls and considered statistically significantly different when P values < .05 (Student’s t test).

Results: None of the plant extracts stimulated fin regeneration and sub-intestinal vessel formation in the fish embryos or HUVEC scratch-wound closure and capillary-like structure formation. However, the L. camara extract delayed the regrowth of the amputated fin and the formation of sub-intestinal vessels by approximately 30 (P =.004) and 50% (P = 0.1), respectively, and inhibited HUVEC scratch-wound closure and capillary-like structure formation by roughly 100 (P = .004) and up to about 50% (P = .04 and .05), respectively. The remaining plant extracts did not affect either of these phenomena.

Conclusion: The L. camara extract exerted marked anti-angiogenic characteristics rather than pro-angiogenic and wound healing-promoting properties. This makes it a candidate for evaluation in diseases caused by excessive angiogenesis.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Protective Effects of Calpurnia aurea Seed Extract on HAART Hepatotoxicity

Haile Nega Mulata, Seifu Daniel, Umeta Melaku, Wendwesson Ergete, Natesan Gnanasekaran

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/17677

Aim: The effect of hydroethanolic seed extract of Calpurnia aurea was evaluated against HAART induced free radical reactions in liver and liver cell damage in Wistar male albino rats.

Background: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-correlated hepatotoxicity make difficult the management of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), raise medical costs, changes the prescription prototypes, and affects the principle recommendations.

Materials and Methods: Matured dried seed of Calpurnia aurea were collected, powdered and extracted using 70% ethanol. Preliminary phytochemical screening and in-vitro antioxidant properties of the extract were carried out. Thirty rats of same age and 140-200 g weight were selected and divided into five groups containing six each. The HAART and different doses of the Calpurnia aurea seed extract (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg) administered orally for 35 days. At the end of the experiment day the rats were fasted overnight. Then blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture for biochemical studies and there after sacrificed by cervical dislocation and liver was excised from the rats for histopathological studies. The hepatoprotective effects of the seed extract against HAART liver toxicity in rats were evaluated by monitoring the levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), amino transferases (AST, ALT), and histopathological analysis. In addition, the antioxidant properties of the seed extract against HAART induced alteration in rats liver antioxidant profile were evaluated by monitoring the levels of SOD, CAT, GHS, MAD and TAC analysis.

Results: Increased free radical reactions, ALP, amino transferases release and decreased antioxidant profiles were detected in HAART treated rats. The rats treated with the extract (300 mg/kg) reduce the HAART induced liver toxicity but minimum dose of extract (100 mg/kg) did not show any significant change against HAART altered parameters.

Conclusion: This study suggests that the Calpurnia aurea seed extract have hepatoprotective potential, thereby justifying their ethnopharmacological uses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ethno-Medicinal Plants in Sacred Groves in East Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh, India

Venkatesh Rampilla, Khasim S. Mahammad

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-29
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/18802

Aims: An ethnobotanical study was conducted to document traditional medicinal plants used by indigenous people around the four sacred groves (protected forest patches) of East Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted around the four sacred groves (protected forest patches) of East Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh, India from 2011-2015.

Methodology: The ethnomedicinal knowledge was gathered through interviews of tribal physicians. Data collected were processed using Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. The data was analyzed using the fidelity level (FL) of each species determined.

Results: The study revealed therapeutic applications of 87 plant species belonging to 76 genera and 45 families. These plants are used to cure various ailments such as malaria, jaundice, diabetes, bronchitis, fevers etc. The majority of remedies were taken orally in the form of juice extracted from freshly collected plant parts harvested from the wild. Plants that has the highest FL values are Gymnema sylvestre (100%) and Andrographis paniculata (100%), followed by Phyllanthus amarus (91%). The lowest is Woodfordia fruticosa (46%). The most used plant parts are leaves. Over-exploitation and deforestation and Podu-cultivation are main threats for medicinal plant vulnerability.

Conclusion: The documented information regarding therapeutic uses provides basic data for further studies on pharmacological studies and conservation of the most important medicinal plant species.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Investigation of the Antibacterial and Antifungal Potentials of the Extracts of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Rind and Seed

C. Egbuonu Anthony Cemaluk

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/18142

Aim: To investigate the antibacterial and antifungal potentials of the crude ethanol and aqueous extracts of watermelon (Citrullus lanantus) rind and seed. 

Study Design: The fruits were purchased from a local market and identified in the Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Nigeria by a taxonomist. The rind and seed samples were extracted using ethanol (95%) and water and the crude extracts screened for antibacterial and antifungal potentials.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Nigeria and National Root Crops Research Institute Umudike, Nigeria, between August, 2014 and November, 2014.

Methodology: The ethanol and aqueous extracts of watermelon (Citrullus lanantus) rind (EER and AER) and seed (EES and AES), each at a concentration of 100 mg/ml, were investigated by well-diffusion method for activity against ten pathogens.

Results: The EER exhibited the highest activity against the bacterium, Esherichia coli (6.0) and the fungus, Candida albican (4.0). The least activity was in the EES against the fungus, Trichosporo bepelli (0) followed by EER and AES against the bacterium, Staphylococcus aureus (1.0). For the bacterial strains, the highest mean activity (4.0) and mean susceptibility (4.50), respectively was in the EER and Esherichia coli whereas the least mean activity (3.0) and mean susceptibility (1.50), respectively was in AES and Staphylococcus aureus. For the fungal strains, the highest mean activity (2.5) and mean susceptibility (3.0), respectively was in the EER, AER, AES and Candida albican whereas the least mean activity (1.25) and mean susceptibility (1.25) was in EES and Trichosporo bepelli. The activity against the studied pathogens however was higher in the EE than in the AE of the rind and seed, suggesting the preference to the EE for higher pharmacologic activity.

Conclusion: The extracts (EER, AER, EES and AES) exhibited activity against the tested strains, especially Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The study underscores the overriding potency of EER against the bacterium, Escherichia coli and the fungus, Candida albicans, and the non-susceptibility of the fungus, Trichosporo bepelli to EES. Further works, however are needed to validate reliability and possible exploitation in nutraceutical formulations and in ethnomedication.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Aqueous Extract of the Fruits of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich. Protects against Carbon Tetrachloride - Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Olusola B. Adewale, Noghayin E. Jerry Orhue

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/18927

Aim: This study was designed to examine the hepatoprotective effect of aqueous extract of the fruits of Xylopia aethiopica using the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) model.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemical Sciences, Biochemistry unit, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria between November, 2013 and April, 2014.

Methodology: Thirty six rats divided into 6 groups of 6 animals each were used for the investigation. Group 1 served as control, while groups 2, 3 and 4 were pre-treated with aqueous extract of the fruit of X. aethiopica at the respective dose of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg body weight for 21 days prior to a single intraperitoneal administration of CCl4. Animals in group 5 received only the fruit extract at a dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight, while those in group 6 were given only CCl4. All animals were sacrificed 24 h after the administration of CCl4. Liver functions was assessed by measuring the plasma levels of AST, ALT, ALP, total protein and albumin. Plasma lipid profile and the degree of lipid peroxidation in the liver were determined in addition to histopathological evaluations.

Results: Whereas CCl4 administration resulted in significant elevations in plasma ALT, AST, and ALP, there was a significant reduction in both plasma total protein and albumin. In addition, histopathological changes were observed with CCl4. Analysis of the data obtained for MDA, SOD and catalase suggest that the plant extract exerts its protective effect probably by inhibiting CCl4-induced lipid peroxidation in liver tissue. 

Conclusion: It can be suggested that X. aethiopica fruits has the ability to offer a significant degree of protection to liver cells against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar albino rats by antioxidant mechanism of action.