Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Ethanolic Crude Extracts of Nauclea latifolia Smith (Rubiaceae) Leaves, Fruits, Stem and Root Barks on the Liver of Chinchilla Rabbit

S. I. Ogenyi, A. A. Ngokere, A. O. Onyemelukwe, T. P. P. Choji, A. O. Oluboyo, R. C. Chukwuanukwu, E. N. Ekekwe, P. O. Manafa

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/17883

Aims: To determine the histopathological and biochemical effects of ethanolic crude extracts of Nauclea latifolia leaves, fruits, stem and root barks on the liver of Chinchilla rabbit.

Study Design: This is an experimental study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study, which lasted for 10 weeks, was carried out at the Animal House of the College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi campus.

Methodology: Twenty four (24) Chinchilla rabbits of both sexes were grouped into 4 (A-D). Group A-C received, orally, 100 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg body weight of the extract respectively per day. Group D (control group) received equal volume of normal saline, in addition to normal diet and water. Blood and tissue specimens were collected under chloroform euthanasia after 60 days. Alanine Transaminase (ALT) and Aspartate transaminase (AST) activities were determined using Reitman- Frankel method. Liver samples were processed for Haematoxylin and Eosin staining method.

Results: Decreased mean body weight values of the rabbits treated with 250 mg/kg, for 60 days was observed. The rabbits treated with 250 mg/kg for 20 days, 40 days and 60 days showed significant elevation of AST and ALT activities. However, significant decrease in AST activity was observed when the animals treated for 40 days were compared with those treated for 60 days. There was no significant change in serum ALP in all the groups. Groups B and C treated for 60 days showed hepatic injury.

Conclusion: Crude ethanolic extract of N. latifolia fruits, leaf, stem bark and root bark possess the tendency to adversely affect hepatic functions.


Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of Some Commonly Used Medicinal Plants against Enteric Human Pathogen Vibrio cholerae

Sushmita Choudhury, Latika Sharan, M. P. Sinha

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/17973

Aim: Present study aims to screen some of the commonly used medicinal plants (Mangifera indica, Moringa oleifera, Pisidium guajava, Murraya koenigii and Ficus infectoria) and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against enteric human pathogen Vibrio cholera.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Zoology, Ranchi University, Ranchi, between January 2014-July 2014.

Methodology: Plant extraction, antibacterial analysis and phytochemical analysis were Done.

Results: The different methanolic leaf extracts differed in their vibriocidal properties. The MIC values of the plant extracts against test bacteria were in the range of 2-4 mg/mL by a disc diffusion method. P. guajava and F. infectoria showed promising vibriocidal property at 4 mg/mL concentration. Whereas the other three plants did not show any activity at the highest concentration. Broth dilution method showed 100% inhibition for all the extracts in the range 4-32 mg/mL. 

Conclusion: All the extracts showed positive vibriocidal activity but P. guajava and F. infectoria showed promising activity and probably can be used as a safe medicine in diarrhea.  


Open Access Original Research Article

Carica papaya Latex Accelerates Wound Healing in Diabetic Wistar Rats

Rotimi Sunday Ajani, Kemisola Ifedayo Ogunbiyi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/17758

Aim: The wound healing ability of Carica papaya latex in excisional wound of alloxan induced diabetic wistar rats was investigated.

Methodology: The excisional wounds of 24 diabetic rats in four equal groups were dressed respectively with latex (LD), gentamicin (GD), normal saline (ND) and propylene glycol (PD). A composite four non- diabetic (control) groups were also established (LC, GC, NC, and PC). All the eight groups had daily dressing till healed. Wound dimensions were taken at an interval of four days and obtained values were used to calculate wound contraction rates for specific period. Granulation tissue biopsies taken on day 4, 8 and 12 were processed for light microscopy. The healed scars were also processed for light microscopy.

Results: The latex control (LC) group had the shortest healing period (16 days) while the longest period of 32 days was recorded by the diabetic normal saline (ND) and diabetic propylene glycol (PD) groups. The differences in the healing duration amongst the groups were significant               (P < 0.001).

Comparison of highest and lowest wound contraction rates within the same period

The LC group had highest mean wound contraction rate of 21.56±7.04% on day 4 with the PD group being the lowest (6.45±2.32%). Similar pattern was observed on day 8; (LC: 55.71±4.87%) and (ND: 18.98±12.13%). For day 12, the results were LC: 84.86±5.11% and GD: 35.36±17.80%. All these paired values were of statistical significance.

Intra and intergroup comparisons of contraction rates

On day 4, LC had significantly higher contraction rate than LD (21.58±7.04; 11.06±2.82 respectively with   P< 0.001). Also results for the same parameter on day 8 and day 12 were significant in LD vs GD (47.48±8.9 vs 21.06±5.83; P<0.001); LD vs ND (47.48±8.94 vs 18.98±12.13; P<0.001); LD vs PD (47.48±8.9 vs 23.12±5.77; P< 0.001) and GC vs GD (42.56±8.61 vs 21.06±5.83; P< 0.001).

Light microscopy of the granulation tissue from all the control groups showed more cellular infiltration than the respective diabetic group which might be due to hyperglycemia.

Conclusion: The study had been able to demonstrate that Carica papaya latex promotes wound healing in diabetic wistar rats. Possible mechanisms through which this was achieved   include amelioration of the inhibitory effect of diabetes mellitus on wound healing, increased rapidity of wound contraction and reduction in the duration of healing.

From the results of this study, the latex of Carica papaya appeared superior to gentamicin, normal saline and propylene glycol as materials for wound management in diabetic wistar rats.

Latex is naturally occurring and its source (Carica papaya) is easily cultivated, readily available, affordable and cannot be adulterated.

It may thus be considered as an alternative to the synthetic materials in the current management of wounds in patients with diabetes mellitus.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Toxic Heavy Metal Contents of Commercially Available Fruits of Tribulus terrestris Linn.

Fazilatun Nessa, Saeed A. Khan

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/18946

Aims: To evaluate the free radical scavenging activity of organic solvent extracts and the toxic heavy metal contents of commercially available fruits sample of Tribulus terrestris Linn in the UAE.

Methodology: Fruit samples were extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and methanol solvents separately and evaluated their total polyphenol contents as well as free radical scavenging activities using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical assay method. For heavy metal analysis, samples were prepared by a dry ashing digestion procedure and estimated eight heavy metals: cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), arsenic (As), aluminum (Al), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Method validation was performed by evaluating metal recovery studies.

Results: The free radical scavenging activities of extracts were compared with known antioxidant L-Ascorbic acid (AA) and the results were decreased in the order of: AA > methanol > ethanol >> ethyl acetate >> hexane extracts. The methanol extract was the most active free radical scavengers due to their higher polyphenols content; ethyl acetate and hexane extracts were not active. The fruits of T. terrestris exhibited a positive response for all tested heavy metals and the concentrations were recorded in 1 g sample as: 37.35±1.29 mg Al, 3.92±0.95 mg As, 0.161±0.037 mg Cd, 2.49±0.34 mg Cu, 87.93±7.87 mg Fe, 1.81±0.61 mg Pb, 0.87±0.13 mg Ni and 8.93±1.59 mg Zn. The estimated heavy metal levels were below the recommended permissible limit set by WHO except As and Fe.

Conclusion: Long time consuming of T. terrestris fruits might implicates an oxidative damages to cells as of their heavy metals contents and in contrary free radical scavenging activity and polyphenolic contents of extracts might give protection against this damages.


Open Access Original Research Article

Cardioprotective Effect of Leaf and Root Extracts of Newbouldia laevis against Carbon Tetrachloride Induced-Cardiotoxicity in Albino Rats

K. N. Agbafor, C. Ezeali, E. I. Akubugwo, I. K. Obiudu, A. J. Uraku, M. E. Ogbanshi, N. Edwin, O. P. C. Ugwu

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/17673

Various parts of Newbouldia laevis are used by traditional medicine practitioners in Eastern Nigeria for treatment/management of several disorders, including cardiovascular diseases. This study was designed to investigate cardioprotective potential of aqueous leaf and root extracts of the plant in albino rats. Forty-four (44) adult male albino rats, used in this study, were placed into eleven (11) groups (A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J and K), four rats in each group. Groups A, B, C and D were orally administered with 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg body of leaf extract respectively, while groups E, F, G and H were given the same doses of root extract correspondingly. Group I received 1.2 mg/kg body weight of aspirin (a cardioprotective drug), while groups J and K were given distilled water. Administration lasted seven (7) consecutive days. On the seventh day, all groups, except K, were given 2.5 ml/kg body weight of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intraperitoneally two hours after extract/aspirin administration. Group K received olive oil. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides in the extracts. The activity of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and concentration of cardiac troponin I (CTnI) in the serum of extract-  and aspirin-treated groups were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than the untreated negative control in which these parameters were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in normal control. Serum lipid profile of the animals also followed the same trend. There was a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the extract- and aspirin-treated groups relative to the negative control. The activity of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the extract- and aspirin-treated groups and normal control than in the untreated negative control. The effect of the extracts were dose-dependent, and that of 800 mg/kg leaf extract was significantly higher (P<0.05) than 1.2 mg/kg aspirin. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) between the groups given leaf extract and those treated with root extract. These findings are indicative of possible cardioprotective potential of the extracts, and may be partly responsible for their efficacy against cardiovascular diseases.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Anticonvulsant Potential of Aqueous Fraction of Synsepalum dulcificum Seed Extract in Mice

Olaitan J. Jeremiah, Olapade R. Ilesanmi, Morakinyo M. Ige

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/19137

Aim: This study evaluated the anticonvulsant potential of the aqueous fraction of Synsepalum ducificum seed extract in mice. This was with a view to providing information on the possible link between the antioxidant principles earlier reported for the seed and anticonvulsant effect.

Study Design: One-factor, two controls-three test groups experimental design.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria, between September and December, 2014.

Methodology: The investigation of the anticonvulsant potential of the aqueous fraction of                    S. dulcificum seed extract (AF) was carried out using pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-, strychnine- and Maximal Electroshock (MES)-induced seizure tests. For each of the test models, randomly selected albino mice were divided into five groups (n = 5). Group 1 was the control (Normal saline, 10 ml/kg, i.p.), Group 2 was the positive control [Diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p. against PTZ and 5 mg/kg, i.p. against strychnine); Phenytoin, 25 mg/kg, i.p. against MES] while group 3, 4 and 5 were the test groups which received 0.3, 0.6 and 1.2 mg/kg, i.p. of AF respectively. Administration of PTZ (85 mg/kg, i.p.), strychnine (4 mg/kg, i.p.) and MES delivery were done 30 min after the 5 groups of animals were pretreated. The onset of convulsion and the degree of protection against mortality were recorded for the animals in each group. The results were analyzed using one way ANOVA followed by Student-Newman-Keuls test.

Results: The AF gave 33.33% protection against mortality in PTZ- and strychnine-induced convulsion tests and caused a dose dependent reduction in the time of recovery of the animals from MES-induced seizure.

Conclusion: The aqueous fraction of the seed extract of S. dulcificum possesses some level of anticonvulsant activity which may be further explored for maximum effect.