Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antimicrobial Effect of Essential oil from Leaf and Rhizome of Various Accessions of Acorus calamus Linn., and Its Phytochemical Screening

Avani Kasture, Shuchi Patel, Jigna Chauhan, R. Krishnamurthy

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/17318

The study was carried out to analysis phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial effect of the essential oil of the leaf and rhizome obtained from the various accessions of Acorus calamus L., collected from India. Studies were carried out in C. G. Bhakta Institute of Biotechnology, Uka Tarsadia University, India, between June 2013 and August 2014.

Different plant accessions of A. calamus were collected from India. The extraction was carried out by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus. Chemical test for the screening of bioactive chemical constituent in plant was carried out using acetone-water extract. The essential oils were scanned in the wavelength ranging from 200-800 nm by using Ultra Visible spectrophotometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The disk diffusion method and minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were used to screen the antimicrobial effect of essential oils various accessions.

The phytochemical screening revealed the various group in plant such as steroids, alkaloids, tannins, phenols, flavanoids, fatty acid, cardiac glycosides, carbohydrate, amino acid and proteins. Anthocyanin and leucoanthocyanin were present only in leaf essential oils. UV spectrum data recorded maximum absorbance peak ranges between 205 nm to 363 nm. FTIR spectrum showed the peaks in the range of 587.72- 2996.41 cm-1. Essential oils from rhizome and leaf were screened for its antimicrobial activity against different microbial strains. Rhizome essential oil was shown to have higher activity than leaf oil. Except Enterobacter aerogenes all the test microorganisms were significantly inhibited by almost all the essential oils even at very low MIC. All different accessions from different states showed inhibition but the plants obtained from North India (PWB, HW, ROH, DAN) showed the maximum Percentage of Inhibition.

The analysis carried out on this plant shows that the plant could be explored as a potential antimicrobial drug in phytomedicine.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotic Potential of Moringa Leaf (Moringa oleifera Lam.) Crude Extract in Bull Semen Extender

O. A. Sokunbi, O. S Ajani, A. A. Lawanson, E. A. Amao

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/18546

Aim: The effect of Moringa oleifera crude extract (MOCE) was carried out on Friesian bull semen for its antibiotic potential.

Design of the Experiment: The design of the experiment was completely randomized design.

Place and Duration of Study: Artificial Insemination Laboratory of Livestock Investigation Division, National Veterinary Research Institute, K-Vom, Plateau State and teaching and research farm, university of ibadan, nigeria between april and may 2012.

Methodology: Semen obtained was diluted in glucose yolk citrate extender containing 0 ml, 4 mls, 8 mls, 12 mls and 16 mls of MOCE as treatments 1(control) to 5 respectively diluted at ratio 0.5 mls semen to 5 mls of extender and refrigerated at 6°C for 72 hours.

Sample: We included 2 Friesian bull and MOCE. Sperm concentration, percentage progressive motility, plasma membrane integrity, percentage livability, normal sperm morphology and acrosome integrity were studied at 0 hour, 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours.

Results: Mean progressive motility and plasma membrane were significantly (P < .05) higher at 12 mls (97.67%) and 16 mls (99.33%) of MOCE inclusion compared to control. Percentage livability decreased significantly (P < .05) with increasing MOCE inclusion across treatments up to 48 hours.  Normal sperm morphology of MOCE based Treatments were significantly (P < .05) higher than that of the control (0 ml). There was a significant (P<.05) increase in the mean values of Acrosome Integrity at 4mls and 16mls MOCE inclusion level after 24 hours.

Conclusion: 16 mls inclusion level of MOCE could be a good substitute for the antibiotic component of conventional bovine semen extender as it enhances the sperm percentage motility, acrosome integrity and normal morphology thereby preserving the fertility potential of spermatozoa when refrigerated at 6°C for 72 hours.


Open Access Original Research Article

Ethnobotanical Survey and Preliminary Phytochemical Studies of Plants Traditionally Used for Diabetes in Eritrea

Mussie Sium Demoz, Kareru Patrick Gachoki, Keriko Joseph Mungai, Berhane Girmay Negusse

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/18777

Aims: Identify and document medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Investigate the secondary metabolites present in those plants.

Study Design: A questionnaire was employed for the survey and different chemicals and reagents were used for phytochemical screening.

Place and Duration of Study: Ethnobotanical surveys were conducted between November 2013 and April 2014 in certain localities of Central and Southern Zones of Eritrea and the phytochemical screening was conducted in September 2014 in Kenya.

Methodology: The ethnobotanical data was collected by interviewing 66 informants using a questionnaire; the majority of informants were herbalist and individuals living with diabetes. The phytochemical screening was done using wet chemical analysis.

Results: The survey showed 42 different medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes. The plants fall into 24 families where by Apiacea (14.29%), Lamiaceae (9.52%), Fabaceae (9.52%) and Asteraceae (7.14%) were the most dominant. The most frequently used plant part was the leaf (42%). The phytochemical screening confirmed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, saponins, glycosides, and other bioactive secondary metabolites.

Conclusion: This study revealed that the use of medicinal plants can be of great help in intervention of the burdens for the treatment of diabetes.


Open Access Original Research Article

Constituent of Essential Oil from Ficus benghalensis L.

Muritala A. Adebayo, Sherifat A. Aboaba, Olanrewaju I. Eresanya, Adeleke A. Ajetunmobi, Isiaka A. Ogunwande

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/18803

The characterization of the leaf essential oil of Ficus benghalensis L. (Moraceae) was performed by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Monoterpene compounds (5.9%) are less common in the oil while the sesquiterpene compounds accounted for 85.8% of the total oil content. The main constituents of the oil were the sesquiterpenes α-cadinol (25.1%), germacrene-D-4-ol (14.9%), γ-cadinene (11.8%) and α-muurolene (9.6%). This is the first report on the volatile constituents of F. benghalensis.

Aims: To report the compounds identified in the hydrodistilled leaf oil of Ficus benghalensis grown in Nigeria.

Study Design: The design of the study involved the distillation of essential oil from air-dried leaf of F. benghalensis and subsequent analysis of the constituents.

Place and Duration of Study: Leaf sample of F. benghalensis were collected from Omileye area, Ore Town, Odigbo Local Government, Ondo State, Nigeria, in March 2013.

Methodology: The air-dried and pulverized leaf of F. benghalensis was subjected to hydro distillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus for 4 h. The constituents of the distilled oil were analyzed by using GC and GC/MS.

Results: The main constituents of the oil were the sesquiterpene α-cadinol (25.1%), germacrene-D-4-ol (14.9%), γ-cadinene (11.8%) and α-muurolene (9.6%).

Conclusion: Although, this is the first report on the volatile constituents of F. benghalensis, the observed compositional pattern was found to vary from data obtained from previously analyzed oils from other member of the genus Ficus grown in Nigeria.


Open Access Original Research Article

Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Activity of Aqueous Extracts of Croton membranaceus in Rodent Bone Marrow and Human Benign Prostate Hyperplasic Cells

G. A. Asare, E. S. Yahaya, D. K. Afriyie, S. Adjei, B. Asiedu

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/18583

Background: Croton membranaceus is a plant cherished by traditional healers in Ghana for its anti-prostate cancer properties. Its cytotoxic effect as well as safety has been proved. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study has been conducted to assess its genotoxic and cytotoxic potential using the rodent bone marrow and colony formation assays respectively.

Aims: This study is aimed at investigating the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the aqueous root extract of Croton membranaceus (CMARE) using the colony formation and rodent bone marrow assays respectively.

Study Design: This was an experimental study.

Methodology: To determine the cytotoxic effect, BPH-1 cells were seeded in 6-well plates at a density of 1.0 x 105 cells/well in 2 mL culture medium (plus 10% FBS) and incubated for 24 h. After treatment with 0, 1, 3 and 5 mg/ml of CMARE for 48 h, the cells were collected and further treated with fresh medium in the absence of CMARE, and reseeded into new 6-well plates at a density of 1.0 x 103 cells / well. After 10 days incubation, colonies were fixed in 10% formalin, crystal violet-stained and counted. Genotoxicity was determined by the bone marrow assay using 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats divided equally into three groups. Animals in the treatment, positive and negative control groups were administered 3000 mg/kg CMARE, N-nitroso-N-methylurea and saline respectively.

Results: Cytotoxicity significantly occurred at 3 and 5 mg/ml, compared to the control. The bone marrow assay showed a significant difference between CMARE-treated animals and negative controls when the polychromatic erythrocyte-normochromatic erythrocyte (PCE-NCE) ratios were compared. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between CMARE-treated animals and positive controls when their micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE) were compared, indicating similar genotoxic potential between very high CMARE doses and the positive control.

Conclusion: These results show that CMARE has both cytotoxic and genotoxic potential.


Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening of Isolated Compounds from Nymphaea nouchali Burm.f. Flowers

Hemalatha Kamurthy, Sunitha Dontha, Anuradha Vedula

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/17761

Objective: To learn the phytochemical screening of various compounds from different extracts of Nymphaea nouchali Burm.f flowers.

Materials and Methods: Nymphaea nouchali flowers were extracted with different solvents (n-hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol (70%). n - Hexane extract (10 g) was eluted with n-Hexane: CHCl3 in graded mixtures gave fifteen different fractions, which was further rechromatographed to afford two compounds.  The ethyl acetate fraction (12 g) was eluted with n-hexane: EtOAc: H2O (70:30:3). Nineteen fractions were obtained and rechromatographed to give three compounds and ethanolic extract (10 g) was eluted with CHCl3-MeOH-H2O (90:10:1) to afford three fractions which were rechromatographed to yield a single compound.

Results: 10-eicosenoic acid (1), linoleic acid (2) from n-hexane,7,8 - dihydroxy α-tocopherol-9-O-pyranoside (3), quercetin-3-O-alpha-rhaminoside (4), kaempferol (5) from EtOAc and vasicinone (6) from ethanloic extracts were isolated  from Nymphaea nouchali flowers for the first time. The structures of the isolated compounds (1-6) were realized on the basis of the spectral data (IR, 1H &13C NMR and Mass).

Conclusion: The obtained compounds of Nymphaea nouchali Burm.f. flowers are effective pharmaceutical compounds which will serve as a better alternative to chemical based pharmaceuticals.