Open Access Original Research Article

Antischistosomal Effects of Selected Methanolic Plant Extracts in Swiss Albino Mice Infected with Schistosoma mansoni

Jackson M. Muema, Meshack A. Obonyo, Sospeter N. Njeru, Joseph K. Mwatha

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/16953

Aim: Schistosoma mansoni is a parasite of medical importance because it is the causative agent of intestinal schistosomiasis. The present study was designed to assess the in vivo antischistosomal effects of methanolic extracts of three food plants: Apple (Malus domestica), Lemon (Citrus limon) and Onion (Allium cepa) on Swiss Albino mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni.

Study Design: Swiss albino mice were infected and randomized into groups of five for plant extract treated groups (high and low dosages), negative control were given a vehicle administered via intraperitoneal route twice daily for five days 7 weeks post-infection after which percentage worm reduction and glutathione levels were evaluated.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Centre of Biotechnology Research and Development (Animal Facility), Kenya Medical Research Institute from July, 2013 to May, 2014.

Methodology: Swiss albino mice infected with 90 cercariae each were administered with high and low dosages of plant extracts twice daily for five days (7 weeks post-infection) after which worm densities and hepatic oxidative stress were assessed.

Results: In general, upon administration of increased concentration of the plant extracts, there was significant (P<0.05) reduction in worm densities with a concomitant increase in GSH activity. Malus domestica showed significant (P<0.05) antischistosomal activity at concentrations 300 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg giving 85.93% and 72.22% worm reduction respectively, Allium cepa at concentrations 500 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg gave 72.59% and 58.52% respectively, with least worm reduction resulting from treatment with Citrus limon at dosages of 200 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg (42.96% and 29.63% respectively).

Conclusion: The data demonstrated that, treatment of mice with plant extracts ameliorated oxidative stress induced by Schistosomiasis as indicated by significant (P<0.05) improvement of GSH level compared to schistosome-infected control group. This is expected to have serious ramifications on the management of this tropical disease which hitherto is solely dependent on the use of drugs.


Open Access Original Research Article

Stress Effects of TiO2 and NP-TiO2 on Catalase Enzyme and some Physiological Characteristics of Melissa officinalis L.

Niloofar Samadi, Sima Yahyaabadi, Zahra Rezayatmand

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/18055

Aims: Today, detection of risk effects of metal and metal nanoparticles over environment has attracted much attention.  Plants are always exposed to considerable nanoparticles. So we decided to study the stress effect of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (NP-TiO2) phytotoxicity on catalase (CAT) enzyme and some physiological characteristics of Melissa officinalis L. plant including germination, root length, shoot length, and photosynthetic pigments.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted in 2013 in the Research Laboratory of Islamic Azad University of Falavarjan, Isfahan, Iran.

Methodology: Seeds were treated with solutions of TiO2 and NP-TiO2 in 4 replicates. The obtained results were the mean of 4 replicates±SD. Finally the results were analyzed using SPSS18 statistical software.

Results: The results indicated that different treatments of TiO2 and NP-TiO2 compared to the control group had no significant effect on germination percentage. However, they had a positive effect on root length, shoot length, and photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids). At low concentrations, TiO2 and NP-TiO2 had a stimulatory effect on all parameters except the germination. NP-TiO2 had increase effect on CAT activity and TiO2 had the decrease effect on it.

Conclusion: The ROS stress which produce by NPs, can stimulated the antioxidant enzymes in plants. In this article, the ROS stress had increased effect on CAT activity. To understand the positive and negative effects of nanoparticles on other physiological characteristics of Melissa officinalis L. requires further investigation.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Capacity of Phenolic from Seed Extracts of Lagenaria siceraria (Short-Hybrid Bottle Gourd)

Bassey S. Antia, Emmanuel E. Essien, Blessing I. Udoh

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/18242

Aims: To evaluate the antioxidant components and antioxidant activities of seed extracts of Lagenaria siceraria (Short-Hybrid Bottle Gourd).

Study Design: In vitro assessment of antioxidant assays; quantitative determination of phenolic phytochemicals in seed extracts of short-hybrid bottle gourd.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, Nigeria (September 2013 –July 2014).

Methodology: Standard methods were used to evaluate the concentration of total phenols, total flavonoids, β-carotene, tannins, vitamin C and vitamin E in the seed extracted with different polar solvents (diethyl ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n- butanol, methanol and water). 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-radical scavenging activities, iron chelating activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were also determined using standard methods.

Results: The total phenols content ranged from 30.1-63.1 µgGAE/g, total flavonoids (30.1-49.2 µgQE/g), carotenoids (0.071-2.599 mg/100 g), tannins (7.0-25 mg/100 g), vitamin C (2.5-12.0 mg/100 g) and vitamin E (5.5-25 mg/100 g). In vitro antioxidant activity of the extracts (100 µg/ml) for DPPH scavenging assay was between 57.2-63.4% and IC50 (50.0- 85.0 µg/ml); metal chelating (49.0–59.0%) and IC50 (32.0-105.0 µg/ml); and ferric reducing capacity (0.466-0.724) and IC50 (24.0-115 µg/ml).

Conclusion: The seed extracts of L. siceraria contains substantial amount of polyphenolic compounds and exhibits significant antioxidant activity. The results of this study substantiates the role of these seeds as natural sources of antioxidants which could be further exploited for their potential biological activity in related cultivars which hitherto were scarcely used as soup thickener and for dough, cakes and edible oils.


Open Access Original Research Article

Screening for Biological Activities of Medicinal Plants Used in Traditional Arabic Palestinian Herbal Medicine

Rana M. Jamous, Salam Y. Abu Zaitoun, Ahmad I. Husein, Iman B. Y. Qasem, Mohammed S. Ali-Shtayeh

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/17429

Aims: To evaluate eleven medicinal plants as natural sources that possess strong antidermatophytic, antibacterial, anticandidal and antioxidant substances with potential applications in therapeutics and food industry.

Place and Duration of Study: Biodiversity and Environmental Research Center, BERC, between December 2013 and April 2014.

Methodology: Twenty methanolic extracts were prepared from different parts of eleven plants used in traditional medicine in Palestine. The plants extracts were screened for total flavonoid and phenolic content using standard procedures. The crude extract was screened against six bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae), 5 Candida albicans strains, and 2 dermatophytes (Microsporum canis, and Trichophyton rubrum). The antioxidant potential of the crude extract was also determined using the DPPH assay.

Results: The best free-radical scavenging was for the leaves of Epilobium hirsutum (IC50=33 µg/ml) and Rhus coriaria (49 µg/ml) compared with BHA standard (9 µg/ml). The highest value of phenolics was in R. coriaria fruits (14.7 mg/g dried plant material) and for flavonoids was for Epi. hirsutum leaves (1.14 mg/g). The most active extracts against bacteria was the R. coriaria leaves (% inhibition, 66.2%) compared with gentamicin (100%) and against Candida were leaves of R. coriaria (100%) and Epi. hirsutum (72.4%) compared with amphotericin B (100%). On the other hand fruits of R. coriaria showed the best antifungal activity against all the tested dermatophytes, 97% and 86% inhibition were achieved against Microsporum canis and Trichophyton rubrum, respectively.

Conclusion: Our results introduce a natural source (R. coriaria and Epi. hirsutum) that possesses strong antidermatophytic, antibacterial, anticandidal and antioxidant substances with potential applications in therapeutics and food industry.


Open Access Original Research Article

Bioactivities of Pachypodium lamerei Drake, Family Apocynaceae, Cultivated in Egypt

Dina Faek El-Kashef, Ashraf Nageeb El-Sayed Hamed, Hany Ezzat Khalil, Mohamed Salah Kamel

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/17093

Aims: The current study estimated the anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, gastroprotective and anti-hyperglycemic activities in various rat models of total methanol extracts (TMEs) of different plant parts; mixture of leaves & stems (MLS) and subterranean organs (SO) and different fractions of TME of MLS of Pachypodium lamerei Drake. Additionally, we evaluated the median lethal dose (LD50) of TME of MLS.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out for nine months in 2012 in the Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine and the Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Minia University, Minia, Egypt.

Methodology: The preliminary phytochemical screening of TMEs of both MLS and SO of P. lamerei was carried out to determine secondary metabolites in the extracts. The TMEs of both MLS and SO and different fractions of TME of MLS of P. lamerei were used in the current biological study. The pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, gastroprotective, anti-hyperglycemic effects and LD50 were determined in male albino rats using various models.

Results: The phytochemical screening of TMEs of both MLS and SO of P. lamerei contained carbohydrates and/or glycosides, unsaturated sterols and/or triterpenes, flavonoids, saponins and tannins. While, the biological activities are summarized as follows; in the carrageenan-induced paw edema method, TME of MLS had the highest anti-inflammatory activity (***P<0.001), whereas in the yeast-induced pyrexia method, the highest anti-pyretic effect was exerted by TME of SO (***P<0.001). Furthermore, in indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer, TME of SO exerted the most potent gastric protection. Moreover, in the alloxan-induced diabetes method, the most active extract was again TME of SO (***P<0.001). Finally, no toxicological symptoms of TME of MLS of P. lamerei were observed in graded single doses up to 5 gm/kg, during 24 hrs follow-up.

Conclusion: From the aforementioned results, P. lamerei proved to be a promising candidate to be used in the development of various pharmaceutical herbal drugs viz., anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, gastroprotective, anti-hyperglycemic activities, since it exhibited a wide margin of safety.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of the Crude Water Extract of the Leaves of Morinda lucida on the Germination and Growth of Amaranthus spinosus and Amaranthus hybridus

Clement U. Okeke, Chisom F. Iroka, Nkumah C. Okereke, Bio Louis Nyanayo

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/18173

The effect of crude leaf extract of Morinda lucida on germination and growth of Amaranthus spinosus and Amaranthus hybridus was studied. However, the aim was to use crude water extract from leave of M. lucida to germinate, nurture and compare the growth of A. hybridus and A.  spinosus. The plants seeds selected were planted in polyethylene bags filled with loamy soil, different extract concentrations of 5%, 10% and 15% were obtained from the leaf of M. lucida using manual extraction method. The plants were well watered with the extracts of three different concentrations and allowed to grow under natural environmental condition. Parameters measured include: weekly height of plants, number of leaves produced by each plants at the end of the week, weekly stem girth and weekly leaf area of plant. The study showed that the extract of M. lucida had negative effect on the growth of A. spinosus and A. hybridus. The effect was significantly higher at higher concentrations of the extracts. M. lucida extract significantly reduced the leaf number, leaf area, stem height, fresh weight and dry weight in A. spinosus and A. hybridus when compared to those of the control. Additionally, the germination of A. spinosus and A. hybridus were delayed considerable to the fourth and fifth weeks and in some replicate no germination was observed. The study further showed that the sensitivity of A. spinosus and A. hybridus to plant extracts differ. From the study M. lucida had more negative effect on A. spinosus, hence, revealing more inhibitory activity on the growth of A. spinosus than on A. hybridus.