Open Access Original Research Article

Alternative to Conventional Diabetic Management: The Antihyperglycaemic potential of an Ethyl Acetate Fraction Extract of Holarrhena floribunda

Benoit Banga N’guessan, Boua Narcisse Gnangoran, Joseph Adusei Sarkodie, Kassim Dosso, Irene Akwo Kretchy, Patrick Amoateng, Isaac Asiedu-Gyekye, David Osafo Owusu, Alexander Nyarko, Angoue Paul Yapo

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 175-189
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/17748

Aims: Antihyperglycaemic effects of an ethyl acetate fraction of the leaf extract of Holarrhena floribunda on normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Study Design: Healthy adult albino Wistar rats (weighing 100-150 g) were used for this study.  The rats were divided into 5 groups (5 animals in each group).

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Physiology, Pharmacology and Phytotherapy Côte d'Ivoire; School of Pharmacy, Ghana and 8 months.

Methodology: A hundred grams (100 g) of the powdered leaves was macerated in 96% ethanol and water. The antihyperglycaemic effect of the extract was studied in normoglycaemic and Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The effect of the extract on the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, total proteins and creatinine in STZ-induced diabetic rats was also investigated.

Results: The ethyl acetate fraction of the leaf extract of Holarrhena floribunda showed antihyperglycaemic effect after both short term and prolonged treatment of the diabetic rats.

The results indicate that the extract could moderate blood lipid abnormalities, which would be helpful to the prevention of diabetic complications through improving dyslipidemia.

Conclusion: The present study indicates that treatment with ethyl acetate fraction of Holarrhena floribunda ethanolic leaf extract has favourable effects on blood glucose levels, serum lipids and body weight.


Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-inflammatory Activity of the Phenolic-rich Extract of Schotia brachypetalea Sond. Fam. Fabaceae, Cultivated in Egypt

Esraa A. El-Hawary, Ebrahim Abdel-Aziz, Rola M. Labib, Ahmed Esmat, Ashraf B. Abdel-Naim, Amani E. Khalifa, Abdel Nasser B. Singab, Nahla A. Ayoub

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 190-201
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/16621

Aim: The current study evaluates the anti-inflammatory activity of the methanolic leaf extract of Schotia brachypetalea, isolates and identifies the phenolic content and standardizes the crude leaf extract using HPLC.

Place and Duration of study: This study was conducted in the Departments of Pharmacognosy and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt during the period between July 2013 and December 2014.

Methodology: The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed using 2 models viz. carrageenan induced rat paw edema and croton oil induced ear edema. Column and paper chromatography were used to fractionate and isolate the phenolic compounds. The isolated compounds were analyzed using UV and1H-NMR spectroscopy. The methanolic leaf extract was standardized using gallic acid as a reference by HPLC analysis. Total phenolic and flavonoidal contents were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu and Aluminium chloride colorimetric assays, respectively.

Results: Significant dose dependent edema inhibition was observed in the carrageenan model at a dose 200 mg/kg (79.31%, 2hrs) and (85.19%, 3hrs). Also, levels of PGE2 had decreased significantly at this dose at the corresponding time intervals. In the croton oil model, the methanolic leaf extract of S. brachypetalea (50 mg/kg) decreased the edema to about 39.56% while 100 and 200 mg/kg doses decreased the edema to about 23 and 15.8%, respectively. Myloperoxidase (MPO) levels were reduced by 38, 45 and 63% in doses 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively. TNF-α level was reduced similarly. The anti-inflammatory activity was confirmed by the histopathological examination of the ear tissue revealing that the 200 mg/kg dose of the methanolic leaf extract of S. brachypetalea had normal dermal structure with no histopathological changes. The total phenolic content of S. brachypetala leaf extract was calculated as 376 mg of caffeic acid equivalents (CAE) per one gram extract while the total flavonoid content was 67.87 mg in one gram extract calculated as quercetin equivalent (QE). Three phenolic constituents were isolated, namely 1 Gallic acid, 2 Myrecitin-3-O-α-L-1C4-rhamnoside and 3 Quercetin-3-O-α-L-1C4-rhamnoside.

Conclusion: The study showed the potent anti-inflammatory activity of the methanolic leaf extract of S. brachypetalea; this might be attributed to its phenolic content.


Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Extracts of Some Ziziphus Species with Identification of Bioactive Components

Sameera N. Siddiqui, Mandakini B. Patil

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 202-213
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/17351

Aims: To investigate antioxidant activity of crude extracts and cytotoxic activity of partially purified bioactive compounds of Ziziphus mauritiana and Ziziphus oenoplia extracts.

Study Design: Experimental study.

Background: Breast and lung cancers are known to cause high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Ziziphus plants are wildly grown species known for their folkloric implications with bioactive phytochemicals believed to be responsible for pharmacological activity.

Materials and Methods: Antioxidant action was determined with crude bark extracts and in vitro antiproliferation activities were determined by using partially purified fractions obtained from bark extracts of Z. mauritiana and Z. oenoplia using DPPH and MTT assay, respectively. Possible active ingredients in the potent fractions were identified by Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS).

Results: Considerable antioxidant activity was demonstrated by Z. mauritiana methanol extracts (ZMMA); while Z. mauritiana alkaloid fraction (ZMA) exhibited highest cytotoxic activity (IC50- 19.35 µg/ml) against human lung carcinoma A549 cells and Z. oenoplia alkaloid fraction (ZOA) against human adenocarcinoma mammary gland MDA-MB-231 cells through MTT assay, its further analysis witnessed reduced MMP expression using gelatin zymography. GC-MS technique employed to identify the bioactive compounds of most potent alkaloid fraction ZMA revealed existence of isoquinoline, morphinan, glaucine and pyrazoline compounds.

Conclusion: Our study concludes occurrence of strong antioxidant, antiproliferative and a possible anti-invasive activity to support robust traditional belief in the medicinal properties of Ziziphus species.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of In-vivo and In-vitro Antioxidant Activities of Methanol Extract of Salacia lehmbachii Loes Leaf

Winifred N. Okechi, Babatunde A. S. Lawal, Nnabugwu P. Wokota, Jibril Hassan

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 214-223
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/17621

Aims: This study was carried out to evaluate the in-vitro and in-vivo antioxidant activities of methanol extract of Salacia lehmbachii leaf (SLLE).

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology, University of Calabar, NIGERIA, between October, 2014 and December, 2014.

Methodology: Ability to scavenge 2,2–diphenylpicryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radicals as well as chelate divalent ferrous ions served as paradigms for in-vitro methods. On the other hand, cross-clamping of both hepatic artery and hepatic portal veins for 60 min and reperfusion for the next 60 min in rats produces oxidative stress with consequent lipid peroxidation against which the activity of the extract was tested.

Results: SLLE showed considerable potency in-vitro in the brine shrimp assay with an IC50 of 4.66 µg/ml. At very low concentrations (<10 µg/ml), SLLE showed superior activity over that of Vitamin C in the DPPH assay with IC50 of 4.9 µg/ml and 9.6 µg/ml for SLLE and Vit C respectively. At higher concentrations (10-1000 µg/ml), the antioxidant activity was found to be very weak indeed. The FIC assay showed a dose-dependent and significant (P<.01) response for both the SLLE (2.199±19.29) and the standard ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (81.94±5.022); while EDTA showed ability to prevent Fenton-type reaction, SLLE showed a lack of this ability and even a possible enhancement of Fenton-type reactivity. When given at a dose of 100 mg/kg, SLLE also produced significant (P<.05) protective activity against hepatic lipid peroxidation in ischaemic / reperfussion injury in rats.

Conclusion: The antioxidant activity of the extract was found to be superior to that of Vit C at low concentrations in the DPPH while not so remarkable at higher concentration and FIC ability. Significant activity in lowering MDA in ischemic-reperfusion model in rats seen at the highest dose (100 mg/kg) (P<.05) demonstrated its tissue protective potential.


Open Access Original Research Article

Ethnomedicinal Survey on the Uses of Mistletoe in South-Western Nigeria

O. T. Ogunmefun, B. P. Olatunji, M. I. Adarabioyo

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 224-230
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/11048

Survey on the ethnomedicinal uses of mistletoe in Southwestern Nigeria was carried out in various major market centers identified in the major capital towns of four different States in the Southwest Nigeria including Oyo, Ondo, Ogun and Ekiti States. A combination of social surveys and direct field observations comprising literatures, through friends, internet and consultation of local herb vendors were used in this study. A total number of 50 respondents comprising both male and female of various levels of educational status were interviewed.  The major occupation of the people is farming, trading and herbal practice and the African mistletoe is widely used in the Southwestern Nigeria folk medicine to treat diabetes mellitus and hypertension. . Only aged ones above 40 years (86%) compared to the least represented youths (4%) could only give details of the information about mistletoes. However, the problem of identification and authentication still remained. There is need for further scientific research to explore the pharmacological importance of mistletoes as the result shows that it possesses a lot of ethnomedicinal assets.


Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical and Antioxidant Investigation of Barringtonia acutangula (L.)

Md. Asaduzzaman, Md. Sohel Rana, S. M. Raqibul Hasan, Rakibul Islam, Nittananda Das

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 231-238
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/5400

Aims: Different crude extracts of Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn were subjected to vigorous phytochemical and pharmacological investigations to validate the traditional use and to find out any other therapeutic activities.

Study Design: The present study was dedicated to investigate phytochemical and pharmacological properties of different parts of the plant extracted with various solvents (petroleum ether, methanol).

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacy, Jahangirnagar University, between June 2010 and July 2011.

Methodology: Phytochemical study was done through conducting preliminary phytochemical group tests of the crude extracts of leaf and bark. Antioxidant potential was evaluated using DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay, NO radical scavenging assay.

Results: In DPPH radical and NO radical scavenging methods, a dose dependent scavenging different phytoconstituents including carbohydrate, glycoside, saponin, steroids was found distributed in all parts of the plant where as alkaloid and tannin was found only in the leaf extractives. Highest DPPH radical scavenging was demonstrated by pet. Ether extract of bark with IC50 value of 8037.5 μg/ml whereas IC50 value of standard ascorbic acid was noted as 16.88 μg/ml. In case of NO radical scavenging method, highest NO radical scavenging was demonstrated by pet ether extract of bark with IC50 values of 295.27 μg/ml whereas IC50 value of standard ascorbic acid was 35.52 μg/ml.

Conclusion: The phytochemical screening revealed chemical constituents that form the foundation of their pharmacological activity. Leaf and Bark of the plant has good efficacy against many oxidation processes in our body.