Open Access Original Research Article

Growth Inhibition and Pro-apoptotic Action of Eleusine indica (L) Gaertn Extracts in Allium test

Amanda A. de Oliveira, Natália Faria Romão

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 121-127
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/18099

Background: E. indica is a gramineae largely used in Brazilian traditional medicine for treatment of respiratory diseases. Previous research work has shown this plant to have glicoflavonoids constituents.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out during four months in 2014 in the Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Department of Pharmacy, Lutheran University of Brazil (CEULJI/ULBRA), Ji-Paraná, Rondônia, Brazil.

Aims: This study aimed to determine possible mutagenicity and/or cytotoxicity activity of E. indica, using the Allium test to investigate root growth, mitotic index and micronuclei formation.

Methodology: We applied the Allium test to analyze the effects of E. indica compounds on genetic material.  The plant aerial parts were dried, pulverized and prepared as aqueous extract. The experiment consisted in 5 assays: E. indica extracts inconcentrations of 25%, 50%, and100%; positive control (CuSO4); and negative control (distilled water). Each assay was performed with 10 repetitions.

Results: Initial results showed inhibition of meristems growth and stable mitotic index. Differential analysis indicated influence in cell division process with a significant number of cells in metaphase that did not progress to the next mitotic cycle stage, and no significant presence of micronuclei.

Conclusion: Our results strongly suggest the plant having cytotoxic compounds with microtubule affinity interaction without mutagenicity activity.


Open Access Original Research Article

Berberis vulgaris/Picrorhiza kurroa: Extending the Treatment Window for Reperfusion Injury

Monique C. Saleh, Barry J. Connell, Tarek M. Saleh

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 128-141
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/18000

Aims: The present study investigates the neuroprotective effects of Berberis vulgaris and Picrorhiza kurroa in a rodent model of cerebral ischemia – reperfusion.   

Study Design: Rats were pretreated with Berberis vulgaris, Picrorhiza kurroa or vehicle 30 minutes prior to cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury. Post-mortem infarct measurements of the cerebral cortex were used to assess neuroprotection for each treatment. 

Place and Duration of Study: The study took place in the Department of Biomedical Sciences, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island between July 2014 and January 2015. 

Methodology: The right middle cerebral artery (MCA) was occluded for 30 minutes followed by 5.5 hours of reperfusion in anaesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-350 g). Berberis vulgaris (0.001-0.1 mg/kg) and Picrorhiza kurroa (0.0001-1.0 mg/kg) were administered singly and in combination (0.001 mg/kg each) 30 minutes prior to MCA occlusion as well as at several intervals during the reperfusion period. Infarct volume in the affected hemisphere was measured to assess neuroprotection.

Results: Occlusion of the right MCA for 30 minutes followed by 5.5 hours of reperfusion in anaesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats produced a focal ischemic lesion localized to the prefrontal cortex. Intravenous administration of either Berberis vulgaris or Picrorhiza kurroa 30 minutes prior to MCA occlusion provided significant neuroprotection following ischemia-reperfusion.  Furthermore, Berberis vulgaris (0.1 mg/kg, i.v.) or Picrorhiza kurroa (1.0 mg/kg, i.v.) could be administered during the ischemic period itself, as well as up to 90 minutes into the reperfusion period to provide neuroprotection. A combined injection of Berberis vulgaris with Picrorhiza kurroa using subthreshold doses of each (0.001 mg/kg) reduced infarct volume in the ischemic cortex when injected 30 minutes before MCA occlusion, 15  minutes into the ischemic period or up to 150 minutes following reperfusion. While Berberis vulgaris and Picrorhiza kurroa co-administration significantly reduced both baseline mean arterial pressure and heart rate in non-ischemic animals, suggestive of a central effect on autonomic tone, no significant effect was observed on baroreflex sensitivity in rats undergoing ischemia-reperfusion

Conclusion: Natural products such as Berberis vulgaris and Picrorhiza kurroa may hold the key to reducing morbidity and mortality associated with post-stroke complications due to reperfusion injury.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Goniothalamus sesquipedalis (Wall.) Hook. f. & Thomson Extracts from Manipur, North East India

Sanjita Chanu Konsam, Sanjoy Singh Ningthoujam, Kumar Singh Potsangbam

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 142-148
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/18167

Aims: To screen the phytochemical constituents and study the antibacterial properties of the Goniothalamus sesquipedalis (Wall.) Hook.f. & Thomson used in the traditional medicine in the North East India.

Place and Duration of Study: Plant samples were collected from different parts of Manipur during May 2013 to February 2014. Experiments were performed at Department of Life Sciences, Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal.

Methodology: Antibacterial activities were analyzed by well diffusion method against the pathogen Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli by using different concentrations of methanolic extracts. Phytochemical screening was performed on the extracts of different solvents viz. chloroform, ethanol, methanol, petroleum ether and water.

Results: Methanolic extract exhibited higher inhibition zones in Escherichia coli with 10.03, 12.01, 13.04, 14.04, 15.03 and 16.04 mm as compared to Bacillus subtilis which showed 3.00, 4.04, 6.03, 7.04, 8.03 and 10.01 mm against extract concentrations of 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 µl respectively. Alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were detected in all the solvents used. Glycosides were not detected in chloroform extracts while phenols and tannins were absent in water extract. Phytosterol and saponins were detected in ethanol, water and petroleum ether extracts.

Conclusion: The present study showed that the Goniothalamus sesquipedalis is potential source of antibacterial agents and reaffirms its importance in traditional medicine.


Open Access Original Research Article

Acaricidal Activities of Hyptis suaveolens and Ocimum sanctum Against African Dog Tick (Rhipicephalus sanguinneus)

Elijah I. Ohimain, Tariwari C. N. Angaye, Sunday E. Bassey, Sylvester C. Izah

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 149-156
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/16553

Aim: To determine the acaricidal activities of some solvent extracts (chloroform, methanol and n-hexane) and crude extracts of Hyptis suaveolens and Ocimum sanctum against African dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguinneus).

Study Design: The study design involves a 24 h LC50 dose-mortality static non-renewal bioassay.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at Rohi Biotechnology Toxicity Laboratory, Port-Harcourt, Rivers State Nigeria, between August and November 2014.

Methodology: The solvent extracts were assessed against the ticks at varying concentrations in a 2-phased rapid and final screening test.

Results: All extracts showed moderate activities during the bioassay, except the crude extract which was not active beyond the rapid screening phase (i.e. LC100>500 ppm). The chloroform, methanol and n-hexane extracts of H. suaveolens induced LC50 values of 175.00, 81.25 and 225.00 ppm respectively. On the other hand O. sanctum induced mortalities of 200.00, 137.50 and 287.50 ppm for chloroform, methanol and n-hexane extracts respectively. Meanwhile, the positive control was lethal at 1ppm, while the tick survived in the negative control.

Conclusion: The result demonstrates that solvent extracts of H. suaveolens and O. sanctum can be used as acaricides for the control of dog tick.


Open Access Original Research Article

Composition of Fatty Acids and Tocopherols Content in Oilseeds of Six Wild Selected Plants from Kahuzi-Biega National Park/DR. Congo

Kazadi Minzangi, Pius T. Mpiana, Bashwira Samvura, Archileo N. Kaaya, Matthäus Bertrand, Justin N. Kadima

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 157-166
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/17297

Objective: Kahuzi-Biega National Park (KBNP) in Democratic Republic of the Congo is packed with fantastic oilseed plants that need to be analysed in order to promote a sustainable exploitation for both commercial and food supply purposes. The study aimed to determine the content of Fatty acids (FAs) and Tocopherols in the oilseeds from Eckebergia capensis Sparrman (Meliaceae), Entada abyssinica Steud. ex A. Rich (Leguminosae), Macaranga kilimandscharica Pax (Euphorbiaceae), Prunus africana (Rosaceae), Sesbania sesban L. (Fabaceae) and Telfairia pedata  (Cucurbitaceae) using gas liquid chromatography and HPLC.

Results: The respective oil yields for the six studied plants ranged from a minimum of 7.2% for S. sesban seeds to a maximum of 42.2% for P. africana seeds. Eighteen FAs were detected, of which, five saturated (SFAs), six monounsaturated (MUFAs) and seven polyunsaturated (PUFAs).  The SFAs fraction was dominated by stearic acid varying from 5.95 % in M. kilimandscharica oil to 76.19% in P. africana oil. The content in PUFAs fraction represented by linoleic acid an omega-6 fatty acid varied from 3.19% in P. africana oil to 58.82% in S. sesban oil while alpha-linolenic acid an omega-3 accounted for 0.32% in P. africana oil to 5.88% in S. sesban oil. The MUFAs fraction represented by oleic acid an omega-9 fatty acid varied from 3.4% in P. africana oil to 41.77% in T. pedata oil. The highest content of tocopherols was 10.9 mg/100 g in S. sesban oil, followed by    E. abyssinica (7.9 mg/100 g) and M. kilimandscharica oil (4.9 mg/100 g).

Conclusion: The findings will help select the appropriate plant for specific desired FAs and tocopherols.


Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Anti-inflammatory Evaluation of African Nutmeg (Monodora myristica) Seeds

K. F. Akinwunmi, O. O. Oyedapo

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 167-174
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/17853

Aim: To determine the anti-inflammatory potential of flavonoid rich fraction of Monodora myristica seeds.

Study Design: In vitro evaluation of anti-inflammatory assays: Membrane stability, Inhibition of denaturation of albumin and lipoxygenase inhibition.

Place and Duration: Department of Biochemistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria (May–November, 2014).

Methodology: Flavonoid rich fraction of the seeds of M. myristica was obtained from the ethanol extract of M. myristica seeds by solvent partitioning. Standard methods were employed in the anti-inflammatory assays (Membrane stability, Inhibition of denaturation of albumin and lipoxygenase inhibition).

Results: Flavonoid rich fraction of M. myristica exhibited significant in vitro anti-inflammatory potentials by stabilizing red blood cell membrane exposed to hypotonic and heat induced lyses with maximum percentage stability of 88±0.45% in a biphasic mode of response that is comparable with Ibuprofen a standard anti-inflammatory drug. It also inhibits heat induced albumin denaturation with maximum inhibition of 75.38±0.56% in a concentration dependent manner that is comparable with aspirin. Flavonoid rich fraction of M. myristica showed an anti-lipoxygenase activity range from 19±1.28% to 71±2.13% which is comparable to that produced by indomethacin.

Conclusion: The result obtained in the present investigation indicates that flavonoid rich fraction of M. myristica could be a potential source of anti-inflammatory agent. This substantiates the role of M. myristica seeds as a natural source of anti-inflammatory agent.