Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Capacity and Anti-diabetic Activity of Wild Berry Stem Infusions

Indu Parmar, H. P. Vasantha Rupasinghe

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 11-28
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/17115

The potential health benefits of green tea sand herbal teas have led to an increased demand of specialty tea products in the food market.

Aims: To determine the proximate composition, phytochemical compositions and hypoglycemic potentials of the methanol and hot water extracts of the stems of wild berries from Eastern Canada.

Study Design: Extraction of the air-dried stems of wild berries with both methanol and hot water, and testing the various extracts for the proximate composition, phytochemical composition and hypoglycemic potentials in comparison to green tea and rose-hip fruit.

Place and Duration of Study: The stems of wild blueberry, raspberry and blackberry along with rose-hip fruits were collected from the wild habitats of Windsor area of Nova Scotia, Canada in the year 2013; while the commercial green tea was purchased from a local store (Bulk Barn, Truro, Nova Scotia).

Methodology: Phenolic composition and characterization was done using spectrophotometric analyses and UPLC-ESI-MS. Carotenoid and caffeine content were measured using HPLC-PDA. The antioxidant capacities were evaluated using ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH)and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. The anti-diabetic properties were investigated by α-amylase, α-glucosidase and advanced glycation products (AGEs) inhibition assays in vitro.

Results: The extracts consisted of phenolic acids, carotenoids, dihydrochalcones and flavonoids. The highest total phenolic content was observed in the stem extracts of blueberry (3019 and 4267 mg catech in equivalents (CE)/L for methanol and hot water extraction, respectively). The total antioxidant capacity was also the highest in blueberry stem, followed by blackberry stem. The blackberry stem and raspberry stem exhibited the greatest inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities (IC50=20-68 and 10-28 mg/L, respectively). Raspberry stem extract exhibited the highest anti-AGE activity with IC50 of 1.0-3.1 mg/L.

Conclusion: The present findings demonstrate a potential use of wild berry stems as a value-added ingredients in herbal tea blends.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Phramacotherapeutic Evaluation of Parmentiera cereifera Seem. (Family Bignoniaceae) Cultivated in Egypt on Albino Rats

Nada Mohamed Abdel-Wahab, Ashraf Nageeb El-Sayed Hamed, Hany Ezzat Khalil, Mohamed Salah Kamel

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 29-38
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/16400

The potential health benefits of green tea sand herbal teas have led to an increased demand of specialty tea products in the food market.
Aims: To determine the proximate composition, phytochemical compositions and hypoglycemic potentials of the methanol and hot water extracts of the stems of wild berries from Eastern Canada.
Study Design: Extraction of the air-dried stems of wild berries with both methanol and hot water, and testing the various extracts for the proximate composition, phytochemical composition and hypoglycemic potentials in comparison to green tea and rose-hip fruit.
Place and Duration of Study: The stems of wild blueberry, raspberry and blackberry along with rose-hip fruits were collected from the wild habitats of Windsor area of Nova Scotia, Canada in the year 2013; while the commercial green tea was purchased from a local store (Bulk Barn, Truro, Nova Scotia).
Methodology: Phenolic composition and characterization was done using spectrophotometric analyses and UPLC-ESI-MS. Carotenoid and caffeine content were measured using HPLC-PDA. The antioxidant capacities were evaluated using ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH)and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. The anti-diabetic properties were investigated by α-amylase, α-glucosidase and advanced glycation products (AGEs) inhibition assays in vitro. 
Results: The extracts consisted of phenolic acids, carotenoids, dihydrochalcones and flavonoids. The highest total phenolic content was observed in the stem extracts of blueberry (3019 and 4267 mg catech in equivalents (CE)/L for methanol and hot water extraction, respectively). The total antioxidant capacity was also the highest in blueberry stem, followed by blackberry stem. The blackberry stem and raspberry stem exhibited the greatest inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities (IC50=20-68 and 10-28 mg/L, respectively). Raspberry stem extract exhibited the highest anti-AGE activity with IC50 of 1.0-3.1 mg/L.
Conclusion: The present findings demonstrate a potential use of wild berry stems as a value-added ingredients in herbal tea blends.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant, Antibacterial and Tyrosinase Inhibiting Activities of Extracts from Myristica fragrans Houtt

Suguna Paneerchelvan, How- Yee Lai, Kasipathy Kailasapathy

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 39-49
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/17296

Aims: To evaluate the antioxidant, antibacterial and tyrosinase inhibiting activities of the methanolic extracts of the leaf and fruit pericarp from Myristica fragrans.

Study Design: In vitro assays.

Place and Duration of Study: School of Biosciences, Taylor’s University (Jan – December 2013)

Methodology: Total phenolic content (TPC) was assessed using Folin-Ciocalteu’s method. The antioxidant activity was evaluated via radical scavenging against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric ion reducing power (FRP) and ferrous ion chelating (FIC). Antibacterial activity was assessed using disc diffusion on four Gram-positve bacteria: M. luteus, E. faecalis, S. aureus, B. cereus and three Gram-negative bacteria: P. aeruginosa, E. coli and K. pneumoniae, followed by determination of minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration using broth dilution assays. Tyrosinase inhibiting activity was assessed using L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, L-DOPA as the substrate.

Results: The methanolic leaf extracts exhibited significantly higher TPC 2712-2779 mg gallic acidequivalent/100 g in contrast to that obtained from the pericarp. The leaf extracts also exhibited significantly stronger DPPH radical scavenging activity (2962-3787 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/100 g), ferric reducing activity (1383-1653 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g) and chelating activity, as compared to the pericarp extracts. Leaf extracts were effective against all Gram-positve bacteria tested: M. luteus, E. faecalis, S. aureus, B. cereus (minimum inhibitory concentration 250-500 μg/mL; minimum bactericidal concentration 250-500 μg/mL). Studies on the tyrosinase inhibiting properties for applications in preventing food browning or treating hyperpigmentation disorders, showed significantly stronger activities exhibited by the leaf extracts (80-81%) as compared to that shown by pericarp (27-31%).

Conclusion: The present results suggest that nutmeg leaf could be employed as a natural antioxidant, antibacterial and tyrosinase inhibiting agent for applications in pharmaceuticals or in functional foods.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antioxidant Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Methanol Extracts of Leaves and Stems of Lumnitzera racemosa

Firdaus Mukhtar Quraishi, B. L. Jadhav, Neeti Kumar

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 50-59
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/16226

Aim: To study antiradical and the reducing power activities in the leaves and stems methanol extracts of Lumnitzera racemosa mangrove species.

Design: Soxhlet extraction of leaves and stems using methanol for in vitro antioxidant assay.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Life Sciences, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari Campus, Santacruz (East), Mumbai, India,  April, 2014 to December, 2014

Methodology: The plant branches were collected in the month of May, identified by an expert taxonomist. The leaves and stems were separated, washed, shed dried, powdered and Soxhlet methanol extracts were prepared to study antioxidant properties using DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) Scavenging and Reducing power assay.

Results: Both DPPH test and reducing power assay showed better antioxidant activity in leaves than stems. The scavenging activity in the leaves was (23.31 μg/mL) while in stems (111.5 μg/mL) as compared to ascorbic acid (14.98 μg/mL)

Conclusion: Overall L. racemosa has shown antioxidant properties in which leaves were more potent than stems.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Chemical and Biological Fertilizers on Morpho-Physiological Traits of Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.)

Azam Arab, Gholam Reza Zamani, Mohammad Hassan Sayyari, Javad Asili

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 60-68
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/16697

Aims: Fertilizer management is an important factor for a successful growth of officinal plants and the identity of suitable fertilizers in plants could have the desirable effects on quantitative and qualitative indices. In order to study the effects of biological fertilizers and NPK fertilizer on growth characteristics, chemical composition of marigold.

Methods: This experiment was conducted in 2012 at the research green house of Birjand University, Iran in a completely randomized in factorial design with three replications.

Treatments included biological fertilizers (without biofertilizer, Psedomonas fluorescence 187, P. fluorescence 178, P. Fluorescence 169, P. putida 159, P. Fluorescence 36) with different NPK fertilizer rates (0, 25, 50, 100%).

Results: Results show that by increasing NPK rates up to 100% dose, number of branches, number of flowers, number of leaf, capitulum diameter, capitulum, bracket diameter, phosphorus and potassium content were significantly increased when compared with the zero NPK. The combined treatment of biofertilizer and chemical fertilizer significantly increased the flowering stem height, chlorophyll index, nitrogen and flavonoids content. The highest content and the concentration of flavonoids were obtained when plant was treated with P. fluorescence 36 strain.

Conclusion: The results showed that just usage of biological fertilizers or in combination with chemical fertilizers had the positive effects on physiological traits of Calendula officinalis L., and using the biological potential instead of continious usage of chemical fertilizers can improve the stability of agriculture and certify the quality of officinal plants.

 

Open Access Review Article

Andrographis paniculata Nees (Kalmegh): A Review on Its Antibacterial Activities and Phytocompounds

Chandni Tandon, Priti Mathur, Manodeep Sen

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/16280

Aims: To study the number of researches performed in the area of antibacterial activities and phytocompounds of Andrographis paniculata.  

Study Design: The present scenario of increasing rate of multi-drug resistance to pathogenic organisms has necessitated a search for antimicrobial substances from other sources especially from plants. Andrographis paniculata is a potent medicinal plant in the Indian system of medicine belonging to the family Acanthaceae. It is known to exhibit significant antibacterial properties and commonly called as king of bitter (English), kalmegh (Hindi) and Chiretta (Urdu). The plant contains variety of chemical constituents but andrographolides is the major constituent of this plant which is believed to be responsible for the most biological activities.

Results: Studies showed that leaves are the most promising part as a source for antibacterial agents. Ethanol, chloroform and methanol were came out to be the most promising solvents to extract phytocompounds. 3-O-β-D-glucosyl-14-deoxyandrographolide and 14-deoxyandrographolide are the two compounds isolated from Andrographis paniculata showing broad spectrum antibacterial activities.

Conclusion: From this review it is clear that the studied plant can be used for developing drugs in order to fight with various infectious diseases.