Open Access Original Research Article

Assessement of Aqueous Plant Extract for the Control of Kola Weevils (Balanogastris kolae & Sophrorhinus spp) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Stored Cola nitida

E. U. Asogwa, T. C. N. Ndubuaku, O. O. Awe, I. U. Mokwunye

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 177-183
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/13462

Kola nuts do not undergo any other additional form of post harvest processing before storage and consumption, hence there is an urgent need to develop new post harvest storage pest control strategies that are safe, of low cost, convenient to use, and environmentally / user friendly. Water extracts from seven (7) medicinal plants including Nicotiana tabacum L., Vernonia amygdalina Delile, Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, Hyptis sauvolens Poit, Cymbopogon citrtus Stapf, Lantana camara L. and Musa paradisiaca L., were evaluated for their toxicity on kola we evils development and emergence in storage. The Balanogastris kolae development and emergence from treated stored kolanuts at the various treatment levels decreased with increased concentration of the extracts applied at 25% (7.08 – 14.63), 50% (6.70 – 12.70) and 100% (4.95 – 8.75). The mean numbers of adult Sophrorhinus spp emergence at 25% treatment level (0.33 – 0.40) was not significantly different (p > 0.05) from their control treatment (0.85). However, at 50% and 100% treatment levels, all the seven plant extracts achieved a low level of Sophrorhinus spp emergence (0.15 – 0.25) and (0.13 – 0.18) respectively, which was significantly (p < 0.05) different from their control (0.85). The mean number of weevil exit holes recorded for extracts of the various plants decreased with increased concentrations of the extracts applied 25% (30.85 – 41.67), 50% (21.93 – 30.60) and 100% (16.83 -28.10). The few colour changes recorded in the stored kola nuts did not increase with the increased concentration of the extracts 25% (0.75 – 3.05), 50% (0.23 – 3.35) and 100% (0.95 – 2.48). The 7 aqueous extracts can be used at 50% and 100% treatment levels to minimally reduce the menace of kola weevils.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antifungal Medicinal Plants Used by Communities Adjacent to Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, South-Western Uganda

Kakudidi Esezah, Anywar Godwin, Ayorekire Fredrick, Ogwal- Okeng Jasper

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 184-192
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/16237

Communities adjacent to Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (BINP) in South-western Uganda largely depend on traditional herbal treatment for basic health care. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of medicinal plants in the treatment of fungal infections by these communities. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions and through direct observation. A total of 415 respondents were interviewed including 71 traditional healers, herbal medicine traders and health workers. Twenty six medicinal plants belonging to 16 families were documented. Fabaceae with four species, Asteraceae Lamiaceae and Solanaceae each with three species. Eight different fungal infections were identified. The commonest fungal infection was Tinea corporis (44.3%), while the least common fungal infection was Tinea unguium (1.2%). Eighty-six percent of the respondents reported that they had ever suffered from at least one fungal infection. Out of these, 72% had exclusively used herbal medicine for treatment, while 28% had used both herbal and western medicine for treatment. Pentas longiflora, Tetradenia riparia, Erucastrum arabicum, Erigeron floribundus and Coleus latifolius were ranked as highly effective plants by the traditional healers. Leaves (78.6%) were the most commonly used parts. Female herbalists were more involved in conservation by cultivating the medicinal plant species than men. The use of several plant species provides alternatives when others are not available. Fungal infections are common and most of the respondents exclusively use herbal medicine to treat fungal infections.


Open Access Original Research Article

Synergistic Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Saponins-Rich Extracts from Paronychia argentea and Spergularia marginata

Malika Ait Sidi Brahim, Mariam Fadli, Mohamed Markouk, Lahcen Hassani, Mustapha Larhsini

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 193-204
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/16597

Aims: The crude saponins extracted from the aerial parts of Paronychia argentea and the roots of Spergularia marginata were tested for their antioxidant, antimicrobial and synergistic effects with antibiotics.

Methodology: Antioxidant activity was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, β-carotene-linoleic acid and reducing power assays. However, the antibacterial activity was assessed by the agar disc diffusion method, whereas the MIC determination and the synergistic interaction with antibiotics were evaluated using microdilution method.

Results: Saponins-rich extract from Paronychia argentea showed a higher antioxidant activity than that from Spergularia marginata. Using DPPH assay, the IC50 values for saponins-rich extracts from P. argentea and S. marginata were 19.08 and 29.65 µg/ml, respectively. For β-carotene-linoleic acid assay, IC50 values were 98.24 and 614 µg/ml respectively for P. argentea and S. marginata. However, for reducing power assays, the IC50 values for saponins-rich extracts from P. argentea and S. marginata were respectively 27.22 and 61.44 µg/ml. The result of MIC assay showed that both saponins-rich extracts was found to be active against the majority of Candida strains and Gram-positive bacteria. However, crude saponins extracted from S. marginata was more active on microorganisms than that from P. argentea. In fact, the in vitro association of saponin extracts and some commercial antibiotics showed a synergistic effect. For bacteria strains, 30 combinations were studied, 17 (56.66%) combinations had total synergism, 7 (23.33%) had partial synergism, 4 (13.33%) had no effect and 2 (6.66%) had antagonism effect. For Candida strains, 8 combinations of saponins extracts and fluconazol are tested. All of these combinations (100%) exhibited a total synergism with FICi ranging from 0,31 to 0,50.

Conclusion: The results founded suggested that further work should be performed on the isolation and identification of the antioxidative and antimicrobial components of these saponins-rich extracts.


Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antioxidant and Anticancer Properties of Hydroethanolic Extracts and Fractions of Ageratum conyzoides

Felix Acheampong, Christopher Larbie, Regina Appiah-Opong, Fareed K. N. Arthur, Isaac Tuffour

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 205-214
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/17088

Background: Cancer is still a major public health burden in many countries and despite the research strides made in respect of therapeutic interventions, challenges still abound in cancer treatment. Ageratum conyzoides has increasingly been used in folklore for the treatment of a wide range of diseases including cancer.

Aim: This study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant and anticancer potentials as well as the phytochemical constituents of 50% hydroethanolic crude extracts and fractions of leaf extracts of Ageratum conyzoides.

Methodology: Antioxidant activities were evaluated by the DPPH, Folin-Ciocalteau and glutathione assays. The in vitro 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used for the determination of anticancer activities of the plant samples against four selected human cell lines: leukemic (Jurkat), prostate (LNCap), breast (MCF-7), and normal human prostate (PNT2) cell lines. The selectivity indices were also estimated. Mean EC50 and IC50 values were compared by one way ANOVA.

Results: The extracts scavenged DPPH in a dose dependent manner similar to the standard compound, butylated hydroxy toluene. The whole plant extract had the strongest activity with EC50 value of 0.3±0.03 mg/ml. The leaf extract recorded the highest total phenol content of 1602.3±36.7 mg/g GAE. Glutathione was not detected in any of the crude extracts. The leaf extract as well as the chloroform and ethylacetate fractions exhibited interesting cytotoxicities on Jurkat cells with IC50 values of 15.1±0.3 μg/ml, 6.36±1.6 μg/ml and 4.6±0.1 μg/ml, respectively compared to curcumin, 0.002±0 μg/ml. Also, the leaf extract, chloroform and ethylacetate fractions were strongly selective against Jurkat cells with SI values of 66.33, 15.72 and 21.74, respectively compared to curcumin (SI = 2.3). The presence of tannins, saponins and terpenoids were concentrated in the leaf and flower extracts of the plant.

Conclusion: The present investigations have shown that Ageratum conyzoides possesses remarkable antioxidant and anticancer properties, which lend support to the use of the plant in folklore as an anticancer agent. Further studies are required determine the active principle(s).


Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antioxidant Activity and Polyphenolic Content of a Polyherbal Tea and Its Constituents

V. Paddy, J. J. van Tonder, V. Steenkamp

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 215-226
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/17148

Aims: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with debilitating co-morbidities, mainly due to chronic hyperglycaemia-induced damage which is mediated by excess reactive oxygen species (ROS). Plant preparations have been shown to contain polyphenolic compounds that function as antioxidants. Various herbal teas have been sold as treatment of diabetes mellitus.  The aim of this study was to evaluate a commercial, polyherbal tea, Diabetea and its constituents: Achillea millefolium L., Agathosma betulina Bartl. & Weidl., Salvia officinalis. L., Taraxacum officinalis L., Thymus vulgaris. L., Trigonella foenum-graecum L. and Urtica urens L. to assess their antioxidant and polyphenolic content.

Methodology: The polyphenol-linked cell-free and cell-based antioxidant activities of hot water (HW) and dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of Diabetea and its constituents were evaluated for ABTS+ and DPPH radical scavenging ability and for ROS scavenging activity using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) in Ea.hy926 endothelial cells, respectively. The phenolic and flavonoid content was also assessed. 

Results: All HW extracts were rich in polyphenols. T. vulgaris contained the highest amount of flavonoids (760.2±1.3 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/g) of all extracts, followed by S. officinalis (491.7±12.5 mg RE/g). The extracts of T. vulgaris were the most active against ABTS+ (~600.0 mg trolox equivalents (TE)/g activity) and DPPH (535.0 mg TE/g activity). The HW extracts of T. vulgaris, S. officinalis and U. urens significantly (p<0.05) mitigated cellular ROS, whereas none of the DCM extracts had this effect. The HW extracts of the Diabetea, A. betulina, T. officinalis and T. foenum-graecum and most DCM extracts (exception A. betulina) had a significant (p<0.05) intracellular pro-oxidant activity. The cell-free antioxidant activity of the HW extracts correlated significantly (r=0.98) with its polyphenolic content. 

Conclusion: Diabetea exerted strong cell-free antioxidant activity. The HW extracts contained greater polyphenol-linked antioxidant activity than the DCM extracts. The HW extracts of T. vulgaris, S. officinalis and U. urens contain bioactive compounds that exert in vitro antidiabetic potential. Identification of the compounds responsible for this activity is warranted.


Open Access Review Article

Syzygium sp (Myrtaceae): Promising for Diabetes Treating?

Tuanny Cavatão de Freitas, Luciana Lopes Silva Pereira, Chrystian Araujo Pereira

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 167-176
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/14592

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a growing problem worldwide which implies a huge financial burden and issues of medical care policy. DM is rapidly emerging as a major challenge to public health and is a progressive disease and one of the leading causes of death in recent times. The most common form of diabetes is type 2 diabetes (non-insulin dependent). The treatment of type 2 diabetes is complicated by several factors inherent to the disease and the increase of postprandial hyperglycemia is a risk factor. Postprandial hyperglycemia is raised by the action of glycosidases a class of enzymes that aid in the breakdown of complex carbohydrates to simple sugars such as maltose and glucose. Glucosidase inhibitors, such as α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitors play important roles in the treatment of hyperglycemia in diabetic patients. These inhibitors prevent or reduce the action of the enzyme α-amylase, which leads to a reduction in starch hydrolysis, showing a beneficial effect on glycemic control in diabetics. Thus, appears as a promising field, the search for alternative therapies such as amylase inhibitors found in natural sources such as plants. In Brazil, Syzygium sp was included by the Ministry of Health, in National List of Medicinal Plants of Interest to SUS (RENISUS), whose purpose is to guide studies and research that can support the development of the list of medicinal plants and herbal medicines to be made available for use population, with safety and efficacy for the treatment of most common diseases in the country. With specific regard to its hypoglycemic effect and potential use in the treatment of diabetes there are many indications suggesting such pharmacological actions.