Open Access Short communication

Study to Evaluate the Antioxidant Activity of Astragalus glycyphyllos Extract in Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats

Aleksandar Shkondrov, Rumyana Simeonova, Magdalena Kondeva-Burdina, Vessela Vitcheva, Ilina Krasteva

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 59-66
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/16259

Aim: To investigate the possible antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of purified extract obtained from aerial parts of Astragalus glycyphyllos (EAG) using in vivo model of CCl4-induced liver damage in male Wistar rats.

Study Design: A total of 36 animals were randomly allocated in six experimental groups, each consisted of six animals: Control rats (Group 1), rats challenged orally with CCl4 (10% solution in olive oil) (Group 2), rats treated for 7 days with silymarin (100, 0.5 mL/100 g) alone (Group 3) and challenged with CCl4 after 7-day pre-treatment with silymarin (Group 4); animals in groups 5 and 6 were either treated with  EAG (100, 0.5 mL/100 g) alone or challenged with CCl4after 7-day pre-treatment with the extract.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacognosy and Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Drug Toxicity, Department of Pharmacology, Pharmacotherapy and Toxicology, between August and November 2014.

Methodology: On day eight of the experiment the animals in all groups were sacrificed and livers were removed and the following biochemical markers of oxidative stress: MDA quantity, GSH levels, GPX, GR and GST were measured spectrophotometrically.

Results: It was found that EAG has statistically significant effect on hepatic antioxidant defense system in in vivo model of carbon tetrachloride liver damage in rats. A hepatoprotective effect comparable to silymarin can be supposed.

Conclusion: The results indicate that EAG has similar significant protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats as silymarin. This may be explained with the antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties of its bioactive compounds.


Open Access Original Research Article

Cytotoxicity of Various Fractions of Compounds Extracted from Yoyo Bitters on Human Cervical Cancer Cells

A. A. Onyeaghala, I. O. Omotosho, A. R. Shivashankara

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 46-58
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/15913

Aims: To investigate cytotoxicity of pure fractions of compounds extracted from yoyo bitters on human cervical cancer cell and to characterize the compounds present in various extracts.

Study Design:  Experimental Study.

Background:  Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of death. It is common among women of reproductive age and it causes the highest morbidity and mortality among this population. In spite of several researches, therapeutic cure for cancer using conventional therapies has been elusive and this has resulted in the use of alternative therapies. Yoyo Bitters (YYB), a herbal product, produced in Nigeria is widely consumed with a view to alleviating various health challenges. Previous studies using animal models have tried to elucidate the pharmacological activities of YYB, but none has explored its cytotoxicity against human cervical cancer cells. This study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity of pure fractions of compounds extracted from yoyo bitters on human cervical cancer cell and to characterize the compounds present in various extracts.

Materials and Methods: Pure extracts of YYB were obtained using Column Chromatography. These extracts were investigated in vitro on Human Cervical Cancer Cells (Hela) with low passage number using MTT assay. Chemical compounds present in the extracts were characterized using Gas Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS).  

Results: showed that various fractions of YYB exhibited cytotoxic activities on human cervical cancer cells. Half maximal (IC50) of fractions 1, 2 and 3 on cervical cancer cells were: 35.3 µg/ml, 5.6 µg/ml and 44.4 µg/ml respectively. The IC50 of Fraction 2, 5.6 µg/ml, was statistically significant (P= 0.008) when compared with values obtained from fractions 2 and 3.

Conclusion: This study showed that all fractions of YYB exerted cytotoxic activity, but chemical compounds contained in fraction 2 exerted the highest cytotoxicity. Pharmacotherapeutic application of the chemicals as antitumorigenic agent against cervical cancer is discussed.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Wound Healing Activity of Erythrophleum suaveolens (Guill. & Perr.) Brenan and Moringa oleifera Lam. On Infected Albino Rats

O. C. Akanji, M. A. Sonibare

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 67-76
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/15222

Introduction: Erythrophleum suaveolens (Guill. & Perr.) Brenan (Caesalpiniaceae) and Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) are important medicinal plants that have been reported to possess various medicinal properties including wound healing. In the present study methanolic extracts of Erythrophleum suaveolens and Moringa oleifera were evaluated for their wound healing activity using excision wound model in rats.

Methods: Wistar rats (150-200 g) were placed into two groups of non-infected and infected groups. Wound was inflicted on the rats by excision wound model. Local infection was introduced into rat with Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using a 108 cell/ml inoculum. Gentamycin (8 mg/ml) and normal saline were used as positive and negative controls respectively. The rate of wound healing was assessed by contraction and period of epithelization.

Results: Contraction rate on day 12 in the non- infected group were 61.0, 36.5 and 46.8% respectively for M. oleifera leaf, E. sauveolens leaf and stem bark; 93.1, 92.1 and 92.0% in the Staphlococcus aureus infected group; 25.8, 28.0 and 30.1% in P. aeruginosa infected group. Complete epithelization in non-infected group was achieved in both plants on day 14, on day 16 in Staphylococcus aureus group and on day 18 in P. aeruginosa group.

Conclusion: The results proved M. oleifera leaf extract as the most active in a dose dependent manner compared to other extracts. The present study provides justification for the use of Moringa oleifera and Erythrophleum suaveolens in herbal medicine for the treatment of normal and complicated wounds as well as skin diseases.


Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study on the Phytochemical Compositions and Antihyperglycemic Potentials of the Leaves Extracts of Combretum paniculatum and Morinda morindoides

Akintayo L. Ogundajo, Mutiu I. Kazeem, Jude E. Evroh, Mayowa M. Avoseh, Isiaka A. Ogunwande

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 77-86
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/15929

The phytocheimcal components and antihyperglycemic potential of methanol and ethanol leaves extracts of Combretum paniculatum Vent (Combretaceae) and Morinda morindoides (Baker) Milne-Redh (Rubiaceae) grown in Nigeria have been studied. The phytochemical composition was determined by established methods while the in vitro hypoglycemic effect was performed by determining the inhibitory potentials of the extracts on α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Results showed that the ethanol extract of C. paniculatum displayed the most potent inhibition of both α-amylase (IC50: 5.06 mg/mL) and α-glucosidase (IC50: 1.96 mg/mL). The ethanol extract of C. paniculatum inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase in a non-competitive and mixed non-competitive manner. The presence of phytochemicals such as phenols, steroids, flavonoids and athraquinones were confirmed in the extracts.

Aims: To determine the phytochemical compositions and hypoglycemic potentials of the methanol and ethanol leaves extracts of Combretum paniculatum and Morinda morindoides.

Study Design: Extraction of the air-dried and pulverized leaves of C. paniculatum and M. morindoides with both methanol and ethanol, and testing the various extracts for the phytochemical composition and hypoglycemic potentials.

Place and Duration of Study: The leaves of C. paniculatum were collected from Ibefun, Oyo State, in May 2013 while those of M. morindoides were collected from Etegbin Area, Shibiri, Lagos, State, Nigeria, in June 2013.

Methodology: The pulverized leaves were extracted separately with ethanol and methanol for 24 h. The resulting infusions were decanted, filtered and evaporated in a rotary evaporator.  The dried extracts were weighed and dissolved in dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) to yield a stock solution from which lower concentrations were prepared. Phytochemical compositions of the extracts were determined using the methods described previously. Moreover, the hypoglycemic potentials were evaluated as described previously.

Results: The ethanol extract of C. paniculatum possessed mild inhibition of α-amylase and strong inhibition of α-glucosidase compared to other extracts.

Conclusion: The present results justify the use of C. paniculatum in the treatment of sugar related disorders in Nigeria.


Open Access Original Research Article

Characteristics of Ethanol Extract of Detam 1 Indonesian Soybean and Jati Belanda Leaves and the Effects of their Combinations on Weight Gain and Jejunum Histopathological Changes in Male Wistar Rats

Meilinah Hidayat, Sylvia Soeng, Sijani Prahastuti, Hartini Tiono, K. Yonathan Ari, Monica Sugiono

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 87-98
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/13440

Background: Anti-Nutritional-Factors (ANF) are natural or synthetic compounds that interfere with the absorption of nutrients. ANF may cause changes in the histopathology of the small intestinal mucosa, and may affect the digestive, secretory and absorptive functions of the small intestine. Soybean and Jati Belanda leaves which can promote weight loss, may contain ANF. In this study, soybean seeds variety Detam 1 and Jati Belanda leaves were used to assess their potential effects on weight gains and jejunum functions.

Research Objective: To study the effects of ethanol extracts of Detam 1 raw soybean (EEDS) and Jati Belanda (EEJB) Bumi Herbal Dago variety and their combinations on weight gain and jejunum histopathological changes in male Wistar rats.

Research Methods: Phytochemical analyses of EEDS and EEJB ethanol extracts were performed, then assayed for the above mentioned activities after administered to high-fat induced male Wistar rats for 28 days. Weight gain was determined and histopathological examination of jejunum was achieved after fixation and staining with Hematoxylin Eosin.

Results: The combinations of EEDS:EEJB (2:1 and 1:2 w/w) reduced the weight gain with the effect being more pronounced (5.95%)  for the combination 1:2 (w/w). Such effect may be attributed to ANFs contained in EEDS and EEJB such as tannin, saponin, flavonoids and phenolics. The histopathologic examination of the positive control group was not different from all treatment groups (p>0.05).

Conclusion: The combination EEDS:EEJB (1:2 w/w) is effective in inhibiting weight gain without remarkable histopathological changes in male Wistar rat jejunum.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ex vivo and In vivo Antioxidant Related Effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Ginger) Extracts in Humans

Yousif Y. Bilto, Nessrin G. Alabdallat

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 99-108
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/16618

Aims: To investigate antioxidant related effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) in humans.

Study Design: Venous blood from healthy volunteers was used to conduct ex vivo experiments. For in vivo study, nine healthy volunteers, each received orally 250 ml of aqueous extract of ginger daily for 5 days. Venous bloods were taken before and  one hour after the first dose of aqueous extract (sample I and II respectively) and then one day after the last dose of day five (i.e. day 6, sample III). The first blood taken before the first dose (i.e. sample I), served as control for the next samples of II and III.

Methodology: The following assays were performed: Erythrocyte reduced glutathione (GSH), Malonyldialdehyde (MDA), Protein carbonyl (PC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), Percentage hemolysis, serum total antioxidant status (TAS) and selected biochemical tests.

Results: Pre-incubation of erythrocytes ex vivo with methanolic extract of ginger then exposed to H₂O₂ decreased significantly MDA production (i.e. anti-lipid-peroxidant), PC production (i.e. anti-protein-oxidant) and oxidant hemolysis (i.e. anti-hemolytic) in a concentration dependent manner. Ginger extract had no effect on GSH of ex vivo incubated erythrocytes. Oral administration of aqueous extracts of ginger to healthy volunteers, for 5 days, increased significantly serum TAS (from 1.08 to 1.24 mmol/l = 15% increase), erythrocyte GSH (from 0.74 to 1.53 mg/g Hb = 107% increase) and SOD (from 1005.4 to 1374.5 U/gHb = 37% increase), decreased significantly erythrocyte MDA (from 23.7 to 15.5 nmol//g Hb = 35% decrease), and also caused a significant small decrease within the reference range in serum potassium (K) (from  4.3 to 4.0 mmol/L), and serum urea nitrogen (BUN) (from 17.9 to 13.5 mg/dL) and an increase in serum creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) (from 63.1 to 82.7 U/L), with no effect on other serum biochemical tests for kidney, liver, cardiac and pancrease, compared to 0 time administration.

Conclusion: The study indicates that ginger can improve the base line of the defense mechanisms against possible oxidative stress and possibly inhibit pathological conditions related to oxidative stress.