Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Anti-ulcer Effects of the Methanol Extract of Mangifera indica L Stem Bark

Hope Delesi Kagbo, Osadolor Aduku

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/14569

Aims: The anti-ulcer effects of methanol extract of Mangifera indica L stem bark was investigated on wistar rats.

Place and Duration of Study: The  study  was  carried  out  between August and November 2013  in the Pharmacology  Laboratory of  Department  of  Pharmacology,  Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.   

Methodology: The methanol extract of Mangifera indica was prepared. The doses of the extract administered to the rats were 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. respective, and cimetidine (100 mg/kg; p.o.) was the reference drug. Ulcer was induced with ethanol and indomethacin. Ulceration was assessed by the degree of ulceration, total ulcer scores and ulcer index of the various treatment groups.

Results: The  extract showed a significant  (p < 0.001), dose  dependent  inhibition  of  ulceration (reduction in ulcer  index  values)  relative  to control, in both the ethanol and indomethacin models.

Conclusion: This study therefore suggested that M. indica stem bark has ulcer-reducing properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

HPLC Profiling and Antioxidant Properties of the Ethanol Extract of Hibiscus tiliaceus Leaf Available in Bangladesh

Hemayet Hossain, Proity Nayeeb Akbar, Shaikh Emdadur Rahman, Sabina Yeasmin, Tanzir Ahmed Khan, Md. Mahfuzur Rahman, Ismet Ara Jahan

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 7-15
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/14720

The aim of this research was to investigate the antioxidant activity and HPLC fingerprinting profiles of the ethanolic leaf extract of Hibiscus tiliaceus growing in Bangladesh. Catechin, rutin hydrate, ellagic acid and quercetin contents were quantified in the sample by HPLC-DAD (99.00±1.88, 79.20±1.59, 59.40±1.36 and 69.30±1.47 mg/100 g of dry extract), respectively. The antioxidant potential by 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, reducing power, total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic and flavonoid content were determined. In all the methods, the extract exhibited potent antioxidant activity. The IC50 value of the extract on ABTS radical was found to be 6.25±0.15 μg/ml, and at 250 µg/ml, maximum absorbance of reducing power was obtained 0.6475±0.021. The total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents were found in considerable amount (595.2±3.61 mg of ascorbic acid/g, 298.07±2.01 mg/g of gallic acid, and 13.69±0.06 mg/g of quercetin equivalent), respectively. Substantial amounts of phenols and flavonoids were noticed and thus, justify the free radical scavenging and antioxidant characteristics of the extract.


Open Access Original Research Article

An Evaluation of the Sub Acute Toxicity and Haemostatic Effects of Leaves Extract of Achyranthes aspera in Mice and Albino Rats

Bassey Emmanuel Okon, Essien Ettienne Essien, Ching Fidelis Poh, Mbagwu Herbert Orji

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 16-25
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/7043

Background: Achyranthes aspera is used mostly in Nigerian and other folklore medicines to stop bleeding from wounds and in the treatment of other conditions such as dog bite, scorpion bite, gonorrhoea, obstetric disorders and diabetes mellitus.

Objectives: The present study evaluated the toxicological and haemostatic effects of the leaves extract of Achyranthes aspera in adult Wistar albino rats and Swiss mice using experimental models.

Methods: The acute toxicity profile of the methanol leaves extract, skin irritation test as well as the bleeding and clotting times in experimentally induced wounds were studied in Swiss mice and Wistar albino rats using standard methods. The phytochemical screening of the extract was undertaken using standard methods.

Results: The intra-peritoneal LD50 of the extract was found to be 1224.7mg/kg and the topical skin irritation was negative. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides and terpenes. Administration of the extract for 21 days orally to the animals caused a significant (P=.05) decrease in clotting and bleeding times, with bleeding time in a dose-dependent manner compared to the control animals. Topical administration of the extract also caused a significant (P=.05) decrease in bleeding time compared to control animals with a less significant decrease when compared to orally administered extract.

Conclusion: The results have shown that Achyranthes aspera, a traditional folklore medicinal plant has haemostatic effect which may provide therapeutic potential capable of arresting bleeding and contain some biologically active principle(s) which are responsible for the haemostasis.


Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Investigation of the Antibacterial Activity of Psidium guajava Extracts

Iroha Ifeanyichukwu, Ejikeugwu Chika, Nwakaeze Emmanuel, Oji Anthonia, Afiukwa Ngozi, Nwuzo Agabus

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 26-30
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/14307

Psidium guajava (guava tree plant) is widely used in Nigerian communities as food and for medicinal purposes to treat some bacterial and non-bacterial related diseases. Increase in the rate at which pathogenic bacteria develop resistance to some available synthetic drugs calls for urgent action to turn the search lights on natural products such as plants for bioactive compounds needed to develop novel antimicrobials. This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of ethanolic and methanolic crude leaf and bark extracts of P. guajava against pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pneumoniae by the agar well diffusion technique. Ethanolic and methanolic leaf extracts of P. guajava produced inhibitory zones of 15-22 mm and 13-20 mm against the test bacteria respectively. Inhibitory zones of 16-19 mm and 13-23 mm was recorded against the test bacteria for methanolic and ethanolic bark extracts respectively. The observed antibacterial activities of P. guajava further explain the use of guava tree plant for medicinal purposes in this part of the world. And further research is necessary to characterize the bioactive compounds of P. guajava.


Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Property of Two Species of Monkey Kola (Cola rostrata and Cola lepidota K. Schum) Extracts

Emmanuel E. Essien, Nimmong- uwem S. Peter, Stella M. Akpan

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 31-37
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/15976

Aims: To determine the total phenols content and antioxidant activity of Cola rostrata and C. lepidota seeds and fruit pulp methanol extracts.

Study Design: In vitro evaluation of antioxidant assays; phytochemical screening, quantitative determination of total phenolics and flavonoids content of seeds and fruit pulp extracts.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, University of Uyo, Nigeria (July – October, 2014).

Methodology: Standard methods were employed in the phytochemical screening, quantitative phenols and flavonoid determination and antioxidant assays (DPPH radical, ferric reducing and metal chelating activity).

Results: Alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, carbohydrates and flavonoids were detected in the seeds and fruit pulp extracts of the studied plants. Fruit pulp of C. rostrata and seeds of C. lepidota contained the highest amount of flavonoids (60.5 μgQE/g) and phenolics (72.9 μgGAE/g) respectively. The extracts exhibited significant DPPH radical and ferric reducing activity with IC50 values 50-66.5 μg/mL and 60.0-63.0 μg/mL respectively. The Cola extracts also demonstrated metal chelating activity (11.49-34.83%) at 100 μg/mL.

Conclusion: The results of this study substantiates a probable role of the seeds and edible fruit pulp of C. rostrata and C. lepidota as natural sources of antioxidants which could be further exploited for their potential biological activity.


Open Access Original Research Article

In vivo Effect of Cassava Flakes Mixed with Euphorbia heterophylla against Salmonella typhi

F. O. Omoya, A. O. Momoh, O. A. Olaifa

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 38-45
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/8979

Aims: The therapeutic effect of Euphorbia heterophylla and cassava flakes mixture in treatment of Salmonellosis was studied in vivo.

Methodology: Antibacterial activity of aqueous extract of Euphorbia heterophylla was first evaluated using agar well diffusion method by measuring the diameters of zones of inhibition on Salmonella typhi in vitro. The test organism was susceptible to Euphorbia heterophylla extract. Albino rats were infected with Salmonella typhi and confirmed using WIDAL test.

Results: The result showed that the infectivity dose was 2.0×102 cfu/ml for an albino rat of average weight 110 g. The qualitative analysis of the phytochemical of the plant showed that anthraquinone, glycosides and alkaloid are present. The analysis of the pH of the white cassava flakes used was 3.83 while that of the red cassava flakes was 5.62. The titre value of the infected rats increased significantly from 1:20 to 1:160 three days after infection. Administration of Euphorbia heterophylla with cassava flakes mixture was found to effectively treat and reduce the titre value to 1:20 after treating for 7 days. The infection caused a decreasing effect on the haematological parameters such as PCV and WBC. The histopathological analyses of the organs of the infected rats caused mild to severe pathological changes varying from widespread vascular damage, haemorrhage, vasculitis, cellular degeneration and necrosis of the organs. The therapeutic effect of the treatment administered using the Euphorbia heterophylla – cassava flakes mixture showed recuperating cells of the organs analysed histopathologically.

Conclusion: The results obtained in this work showed that Euphorbia heterophylla mixed with cassava flakes is an effective therapeutic agent for Salmonellosis and that the Euphorbia heterophylla with white cassava flakes mixture is more effective in the treatment of Salmonellosis.