Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activity of Four Medicinal Plants

Sumanta Das, Shahid Jamal, Madhurima Dutta, Sharmistha Rej, Sabyasachi Chatterjee

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 191-199
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/14805

The present study was aimed to evaluate the phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of the leaf and stem extracts of Ricinus communis, Solanum nigrum, Clerodendrum infortunatum and Calotropis gigantea. The selected plants were made a comparative study of medicinal value. The result of phytochemical analyses revealed that chemical diversity in aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of R. communis which showed the presence of flavonoids, steroids, carbohydrates, proteins, tannins, glycosides, terpenoids, alkaloids, phenols, glycosides and anthraquinones. Phytochemical compound is comparative less in ethyl acetate extracts of leaf from S. nigrum, C. infortunatum and C. gigantea. In Total Phenol Content assay (TPC), the highest concentration of phenols was found in ethanol leaf extracts of R. communis (800 mg GAE/100 g) and the less amount of TPC recorded in aqueous extracts of C. infortunatum (20 mgGAE/100 g). The Total Flavonoids Content assay (TFC) value followed similar trend the highest concentration was found in ethyl acetate leaf extracts of R. communis (450 mg CE/100 g) and the absent in aqueous extracts of C. gigantea and C. infortunatum. The antimicrobial activities of aqueous, methanol and ethanol extracts leaf and stem were determined on selected bacteria, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and the fungus, Curvularia lunata. The result indicates that the aqueous and methanol leaf extracts of R. communis were showed strong antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis at a concentration of 100 mg/ml respectively.  Even ethanol leaf extracts of Ricinus communis showed better zone of inhibition diameter 45±0.65 mm compared to other plants extract against fungus, Curvularia lunata.


Open Access Original Research Article

Application of RSM and Multivariate Statistics in Predicting Antioxidant Property of Ethanolic Extracts of Tea-Ginger Blend

Solomon Akinremi Makanjuola, Victor Ndigwe Enujiugha, Olufunmilayo Sade Omoba, David Morakinyo Sanni

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 200-211
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/15802

The optimum conditions for ethanolic extraction of antioxidants from tea-ginger blend were determined using response surface modelling.  The relationship between the colour, hue index and antioxidant properties of the extracts were also expressed as multivariate models using ordinary least square, principal component and partial least square regressions (OLSR, PCR, and PLSR). Results from the multi-response optimisation revealed the optimum conditions for the extraction as temperature of 50.16°C, concentration of 2.1 g (100 ml)-1 and time of 5 minutes with a desirability of 0.68. The PLSR gave the most preferable model among the three multivariate regression techniques investigated. Hue index, A510 and a* were able to predict total flavonoid content (R2 = 0.933, Q2 = 0.905) and diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical activity (R2 = 0.945, Q2 = 0.919). The a*, A510, hue Index and hue were able to predict iron chelating activity (R2 = 0.854, Q2 = 0.794).  The study revealed that colour and hue index property could give an indication of some antioxidant properties of ethanolic extracts of tea-ginger blend.


Open Access Original Research Article

In silico Comparative Molecular Docking Study and Analysis of Glycyrrhizin from Abrus precatorius (L.) against Antidiabetic Activity

Amita Jain, Pramodkumar P. Gupta

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 212-222
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/13855

Aim: To test and evaluate the anti–diabetic potential using binding energy and pharmacological interaction of glycyrrhizin using In-silico molecular interaction strategy against Pioglitazone, Roziglitazone and Miglitol.

Study Design: In-silico molecular docking study and analysis of anti-diabetic compounds.

Place and Duration: Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, D Y Patil University, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India between April 2014 and August 2014.

Methodology: The ligands were sketched using Chemsketch and optimized using UFF. Active sites were considered from the crystallized structure of selected complexes Pdb-id: 2XKW, 1FM6 and 3L4W. Molecular docking simulation study is carried out in IGemDock using Genetic algorithm and Pharmacological interactions with binding energies were calculated.

Results: In the present study, we investigated the anti-diabetic potential of glycyrrhizin by evaluating the in-silico binding ability and pharmacophoric interactions of this compound to known inhibitors (Pioglitazone, Roziglitazone and Miglitol). Glycyrrhizin displayed better binding affinity against PPAR gamma and Alpha amylase receptor protein with respect to their inhibitors. Since glycyrrhizin shows a good binding affinity, it holds great promise for use in the treatment of diabetic complications. Results of the docking simulations of glycyrrhizin demonstrated negative binding energies (-123.242 kcal/mol for PPAR gamma against Pioglitazone, -105.847 kcal/mol for PPAR gamma against Roziglitazone and -98.415 kcal/mol for Alpha amylase against Miglitol), which indicated a higher affinity and tighter binding capacity of glycyrrhizin for the active site of the enzyme.

Conclusion: The study finding indicates the potential of glycyrrhizin for the management and treatment of diabetes and diabetes-associated complications. Further specific study in wet lab and a parallel in-silico methodology can provide supportive evidence for glycyrrhizin to be use as a suitable alternative in management of diabetes.


Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-urease Activity of Mimusops elengi Linn (Sapotaceae)

Hina Zahid, Ghazala H. Rizwani, Arfa Kamil, Huma Shareef, Sabiha Tasleem, Ajmal Khan

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 223-230
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/12240

Aim: Mimusops elengi L. (Sapotaceae) commonly known as Bakul is a small to large evergreen tree found all over the different parts of the world. Literature survey showed no reports on the anti urease activity of the flowers and leaves of Mimusops elengi. The present study was therefore envisaged to evaluate the anti urease activity of the methanolic extracts (MFE and MLE) of M. elengi.

Study Design: Assessment of anti urease activity and total phenolic contents.

Methodology: For the determination of total phenolic content of M. elengi extracts (MFE and MLE) the reaction mixture contained 50% Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (0.5 mL), 20% (w/v) sodium carbonate solution (2.5 mL), and gallic acid solution (1, 2.5, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100 mg/ml) or sample extracts (1.0 mL). Urease inhibition activity was determined by mixing Urease (Jack bean) method was employed for urease inhibition activity.

Results: From the standard calibration curve of gallic acid the total phenolic contents in extracts (MFE and MLE) was found to be 7.5±0.28 mg/g, 96.8±4.6 mg/g. Urease inhibitory activity of M. elengi extracts (MFE and MLE) was comparable with standard Thiourea. The percentage urease inhibition of Thiourea was found to be 98.2%, IC50 88.2 ± 0.01 mg/ml. The maximum urease inhibitory activity was shown by the leaves extract (MLE) i. e, 77.9% (IC50 62.1±1.20 mg/ml) while methanolic extract of flower (MFE) produced 47.6% urease inhibition activity. The total phenolic contents in both methanolic extracts (MFE and MLE) was found to be 7.5±0.28 mg/g, 96.8±4.6 mg/g respectively.

Conclusion: It is, therefore, concluded that this plant can be a sources to isolate some natural urease inhibitory agents.


Open Access Original Research Article

Efficient In vitro Micro Propagation of Andrographis paniculata and Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity from Its Crude Protein Extract

M. A. Al-Mamun, Rafica Akhter, A. Rahman, Z. Ferdousi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 231-241
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/15663

Aims: The current study was designed to establish a cost effective protocol for rapid in vitro regeneration of Andrographis paniculata (Kalmegh) and also screening the antibacterial activity of its crude protein extracts against five human pathogenic bacteria.

Study Design: The whole investigation of in vitro micro propagation was carried out using three replications. Screening of antibacterial assay was carried out using disc diffusion method and measuring inhibition zone in millimeter.

Place and Duration of Study: The entire study was conducted in Prof. Ali. Mohammad Eunus Laboratory of the Department of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh between October 2012 to March 2014.

Methodology: The present research work was undertaken for in vitro shoot formation, shoot multiplication, root induction and establishment of whole plantlets from shoot tips and nodal segment of Kalmegh using MS media supplemented with BAP, Kn NAA and IBA, either alone or in combination. The extracted crude protein from the leaf of Andrographis paniculata was used for antibacterial screening against three gram negative and two gram positive pathogenic bacteria and measuring the antibacterial activity as zone inhibition in millimeter. Gentamicin was used as standard drug.

Results: BAP alone showed maximum (100%) shoot regeneration from nodal segment at a concentration of 0.5 mg/l. In combination, medium having 0.5 mg/l BAP + 0.1 mg/l NAA was found to be best for auxillary shoot proliferation (90%). Maximum rooting 100% with 12.4 roots per explants were recorded on the medium containing 0.2 mg/l of IBA. The crude extract showed dose dependent strong antimicrobial activity against the entire test organism by showing zone inhibition ranging between 7.91 to 17.5 mm.

Conclusion: The protocol for in vitro micro propagation has been described here, is very simple and cost effective, which can be easily utilized for mass regeneration of Kalmegh for the purpose of drug development due to the presence of potential antibacterial polypeptide in its leaf extracts.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antidiabetic and Hypolipidemic Efficacy of Various Fractions of Heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium (Fabaceae) on Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

Vinutha R. Bhat, B. Shivananda Nayak

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 242-248
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/15927

Aim: The objective of the present work is to study the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effect of different fractions of heart wood of Pterocarpus marsupium in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

Methodology: Diabetes was induced by administering alloxan dissolved in saline (65 mg/kg body wt.), while the normal control group was given the vehicle (propylene glycol). After seven days of stabilization period, blood was drawn and the plasma was estimated for blood glucose. Animals which had more than 200 mg/dl of blood glucose were included in the study. Blood glucose estimation was done on Day 1, 15 and 30. Estimation of lipid profile was done on day 30 only. Diabetes induced animals were randomly assigned into different groups.

Results: Alloxan induced diabetic rats treated with various extracts (75 mg/kg body wt.) showed marked hypoglycemia, hypo-triglyceridemia and hypocholesterolemia at the end of the study period.

Conclusion: Thus the present study suggested the potential use of heart wood of P. marsupium in treating diabetes as well as related cardiovascular complications.