Open Access Original Research Article

Immunological and Haematological Disturbances in Diabetes Mellitus: Modulatory Role of Diets Containing Vernonia amygdalina Leaves

H. D. Akpan, I. F. Usoh

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 143-153
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/14313

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine some makers of immunology and haematology in Streptozotocin -induced diabetic wistar rats consuming Vernonia amygdalina leaf diets in order to evaluate the involvement of the diets in the management of immunological and haematological complications among diabetics.

Design and Methodology: Fifty albino wistar rats were divided into five groups with 10 rats in each group. Group 1 (normal control) was fed with control diet; Group 2 (diabetic control) was fed with control diet, Group 3 and 4 (diabetic treated with diets) were fed with Vernonia amygdalina leaf diet at 5% and 7.5%, respectively. Group 5 (diabetic treated with insulin) was fed with control diet and administered insulin. Feed and water were given ad- libitum for 28 days. Full blood count (FBC) was determined using automated haematology analyzer, KX2IN (non-cyanide hemoglobin analysis method. The CD4+ lymphocyte was estimated by flow cytometry using the cyflow automated cell counter (Parlec, Germany).

Results: Results showed that diabetic rats consuming Vernonia amygdalina had significant (P < 0.5) increase in the RBC, haemoglobin, and lymphocyte counts relative to the diabetic control. Diabetic rats consuming Vernonia amygdalina had significant (P < 0.5) reduction in the level of WBC, platelets, neutrophil, and CD4+ cell count relative to the diabetic control. The results for Vernonia amygdalina diets were similar to insulin on the measured parameters and their levels were not significantly different (P >0.5) when compared to the normal control.

Conclusion: We concluded that consumption of diets containing Vernonia amygdalina leaves might have positive effect on the immunological and haematological abnormalities associated with diabetes mellitus.


Open Access Original Research Article

Toxicological and Biochemical Studies of Myristica fragrans Hydroalcoholic Extracts in Albino Rats

Ameneh Khoshvaghti, Masood Hashemian, Vahab Dehghan, Hamid R. Maleki Babehoveizy

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 154-166
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/8042

Aims:  Myristica  fragrans  is  one  of  the  plants  used  as  a herbal  medicine. This plant includes some components that can treat many diseases. This study was done to evaluate the M. fragrans hydroalcoholic effects on some hematological parameters, thyroid hormones, some liver enzymes, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine.

Study Design: This study was done on ninety adult male Wistar rats weighing approximately 200 to 220 g.

Place and Duration of Study: Nutmeg was authenticated in the Agriculture Faculty of Shiraz University (Shiras is a city in Fars province in the south -West of Iran). This study has been done in department of clinical sciences of faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Kazerun (Farsprovince, Iran) branch of Islamic Azad University, between March and September 2013.

Methodology: The Myristica fragrans hydroalcoholic extracts were administrated orally at 4 different doses (100, 200, 400 and 500 mg/kg BW /day) and in two terms (14 and 28 days) in experimental groups (groups A1, A2,A3, A4, B1, B2, B3 and B4). The control group did not receive extract. The  Hemoglobin  (Hb) concentration,  packed  cell  volume   percentage (PCV%),  erythrocyte (RBC) and  total  leukocyte count (WBC), iron, total  iron  binding  capacity  (TIBC), ferritin, some liver enzymes, thyroid hormones, BUN and serum creatinine were assayed and compared to control group.

Results: The hydroalcoholic extract of M. fragrans have significantly increased effects on erythropoiesis and thrombopoiesis in the long-term and have significantly increased on T4 concentration  in  short   and  long periods (P<0.05) and  decreased  serum iron  and  TIBC.  This extract did not have any significant effects on ferritin, and WBC, in short and long term (P>0.05). Liver enzymes activities, BUN and creatinine concentrations were not increased in any of experimental groups (P>0.05).

Conclusion: The hydroalcoholic extract of M. fragrans can be used for anemia, thrombocytopenia and hypothyroidism treatment with safe dosage and term, without any renal and hepatic side effects.


Open Access Original Research Article

Immunomodulation of Human Blood Phagocytes by Orbignya phalerata Mart. Plus IFN-γ and TGF-β Cytokines

D. G. Cantarini, J. C. D. Rosa, L. G. R. Venturini, J. P. M. O. Silva, A. C. Honorio-França, E. L. França

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 167-174
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/14760

Aims: Babassu is the popular name of the palm Orbignya phalerata Mart. That belongs to the family of Arecacae (Palmae). Some studies have attributed biological properties to this plant’s fruit; however, there are few studies evaluating the biological properties of its leaves. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential for the extract from Babassu leaves to be a possible immunomodulator of the functional activity of blood mononuclear phagocytes (MN) incubated with the bacteria Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) in the presence of IFN-γ and TGF-β cytokines.

Study Design: Experimental study of in vitro cell immunomodulation by medicinal plants plus cytokines.

Place and Duration of Study: Institute of Biological and Health Science, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Barra do Garças, MT, Brazil, between June 2012 and July 2014.

Methodology: Mononuclear (MN) phagocytes were separated from blood by density gradient using Ficoll Paque. The cells were incubated with EPEC in the presence or absence of plant extract and IFN-γ and TGF-β cytokines. A control was performed using only cells (spontaneous group). The functional activity was evaluated by superoxide anion release, phagocytosis and bactericidal activity.

Results: There was a significant increase (p<0.05) in the superoxide release by phagocytes in all groups that were incubated with plant extract. In the presence of IFN-γ and TGF-β cytokines plus plant extract, was observed lower (p<0.05) superoxide release and increased in phagocytosis and bactericidal activity.

Conclusion: Babassu extract is a potent immunostimulator of mononuclear phagocytes and a natural alternative that can be applied for the benefit of human health, specifically in infectious diseases.


Open Access Original Research Article

Pharmacological Potential of Tricosanthes tricuspidata and Clematis montana for Hypoglycemic and Antioxidant Activity

Sanjay Singh, Sadath Ali, Mamta Singh

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 175-180
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/12769

The aim of present study was to evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of Tricosanthes tricuspidata and Clematis montana leaf and root extracts. On the basis of toxicity studies a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight was selected for antidiabetic activity. Diabetes was induced by the administration of streptozotocin at a dose of 50 mg/kg, intra peritoneal. Among all the extracts, ethanolic extract (EtOH) of T. tricuspidata (197.5±1.31**) and C. montana (183.8±3.79**) have  shown significant reduction in blood glucose level in SZT induced diabetic Wister rats as compared to control and the standard drug glipizide (5 mg/kg body weight). Aqueous extract of T. tricuspidata (22.35%) and ethanolic extract of C. montana (26.23%) have shown significant antioxidant activity when compared with standard (Ascorbic acid & BHT) at 30 µg/ml concentration. The results of the study concluded that Tricosanthes tricuspidata and Clematis montana leaf and root extracts have potential antidiabetic and antioxidant properties.


Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Evaluation of Membrane Stabilizing Potential of Selected Bryophyte Species

Akinpelu Bolajoko Ayinke, Makinde Amos Morakinyo, Isa Musibau Olalekan, Taiwo Olakunle Philip, Ojelabi Olajumoke Mariam, Oyedapo Oluboade Oluokun

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 181-190
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/7629

Aims: The purpose of the current study was to investigate the possible anti-inflammatory properties of the three bryophytes species: Archidium ohioense, Bryum coronatum and Racophilum africanum with a view to utilizing the extracts of the plant s in the treatment of inflammatory related ailments.

Place and Duration of Study: The research was carried out in IIe-Ife, Osun-State, Nigeria between May 2012 and March 2013.

Methodology: The study adopted membrane stabilizing technique of red blood cells exposed to both heat and hypotonic induced lyses with varying concentrations of the extracts (chloroform, acetone, ethyl acetate and ethanolic) of the plants.

Results: The results of the membrane stabilizing activity assay showed that acetone extracts contained principles that protected red blood cells effectively against heat and hypotonic induced lyses. A. ohioense extracts protected red blood cells at all concentrations used while B. coronatum protected better at lower concentrations. However, R. africanum extracts (with the exception of the acetone extract) promoted lysis of red blood cells at lower concentrations.

Conclusion: The study showed that the anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts of A. ohioense, B. coronatum and R. africanum were concentration dependent and comparable to those of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

This study indicates the possibility of generating an alternative source of novel anti- inflammatory compounds from the studied bryophytes, which might overcome the ever expensive synthetic drugs with long term side effects.


Open Access Review Article

Phytochemicals of Markhamia Species (Bignoniaceae) and Their Therapeutic Value: A Review

Shaimaa Ali, Sherweit El-Ahmady, Nahla Ayoub, Abdel Nasser Singab

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 124-142
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/15015

Aims: To present a compilation of data regarding the phytochemical content and pharmacological activities pertaining to genus Markhamia as one of 120 genera belonging to family Bignoniaceae.

Study Design:  Literature was collected from various published textbooks and scientific papers then the required data was summarized and presented in both tabulated form and concise text.

Results: Phenyl propanoids, triterpenic acids and anthraquinones are the major phytochemicals reported in this genus. Traditional clinical practice demonstrated that the different species of Markhamia were used in curing anaemia and bloody diarrhoea in Africa as well as other ethnopharmacological uses. Many reports were published explaining the activity of the extracts of various species of Markhamia as potential anti-inflammatory, antiparasitic, anthelmintic, analgesic, anti-viral, antimicrobial and anti-fungal agents.

Conclusion: This review presents an overview on the reported phytochemicals isolated from different Markhamia species and the biological activities associated with various Markhamia extracts and isolated compounds.