Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Flower Essential Oil of Jacaranda acutifolia Juss. against Food-Borne Pathogens

Nada M. Mostafa, Omayma A. Eldahshan, Abdel Nasser B. Singab

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 62-69
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/4749

Aims: To investigate the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the hydrodistilled flower essential oil of Jacaranda acutifolia Juss. (Bignoniaceae) to validate some of its ethnopharmacologial uses such as treatment of wounds and dermatitis.

Study Design: Volatile oil isolation, component identification and antimicrobial activity.

Place and Duration of Study: Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, and the flowers were collected on 15 April 2012 and the study is completed within four months.

Methodology: The essential oil of the flowers of Jacaranda acutifolia was extracted by hydrodistillation, analysed by capillary gas chromatography (GC/FID) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Antimicrobial activity was studied in vitro; this included                   both antibacterial activity against food-borne pathogens and antifungal activity using agar     diffusion method.

Results: Forty six components, comprising almost 81.36 of the total peak area, were identified in the analysis. The main components were n-dodecanoic acid (17.48%), n-tetradecanoic acid (15.59%), n-hexadecanoic acid (10.98%), hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (8.2%), n-decanoic acid (7.9%), and nonacosane (7.71%). According to the observed inhibition zone, which ranged from 13 to 26.5 mm, the oil showed significantly high in-vitro antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.09 up to 1.09 mg/ml, and moderate antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella flexneri. The potency of the oil was calculated as compared to standard antibiotics, and 1 mg oil was equivalent to 1.05 µg penicillin against S. aureus; 2.72 µg nystatin against C. albicans; 13.55, 1.3 and 272 µg gentamicin against E. coli, Samonella and Shigella species respectively.

Conclusion: The essential oil of Jacaranda acutifolia exhibited promising antimicrobial activity, and this makes its local traditional uses rational.


Open Access Original Research Article

Can Leafy Vegetable Source of Omega-3 fatty Acids Ameliorate Acute Intestinal Inflammation Induced in Mice? A Case study of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea)

Hannah Oduro Obeng, Betty Schwartz, Wisdom A. Plahar

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 70-81
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/14407

Aim: To investigate the ameliorative effect of purslane (Portulaca oleracea), an omega-3 rich green leafy vegetable in the treatment therapy of experimental ulcerative colitis in mice.

Study Design: In vivo evaluation of the ameliorative effect of purslane on ulcerative colitis.

Place and Duration: Purslane leaves were obtained from the Agricultural Research Institute in Newe Yaár, Israel. Female C57BL/6J mice were purchased from Harlan Animal Research Laboratories Ltd. (Jerusalem, Israel). The actual studies were undertaken at the Department of Nutritional Science, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel, between October 2008 and December 2009.

Methodology: Twenty-five C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) control group, high-dose (24%) purslane group, medium-dose (8%) purslane group or low-dose (0.8%) purslane group receiving 3.5% dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) in their drinking water for eight days after ten days of receiving the feeding regime as described above. A normal control group was also employed to receive drinking water plus standard diet for the whole duration of the experiment. The animals were sacrificed and subjected to histopathological analysis, as well as myeloperoxide activity, and disease activity index determination.

Results: Animals fed the different concentrations of purslane did not exhibit a statistically significant (P>0.05) trend towards histopathological and clinical improvement after the eighth day of DSS administration. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) observed in fatty acid profile between the intervention and the DSS control groups 8 days post-DSS. However, from the study the higher the consumption of purslane (>6g/d), the higher the concentration of the fatty acid profile in blood plasma. Also, no significant decrease in neutrophil infiltration was observed, as depicted by myelohyperoxidase activity.

Conclusion: Our study concluded that oral administration of purslane at concentrations up to 24% could not suppress ulcerative colitis in mice.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antidiabetic Effect of the Aqueous Extract Mixture of Andrographis paniculata and Syzygium polyanthum Leaf

Ratna Megawati Widharna, Ferawati ., Wahyu Dewi Tamayanti, Lucia Hendriati, Iwan Sahrial Hamid, Elisabeth Catherina Widjajakusuma

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 82-91
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/15601

Aims: To study the oral glucose tolerance effects on normal rats and the antidiabetic activity of extract mixture of Andrographis paniculata and Syzygium polyanthum on alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

Study Design: Seventy-two normal male rats were randomly distributed into six groups for the oral glucose tolerance test and six groups for the antidiabetic test. Group 1 to 3 were control groups, Group 4 and 5 were treated with the single extracts of Andrographis paniculata and Syzygium polyanthum, respectively, at dose of 200 mg/kg b.w. Group 6 was administered with the extract mixture at dose of 200 mg/kg b.w.

Place and Duration of Study: This work is carried out in Faculty of Pharmacy and Research Center for Traditional Medicine, Widya Mandala Catholic University, Surabaya, between March 2011 and February 2012.

Methodology: Oral glucose tolerance test was performed by collecting blood sample for the tail of each animal at 0 to 150 mins and the blood glucose levels were estimated. The antidiabetic effect of the extract mixture was studied on diabetic rats. Blood samples were collected and the fasting blood glucose levels were estimated. The pancreas were excised and fixed in formalin for histopathology.

Results: The effects of the extract mixture on glucose tolerance tests were significant (p≤0.05) and the hypoglycemic effects were not observed from 30 to 120 min after treatment. The treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats with the extract mixture (200 mg/kg) for 14 days also produced significantly lower blood glucose levels compared to thoses of the groups treated the single extracts. Moreover, the extract feeding showed definite improvement in the histopathology of islets and the plant extracts have not produced any toxic sympton within the treated animals.

Conclusion: The results suggest the extract mixture to be beneficial for treatment of type 2 diabetes without toxicity.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antischistosomal Activity of Azadirachta indica and Ekebergia capensis in Mice Infected with Schistosoma mansoni

Rael Musili, Francis Muregi, Joseph Mwatha, David Muriu, Linus M’ Rewa, Timothy Kamau, Antony Menaine, Simon Chege, Joseph Thiong’o, Zipporrah Ng’ang’a, Gachuhi Kimani

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 92-102
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/15196

Aims: Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease of great socio-economic and public health importance in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Praziquantel (PZQ) is the drug of choice for treatment of schistosomiasis since it is effective against all species of schistosomes. However, PZQ is less efficacious against larval stages of the parasite and there are recent concerns that long term mass drug treatment could lead to development of drug resistant strains thus prompting the need for alternative antischistosomal drugs. Plants have over the years provided a rich source of novel drugs for a wide range of diseases afflicting man and domestic animals.

Study Design: Swiss albino mice were infected and randomized into groups of five for plant extract treated groups, positive control groups treated with conventional drugs PZQ and artemether, as well as infected but untreated (negative control) groups.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was done at the Animal Facility in the Centre for Biotechnology Research and Development, Kenya Medical Research Institute from July 2013 to July 2014.

Methodology: Swiss albino mice were infected with 90 cercariae each and treated orally with varying doses of aqueous extracts of Ekebergia capensis and Azadirachta indica at doses of 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg at 2 weeks (juvenile worms), 4 weeks (immature worms) and 7 weeks (adult worms) post infection. PZQ and artemether were used as positive controls while infected untreated group was used as negative controls. Total reduction of worm load as well as egg load in the liver and intestine was used as an indicator of drug activity, relative to the infected but untreated control groups.

Results: Both E. capensis and A. indica showed significant dose-dependent percentage worm load reduction (P<0.05) at different doses ranging from 100 mg/kg to 400 mg/kg. These extracts also significantly reduced tissues (liver and intestine) egg load counts at doses ranging from 50 mg/kg to 400 mg/kg which was also dose-dependent.

Conclusion: The antischistosomal activity of the two plant extracts was dose dependent with E. capensis being more potent in reducing both the worm burden at all the stages and tissue egg load. These findings validate the potential use of medicinal plants in the management of schistosomiasis and provide a basis for exploring medicinal plants as sources for new antischistosomal agents.


Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antimycobacterial Activity of Sterculia quinqueloba (Garcke) K. Schumand Canthium crassum Hiern

Elihuruma Wilson, Musa Chacha, Justin Omolo

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 103-109
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/14950

Aim: To screen for the anti-mycobacterial activity of Canthium crassum and Sterculia quinqueloba using two mycobacteria species the Mycobacteria madagascariense and Mycobacteria indicuspranii.

Study Design: In vitro assay of anti-mycobacterial assay was done using 96-well micro-dilution method.

Place and Duration of Study: School of Life Science and Bioengineering, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Arusha, Tanzania, from April 2014 to June 2014. 

Methodology: 96-well-microtitre serial micro-dilution method was used to determine anti-mycobacteria activity to plant extracts.

Results: All extracts exhibited anti-mycobacterial activity to both mycobacteria tested. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) ranged from 0.39 – 12.5 mg/mL, with ethyl acetate leaf extract of S. quinqueloba being the most active extracts with MIC value of 0.39 mg/mL against Mycobacteria madagascariense (MM) and 0.78 mg/mL against Mycobacteria indicuspranii (MIP). Petroleum ether and ethyl acetate leaf extract of C. crassum also gave MIC value of 0.78 mg/mL against MM and MIP.

Conclusion: Findings from the present study showed that both plants exhibited activity against mycobacterium species tested. These plants may therefore serve as a source for new ant-mycobacterium drugs worth further studies including isolation and identification of the active compounds.


Open Access Original Research Article

Toxicity and Pharmacognostic Standards for Laxative Properties of Nigerian Cassia sieberiana and Senna obtusifolia Roots

Clement Olusoji Ajayi, Anthony A. Elujoba, Ronald A. Bejide, Johnson A. Akinloye, Abidemi E. Omonisi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 110-123
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/14470

Aims: Research for sourcing laxative crude drugs among Nigerian Cassia/Senna species has continued. The roots of Cassia sieberiana and Senna obtusifolia, reported as mild laxatives, were subjected to pharmacognostic and toxicity investigations to form part of their monographs.

Study Design: This is an experimental laboratory report on toxicological and pharmacognostical investigations that will provide some relevant pharmacopoeial standards for these two plants growing in Nigeria.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacognosy Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife Nigeria, between August, 2010 and January, 2013.

Methodology: Roots of Cassia sieberiana DC. (Caesalpiniaceae). And Senna obtusifolia Irwin and Bernaby (Caesalpiniaceae) were collected from the Eastern (Nsukka), Western (Ile-Ife and Iree) and Northern (Jos) parts of Nigeria during the rainy season. The plant materials were subjected to organoleptic, morphological, phytochemical, physico-chemical and toxicity experiments. The data were analyzed by one-way Analysis of Variance at 95% confidence level. The reference Senna alexandrina (Herb Tea), was purchased from a Pharmacy.

Results: The micro-morphological examination of C. sieberiana and S. obtusifolia roots showed porous vessels, apotracheal parenchyma cells, etc., as valuable diagnostic characters for identification. Free and combined anthraquinones were detected. The toxic oral dose (LD50) for hot infusion of each plant material was found to be > 5000 mg/kg in rats. The histo-pathological examination of C. sieberiana at 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg showed a reversible proliferation of the messenchyma cells of the kidney, mild periportal infiltration of the liver and mild to moderate testicular atrophy in rats while for S. obtusifolia at 500 mg/kg, no observable histo-pathological changes were observed except at 1000 mg/kg, which showed mild periportal infiltration of the liver as also observed with the infusion of the reference senna.

Conclusion: The results have therefore provided some of the valuable data required for the identification, evaluation, quality assurance and safety on the two plants to qualify them for incorporation into the 2nd editions of the Nigerian Herbal Pharmacopoeia (NHP) and the West African Herbal Pharmacopoeia (WAHP).