Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Medium pH, Growth Media Compositions and Analysis of Nutritional Components of Ganoderma lucidum in Submerged Culture Fermentation

Qianling Zhou, Wei Yang, Jun- Fang Lin, Li- Qiong Guo

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 17-25
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/14828

Aims: This study was undertaken to identify the optimal submerged culture conditions for four strains of Ganoderma lucidum: Ganoderma lucidum-8 (Ga-8), Ganoderma sinense (Ga-Sin), Ganoderma lucidum-0201 (Ga-0201) and Ganoderma atrum (Ga-Atr) and analyze their nutritional components.

Study Design: Orthogonal experiment to identify optimal submerged culture and nutritional components analyses.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiments were conducted in the laboratories of College of Food Science, South China Agricultural University between January and July 2005.

Results: Orthogonal experiment showed that all the strains grew well in M1 medium, with initial pH of 5.5. Ga-0201 grew best and had the largest mycelial biomass among four studied strains. Medium played the most important role in influencing the cultivation outcomes, followed by pH and then strain. Four strains of G. lucidum were subsequently submerged cultivated in the optimal medium and pH, and the nutritional compositions of their mycelial biomass were analyzed. Ga-Sin, high in ash, intracellular polysaccharide (IPS), extracellular polysaccharide (EPS), crude protein and crude fat; and Ga-0201, high in crude protein and crude fiber, had greater potential for research and development than the other two strains.

Conclusion: These results can be widely applied to G. lucidum fermentations on a large scale and selection of species for functional food use.


Open Access Original Research Article

Germination of Cochlospermum regium Seeds: Influence of Seed Size, Vials, Vial Sealing In vitro, and Substrate In vivo

Marielle Cascaes Inácio, Tiago Antunes Paz, Bianca Waléria Bertoni, Ana Maria Soares Pereira

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 26-33
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/15077

Aims: This work aimed to assess how seed size, vials, vial sealing (in vitro), and substrate (in vivo) affect C. regium germination and emergence. This study shall contribute to the viable production of C. regium seedlings.

Study Design: The experimental design used in these experiments was randomized.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Plant Biotechnology, Universidade de RibeirãoPreto, between March 2010 and December 2010.

Methodology: This work has evaluated how seed size, vials, vial sealing (in vitro), and substrate (in vivo) influence the germination and emergence of C. regium.

Results: The results showed that cultivation of C. regium seedlings from seeds is viable, irrespective of seed size. Vial oxygenation is an important parameter to consider in vitro, to obtain a larger number of normal seedlings. As for in vivo conditions, germination should be conducted in sand, to ensure a greater amount of young seedlings.

Conclusion: The results presented here attested that it is possible to produce C. regium seedlings from seeds of any size both in vivo and in vitro conditions. In vitro, it is important to consider vial oxygenation, in order to obtain a greater amount of normal seedlings. In vivo, germination should be conducted in sand, to ensure production of a large quantity of seedlings.


Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Cytotoxicity and Antioxidation of a Whole Fruit Extract of Liquidambar formosana Exerted by Different Constituents

Jian Zhang, Guixin Chou, Zhijun Liu, Gar Yee Koh

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 34-44
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/15280

Aims: The fruit of Liquidambar formosana Hance under the name of Lu Lu Tong (LLT) has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine in China for thousands of years. This study was undertaken to attempt to illustrate some of the pharmacological effects by screening for its cytotoxic and antioxidant activities with in vitro assays.

Methodology: LLT extract was initially prepared with 95% aqueous ethanol, and then fractionated based on solvent polarity into three fractions of petroleum ether (LLT-P), dichloromethane (LLT-C), and methanol (LLT-M). human colon adenocarcinoma Cells HT-29 cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium were treated with LLT extracts in the concentration range of 0.39 µg/mL and 100 µg/mL and assayed by MTS. The antioxidant activities of each LLT fraction was reacted with a stable free radical of DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS•+ (2, 20-azino-bis (3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diamonium salt). Major constituents of three fractions were analyzed by UPLC-MS.

Results: Among the three fractions, LLT-M exhibited a strong antioxidant activity but the others had minimal or negligible effects. In contrast, the potent antioxidant fraction (LLT-M) showed essentially no cytotoxicity whereas the two fractions, LLT-P and LLT-C, were significantly cytotoxic.

Conclusion: Cytotoxicity and Antioxidant properties exhibited by LLT came from different constituents residing in different fractions of solvent affinity.


Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatoprotective Activity of Holostemma ada Kodien shcult, Extract against Paracetamol Induced Hepatic Damage in Rats

Junapudi Sunil, Janapati Yasodha Krishna, Pallaval Veera Bramhachari

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 45-54
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/12117

Aim: To study the hepatoprotective activity of alcoholic extract of Holostemma ada Kodien Shcult against paracetamol (PCM) induced liver damage in rats.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of pharmaceutical chemistry and department of pharmacology Geethanjali College of Pharmacy, Cherryal, Keesara, Ranga Reddy District, Andhra Pradesh, India during June 2012 and Jan 2014.

Methods: Hepatotoxicity was induced by paracetamol (PCM) and various biochemical parameters were assessed to confirm the induced degrees of hepatoprotoxicity. The various extracts were tested on animals and various biochemical parameters such as serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total serum bilirubin (SB) were investigated the hepatoprotective activity was also confirmed by histopathological studies of normal and hepatodamage and post treatment studies with the extract.             

The Results: Pre-treatment of the rats with alcoholic extract prior to paracetamol (PCM) administration caused a significant reduction in the values of AST, ALT, ALP and SB (p<0.01) approximately comparable to the hepatoprotective of standard drug was silymarin and confirmed by histopathological examination of the liver tissue of control and treated animals.

Conclusion: From the results it can be concluded that Holostemma ada Kodien Shcult possesses the hepatoprotective effect against paracetamol (PCM) induced liver damage in rats.


Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Composition of Essential Oils of Plumeria rubra L. Grown in Nigeria

Oladipupo A. Lawal, Isiaka A. Ogunwande, Andy R. Opoku

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 55-61
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/15295

The chemical compositions of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of the leaves and flowers of pink-flower Plumeria rubra L., grown in Nigeria were being reported. The chemical analysis was performed by means of gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. The major leaves oil constituents were (Z)-β-farnesene (16.0%), α-patchoulene (13.0%), limonene (12.1%), (E)-β-farnesene (10.8%), α-copaene (7.2%) and phytol (6.3%). However, the quantitative significant compounds of the flowers oil were (E)-non-2-en-1-ol (15.7%), limonene (10.8%), phenyl acetaldehyde (9.0%), n-tetradecanal (8.8%), γ-elemene (6.5%) and (E,E)-α-farnesene (6.1%). This is the first report on the volatile constituents from the leaves of Plumeria rubra.

Aims: The aim of the of the present study was to examine the constituents of the leaves and flowers oils of P. rubra grown in Southwest Nigeria in details, and to compare the results obtained with those reported earlier.

Study Design:  Isolation of essential oils from the leaves and flowers of Plumeria rubra and determination of their chemical constituents.

Place and Duration of Study: Fresh plant materials of P. rubra (flowers and leaves) were collected from a location within the Campus of Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos State, Nigeria, in October 2013.

Methodology: Fresh leaves and flowers were hydodistilled in an all glass Clevenger apparatus and their chemical constituents were analyzed by GC and GC/MS.

Results: A total of twenty six compounds were identified in the leaves and the major ones were (Z)-β-farnesene (16.0%), α-patchoulene (13.0%), limonene (12.1%), (E)-β-farnesene (10.8%), α-copaene (7.2%) and phytol (6.3%) while the flowers had twenty seven compounds with (E)-non-2-en-1-ol (15.7%), limonene (10.8%), phenyl acetaldehyde (9.0%) and n-tetradecanal (8.8%) occurring in higher percentages.

Conclusion: The chemical composition of the volatile compounds differed from each other and from data reported previously from other parts of the world.


Open Access Review Article

Evaluation of Multiple Functions of Polygonum Genus Compounds

Antoine H. L. Nkuété, Ludovico Migliolo, Hippolyte K. Wabo, Pierre Tane, Octávio L. Franco

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/15134

For thousands of years, traditional medicinal plants have been used to control several diseases, based on traditional knowledge and experience. Nevertheless, many potential medicinal plants have not attracted attention to their useful pharmacological properties and remain to be discovered. In recent years, a number of plants from various genera, species and families have been scientifically studied for their pharmacological potential. Among them, the genus Polygonum contains 300 species worldwide. Many document reported various studies of phytochemical and pharmacological potential of crude extracts and compounds isolated from several Polygonum species.

Aims: The present review describes some traditional uses from the Polygonum genus, the phytochemistry, the pharmacological effects, the pharmacokinetics, the toxicology and  the known potential phytoconstituents of therapeutic importance that have been isolated.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon and Centro de Analises Proteômicas e Bioquimicas, Pós-Graduação em Ciencias Genomicas e Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica de Brasilia, Brasilia, DF, Brazil, between September 2012 and September 2013.

Methodology: A review of literature was carried out using several resources such as scientific papers, classical books, pubmed, Scifinder, Sirus, the web of Science and ethnobotanical information.

Results: Plants from Polygonum are widely distributed in the world and used as traditional medicine. Several compounds including phenolic compounds (flavonoids, chalcones, stibenes, coumarins and others) have been isolated and characterized from these plants and some of them are used as the effective pre-clinical to control various diseases in the world.

Conclusion: The present review covers many medicinal properties of some species from the Polygonum genus, setting out further mechanism of actions and toxicity yet to be established. Studies on Polygonum plant extracts could be targeted to develop novel anticancer, anti allergic agents, potential antiplasmodial and anti-inflammatory drugs, from the active compounds. Apart from this, a new approach could be developed for preparing this herbal product, as well as in combination with other plants. Other pharmacological properties for use in artherosclerosis, neurological disorders, diabetes, hypertension and immunomodulatory effects should be evaluated.