Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-collagenase, Anti-elastase and Antioxidant Activities of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica root Extract and Coccinia grandis Fruit Juice Extract: An In vitro study

Thatchanan Chattuwatthana, Edward Okello

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 318-327
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/14129

Aims: To determine the in vitro anti-elastase, anti-collagenase and antioxidant properties of two Asian herbs: Pueraria candollei Graham ex Benth. var. mirifica and Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt that were selected for their anti-aging properties according to their ethnobotanical and chemotaxonomic information.

Place and Duration of Study: School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, Newcastle University, United Kingdom, between June and August 2014.

Methodology: The methanolic extract of the roots of P. candolleivar. mirifica (PMM) and the fruit juice extract of C. grandis (CGJ) were investigated by in vitro enzymatic assays to mimic the breakdown of elastin and collagen fibres. Total phenolic content was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method (gallic acid equivalent, GAE), while antioxidant capacity was determined as Trolox equivalents (TE) by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assays.

Results: PMM significantly inhibited elastase activity with IC50 of 143.0±4.78 µg/mL, and its anti-collagenase activity was comparable with that of the positive control, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Based on the same concentration, the elastase inhibitory activity of PMM was significantly higher compared with that of CGJ (P< .001), while the collagenase inhibitory activities of both extracts were comparable. Total phenolic content, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities of 1.0 g equivalent of the dried roots of PMM were 0.6±0.04 mg of GAE, 16.4±6.20 and 9.3±1.38 µmole TE respectively. The antioxidant values of PMM were significantly higher compared with those of 1000 µg/mL of CGJ (GAE, P< .0001; DPPH radical scavenging activity, P< .05; ABTS radical scavenging activity, P< .001). The free radical scavenging activities of both plant extracts were positively correlated with their total GAE (P < .0001).

Conclusion: PMM may play a role in decelerating the skin ageing process and could be formulated for anti-wrinkle skincare products. Further research is required to examine anti-elastase, anti-collagenase and antioxidant activities of individual compounds contained in the roots of PMM and expand the investigation into such anti-ageing effects of the whole fruits of C. grandis, which might contain higher amounts of phytochemicals than the fruit juice.


Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of Balkan Sideritis Species from Albania, Bulgaria and Macedonia

Alban Ibraliu, Antoaneta B. Trendafilova, Boban D. Anđelković, Bujar Qazimi, Dejan M. Gođevac, Dorina Shengjergji, Ela Bebeci, Gjoshe Stefkov, Gordana Zdunic, Ina I. Aneva, Ina Pasho, Jasmina Petreska-Stanoeva, Kalina I. Alipieva, Katarina Savikin, Ljuba N. Evstatieva, Nebojsa Menkovic, Marina I. Stefova, Milena Popova, Milka B. Jadranin, Milka N. Todorova, Petko Denev, Svetlana Kulevanova, Vassya S. Bankova, Vilma Gurazi, Vilma Papajani-Toska

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 328-340
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/14389

Background: Sideritis scardica and S. raeseri are very popular medicinal plants in Albania, Macedonia, and Bulgaria.

Objective: Comparison of the phenolic, flavonoid, and diterpene contents and detailed chemical profiles, as well as data on antioxidant activity, comprising plant material from different locations in the Balkan Peninsula.

Materials and Methods: Total phenolic and flavonoid contents for the studied Sideritis samples were determined spectrophotometrically. By HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn analysis, 48 individual phenolic constituents were completely or tentatively identified. Chemical profiling of Sideritis major diterpenes and their quantification was performed by HPLC-ESI-MSD TOF analysis. A combination of two methods (ORAC and DPPH) was applied for evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of Sideritis extracts.

Results: The results obtained demonstrated that Sideritis samples (S. scardica and S. raeseri) collected from Albania, Bulgaria and Macedonia are similar in their chemical profiles (they all contain phenylethanoid glycosides, flavonoid 7-O-diglycosides and acetylated flavonoid 7-O-diglycosides, and diterpenes: main components siderol and sideridiol); and antioxidant activity. Although some differences exist, they are not essential.

Conclusion: This fact is a good basis for the formulation of range for parameters for quality control of Sideritis extracts and plant material. The studied cultivated plant material is similar in its chemical composition, profile and antioxidant activity to the wild growing samples.


Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic, Antipyretic and the Membrane-Stabilizing Effects of Tamarix aphylla Ethanolic Extract

M. A. Abo-Dola, M. F. Lutfi, A. O. Bakhiet, A. H. Mohamed

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 341-348
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/13888

Aims: 1) To screen Tamarix aphylla for phytochemical constituents. 2) To study the anti-inflammatory effect, analgesic and antipyretic activity of the ethanolic extract of the plant, and 3) to assess membrane-stabilizing activity of the plant extract as a mode of its actions.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the laboratories of pharmacology and phytochemistry of the medicinal and aromatic plant research institute, national center for research, Khartoum, Sudan during a six Month period.

Methodology: Standard methods from the laboratory sheet were used to detect the phyto-conistituents of the plant. The pharmacological activities; the edema inhibition percentage (EI%), the granuloma tissue-formation inhibition percentage, the antipyretic, analgesic and membrane-stabilizing ability were determined using animal models as described in standard methods.

Results: Tamarix aphylla phytochemical screening showed that it contains flavonoids, saponin, cumarins, and tannins and traces of triterpenes and alkaloids.

Tamarix aphylla at a dose of 200 mg/kg achieved highest EI% 4 hours after oral dosing of the extract suspended in distilled water. Tamarix aphylla at a dose of 200 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg caused 71.86% and 67.05% inhibition of the granuloma tissue formation respectively; which were significantly more compared to indomethacin (32.25%, P< 0.05). Tamarix aphylla at a dose of 200 mg/kg and/or 100 mg/kg significantly increases the response time of the rats and reduces rats' body temperature compared to acetylsalicylic acid (P< 0.05). It also showed significant inhibition of RBCs hemolysis by heat or hypotonic solution compared to acetylsalicylic acid (P< 0.05), indicating membrane-stabilizing ability. 

Conclusion: The present results indicates that the ethanolic extract of Tamarix aphylla possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, analgesic activity and membrane-stabilizing ability.


Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Control of Certain Herbal Products and Their Individual Components Used for Digestive Tract Disorders and Their Proposed Mechanism

Salma M. Kandeel, Mohamed L. Ashour, Abdel Nasser B. Singab, Ghanem A-G El-Hossary

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 349-365
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/13309

Aims: To assess the quality of fifteen plants in three herbal tea products (1,2 and 3) used in the Egyptian market for the alleviation of digestive tract disorders, namely; constipation, diarrhea and flatulence, respectively and evaluate antioxidant activity of the volatile oils of some individual components of herbal teas.

Study Design: The presence of pesticides, heavy metals, microbial contaminant was documented. Moreover, some pharmacopoeial constants were calculated. In addition, the chemical compositions of their essential oils were determined and their antioxidant activities were assessed.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacognosy Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr University for Science and Technology, Agricultural Pesticide Committee (APC) and Micro Analytical Center, Cairo University between February 2012 and July 2013.

Methodology: Analysis of the pesticides and the essential oils were performed using GC/FID and GC/MS and determination of heavy metals was carried out using wet digestion method. Microbial contaminants were detected by serial dilution method and the pharmacopoeial constants was evaluated according to their official methods. The antioxidant activity was assessed using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH•) scavenging capacity assay.

Results: Out of thirteen organochlorine pesticides residues were studied p,p-DDT is present in all the samples (0.0003- 0.05 mg/kg). All the tested products were regarded as safe based on the WHO measurements. However, all the herbal teas exceeded the accepted limits of fungal (yeast) and pathogenic bacteria (E. coli) by the FIP. The total concentrations of aflatoxins in the three samples were 1.25, 0.52 and 3.43 μg/kg respectively. In addition, results indicated to the absence of cadmium and lead. Based on the GC analyses, altogether 112 volatile components were identified in the essential oils of nine plants belonging to Apiaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae. Regarding to families Apiaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae the major constituents were Anethole 93.52%, α-Bisabolol oxide B 69.55% and 1-terpinen-4-ol 33.99% respectively. The antioxidant activity confirmed that anise and dill oils showed the highest antioxidant activity as evidenced by their IC50 being 4.218 and 4.930 mg/ml, respectively. While, marjoram and fennel oils exhibited moderate activity displaying IC50 values of 12.158 and 14.413 mg/ml, respectively.

Conclusion: All the three herbal teas were considerably safe for human consumption as recommended by the different pharmacopeias. Moreover, it was proposed that their antioxidant activity might be the core of their efficacy being effective in the maintenance of the integrity and function of the gastrointestinal tract in addition to prohibition of free radicals that predispose inflammation.


Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-proliferative Activity of Prunus africana, Warburgia stuhlmannii and Maytenus senegalensis Extracts in Breast and Colon Cancer Cell Lines

P. N. Nabende, S. M. Karanja, J. K. Mwatha, S. W. Wachira

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 366-376
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/14081

Aims: To determine the anti-proliferative activity of Prunus africana, Warburgia stuhlmannii and Maytenus senegalensis in breast and colon cancer cell lines and to assess their toxicity levels based on responses against Vero cells and the Swiss albino mice.

Study Design:  Experimental laboratory-based study.

Place and Duration of Study: Centre for Traditional Medicine and Drug Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, between May 2013 and May 2014.

Methodology: The in vitro assays involved determination of the cytotoxic concentration levels (CC50) of the plant extracts on Vero cells as well as calculating the inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the plant extracts on breast and colon cancer cell lines. The drugs with the highest selectivity index (SI) to have low IC50 in the breast and colon cancer cell lines and high CC50 in Vero cells were used in the in vivo assays which involved acute oral toxicity studies, conducted on 8 weeks old Swiss albino mice to calculate the median lethal dose (LD50).

Results: The safest and effective drugs were methanol extracts of leaves from Prunus africana whose results showed an average IC50 of 164.64±4.14 µg/ml in the breast cancer cell lines and 21.33±0.5 µg/ml in the colon cancer cell lines, as well as the stem bark water extracts from Warburgia stuhlmannii, whose results showed an average IC50 of 332.79±7.53 µg/ml in the breast cancer cell lines and 107.20±2.50 µg/ml in the colon cancer cell lines. Both extracts had an average CC50 of >1000 µg/ml in Vero cells. Based on positive cytotoxicity results on the two extracts, acute oral toxicity studies were conducted on 8 weeks old female Swiss albino mice. This revealed no signs of acute toxicity after drug administration with LD50 of >5000 mg/kg body weight, therefore the extracts were considered to be safe.

Conclusion: The methanol extract from the leaves of Prunus africana and the water extracts from the stem bark of Maytenus senegalensis were safe for use in the murine model. These extracts also showed a level of anti-proliferative activity in both breast and colon cancer cells without being toxic to Vero cells. This information forms a basis for the development of the extracts as safer alternative therapies for the management of cancer.


Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical and Hypolipidemic Effects of Methanolic Extract of Aframomum melegueta Seed

S. O. Onoja, M. I. Ezeja, Y. N. Omeh, E. C. Emeh

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 377-383
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/15101

Aims: The present study was aimed at establishing the phytochemical contents and hypolipidemic potentials of the methanolic extract of Aframomum melegueta seed in rats.

Study Design: Phytochemical constituent, serum lipid profile and relative organ weight.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike Abia State, between July 2013 and November 2013.

Methodology: Dried and pulverized seeds of Aframomum melegueta were extracted by cold maceration method for 48 hours at room temperature using absolute methanol in a Winchester bottle. The extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) was dosed to albino Wistar rats orally for 21 consecutive days by gastric gavage. Twenty four hours later, blood was collected from the rats through direct cardiac puncture. The separated serum was used to determine the serum lipid profile. Phytochemical analysis of the extract was also done using standard method.

Results: The extract produced significant (P < 0.05) dose-dependent decrease in the serum level of cholesterol, triglyceride, Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and increase in serum level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, terpenes/sterols, glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids.

Conclusion: The methanolic extract of A. melegueta seed demonstrated hypolipidemic effects which may help in the prevention of development of cardiovascular diseases in patients and may be due to its phytochemical constituents.