Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Acute Toxicity and Hepatoprotective Activity of Scrofoloso - 5 (S5) and Livome, Electro Homoeopathic Herbal Preparations against CCl4 Induced Liver Toxicity

P. Suresh Babu, V. Krishna, Ajith Singh, Ramesh Babu, Venkatesh ., K. Pradeep

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 220-228
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/13021

Aim: Many medical professionals are using electro homoeopathic preparations which are available in Indian market. In the present study, the  electro homoeopathic medicines  Scrofoloso 5 (S5)  and Livome were evaluated for their acute toxicity and  hepatoprotective activity  against CCl4 induced toxicity.

Study Design: For acute toxicity studies six groups with six mice each one was used to evaluate two test samples. Group I,II and III were administered test sample S5 in the dose 0.25ml,0.5ml and 1.0ml respectively and Group IV,V and VI were administered test sample Livome with  the dose 0.25ml,0.5ml and 1.0ml respectively. Behaviors were studied up to 14 days. For hepatoprotective evaluation 5 groups of six rats Group I, II III, IV and V were employed and biochemical and histological profile were studied.

Materials and Methods: The electro homoeopathic preparations of Scrofoloso-5 (S5) and Livome were purchased from the local market. The acute toxicity was evaluated in female swiss albino mice, while the hepatoprotective efficacy  was screened in male Wistar rats. The liver function biochemical parameters and the histopathological profile were used as criteria for hepatoprotective estimation. 

Results: There was no acute toxicity for both S5 and Livome drugs up to high dose of 1.0 ml/day for mice of 25g b.wt.orally. The hepatoprotective activity of S5 was similar to the standard hepatoprotective drug silymarin and Livome effects are more significant than the standard hepatoprotective drug silymarin. The histological profile of the liver tissue showed the presence of normal hepatic cords, absence of necrosis and fatty infiltration as similar to the controls.

Conclusion: The Electro homoeopathic medicines available in market for the Electro homoeopathic practitioners S5 and Livome afforded significant protection from CCl4 induced liver damage.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activity of Irradiated Powdered Tetrapleura tetraptera Fruit and the Moisture Sorption Isotherm of the Whole Fruit

Darfour Bernard, Ofosu Daniel Osei, Asare Kwabena Isaac, Ofori Hayford, Agbemafle Evans, Atter Amy

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 229-236
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/13055

Aim: To assess the microbial load and antibacterial activity of irradiated T. tetraptera fruit and the appropriate equilibrium relative humidity for the storage of irradiated fruit of T. tetraptera.

Methodology: The whole fruit was analyzed for aerobic mesophiles count and moisture sorption isotherm was determined; while the powdered samples were analyzed for antibacterial potency.

Results: Irradiating the samples reduced the microbial load significantly. A dose of 10 kGy eliminated all microflora from the products while a dose of 5 kGy reduced the initial microbial count from 1.1x104 to 80 CFU/g (i.e. 93% reduction). The net gain of moisture by fruits stored at 55% to 75% ERH was minimal and no growth of fungi was observed on the fruits. ERH above 75% reintroduce some microbes.

Conclusion: Irradiation completely eliminated the microflora at 10 kGy and substantially reduced the antibacterial ability of T. tetraptera fruit against the bacteria strains studied. The irradiated and unirradiated T. tetraptera fruits were better stored up to 75% equilibrium relative humidity.


Open Access Original Research Article

Phytoconstituents and Insecticidal Activity of Different Solvent Leaf Extracts of Chromolaena odorata L., against Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

Oladipupo A. Lawal, Andy R. Opoku, Isiaka A. Ogunwande

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 237-247
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/6739

The chemical profiles of volatile compounds obtained from different leaf extracts of Chromolaena odorata L, were determined by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography couples with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The hexane extract was characterized by abundance of phytol (23.1%), caryophyllene oxide (12.7%), germacrene D (9.0%) and (7.8%) and β-caryophyllene (8.2%). The major constituents of the chloroform extract were dodecyl acetate (13.6%), oleic acid methyl ester (11.2%), di-n-octyl phthalate (11.1%) and hexadecanoic acid methyl ester (6.6%). Phytol (11.1%), caryophyllene oxide (9.9%), g-muurolene (6.4%) and hexadecanoic acid (5.4%) were the main compounds of the ethyl acetate fraction. The main components of the methanol extract were hexadecanoic acid (11.2%), caryophyllene oxide (8.5%), α-terpineol (7.8%) and α-cubebene (7.7%). Overall, ubiquitous terpenes are less common when compared with previous investigation. However, fatty acids, aromatic compounds and diterpenoids contributed significantly to the major volatile fractions. The insecticidal sensitivity of different solvent leaf extracts of C. odorata towards the adults of S. zeamais after 96h exposure was found in the order: methanol > ethyl acetate > chloroform > hexane.

Aims: The aim of this research work was to investigate the chemical constituents of the volatile oils from different solvent extracts of Chromolaena odorara and evaluation of their insecticidal properties.

Study Design: Extraction of C. odorata with different solvents by Soxhlet apparatus and the insecticidal property.

Place and Duration of Study: Fresh leaves of C. odorata were collected from Mowe-Ofada, Obafemi-Owode Local Government Area, Ogun State, Nigeria.

Methodology: Air-dried and pulverized leaves were extracted with hexane, methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate and their chemical constituents were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The oils were then evaluated for their insecticidal activity.

Results: A total of sixty-seven compounds were identified, amounting to 96.4%, 91.2%, 91.1% and 93.4% of the total constituents of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol fraction, respectively. The major were compounds phytol, caryophyllene oxide, dodecyl acetate, oleic acid, hexadecanoic acid, di-n-octyl phthalate. The insecticidal sensitivity of different solvent extracts of C. odorata towards the adults of S. zeamais depicts its potential as an insecticide.

Conclusion: The chemical composition of the volatile compounds differed from each other and the extracts displayed potent insecticidal activities.


Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Chemical and Antimicrobial Studies of Egyptian Mandarin Leaves and Green Branches Volatile Oil

Omayma A. Eldahshan

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 248-254
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/4625

Aims: In the present study we compared the chemical composition and the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils isolated from green branches and leaves of mandarin. 

Study Design: Extraction of essential oils from mandarin green branches and leaves by hydrodistillation

Place and Duration of Study: leaves and green branches were collected from Benha City, Qualyobia, Egypt in December 2012.

Methodology: The essential oils (EOs) isolated from mandarin (Citrus reticulata) were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The antimicrobial activity was assessed using agar well diffusion method.

Results: Sixteen compounds were identified from the oil of branches which represented about 92% of the total detected constituents. The major components of the oil were dimethyl anthranilate (34.7%), γ-terpinene (33.6%) and limonene (11.2%). Alpha pinene and sabinene were present in considerable amounts (both at 2.8%). Other components were present in amounts less than 2%. From the heavier of layer mandarin leaves oil, thirteen compounds accounting for 95.4% of the oil were identified. Dimethyl anthranilate (65.3%) was the major component, followed by γ-terpinene (19.8%) and limonene (4.5%).

On the other hand, fourteen compounds (94.7%) were identified from the lighter layer of mandarin leaves oil including dimethyl anthranilate (60.6%), γ-terpinene (22.8%) and limonene (5.3%).

The antimicrobial activities of the oils were assessed. The antifungal activity was studied against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans. The antibacterial activities were measured against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis as gram (+) bacteria; and Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium as gram (-) bacteria.

Conclusion: The heavier layer of mandarin leaves oil was the most effective layer against all tested microorganisms, followed by the branches oil and finally the lighter layer of leaves oils.


Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Anti-dermatophyte Activities of Crude Extracts of Cassia alata

Chito Clare Ekwealor, Christie Amechi Oyeka

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 255-259
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/13842

Aim: To study the in vitro anti dermatophyte activities of methanol and cold water extracts of Cassia alata.

Study Design: Experimental.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Applied Microbiology and Brewing, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria between June 2011 to January 2013.

Methodology: Clinical samples were collected from 201 rice farmers with lesions suggestive of cutaneous mycoses in Anambra State, Nigeria and identified. Methanol extraction of the dried leaves of C. alata and the aqueous extraction of the plant's fresh leaves were carried out. Discs impregnated with different concentrations (10mg, 20mg, 40mg, 80mg) of extracts were tested against the isolated dermatophytes. Discs impregnated with 2% Dimethyl Sulphoxide (DMSO) and 2mg/disc ketoconazole served as negative and positive controls respectively. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and the Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) of the crude extracts against the isolated dermatophytes were determined using broth dilution method.

Results: Recovered dermatophytes include Microsporum audouinii, Microsporum ferrugineum, Trichophyton megninii, Trichophyton tonsurans and Trichophyton rubrum. All the tested dermatophytes were sensitive to the methanol extracts of C. alata at concentration of ≥10mg/disc. MIC value of 50mg/ml was recorded for all the test dermatophytes except M. audouinii whose MIC value was 25mg/ml. Fungicidal action was exhibited against the tested dermatophytes at higher concentration of ≥100mg/ml. Cold water extracts of the test plant also showed total inhibitory action against the dermatophytes.

Conclusion: The crude extracts exhibited fungicidal actions against the test dermatophytes and so the plant leaves could serve as raw materials in the development of non toxic, non resistant and affordable drugs for the treatment and control of ringworm infections.


Open Access Original Research Article

Presence of Camptotheca in the Red River Delta (North Vietnam) during the Holocene Revealed by Palynological Studies

Nguyen Thuy Duong, Pim de Klerk, Hans Joosten

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 260-271
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/14153

Aims: Evaluation of the presence of the important medicinal tree genus Camptotheca in the Red River Delta (northern Vietnam) during the Holocene.

Place and Duration of Study: Institute of Botany and Landscape Ecology (Greifswald University), between March 2003 and May 2006.

Methodology: Pollen analyses were performed on various sediment cores from the Red River Delta in order to reconstruct vegetation history and landscape development during the Holocene. Radiocarbon dates of selected levels provide a chronologic framework for various vegetation phases.

Results: Camptotheca occurred with certainty in the Red River Delta, i.e. outside its current distribution area, around 6500 and somewhat after 6150-5500 cal yr BP. It was probably present during the complete 7400-5300 and 1400-250 cal yr BP time-slices. Presence during other time slices is possible, but could not be confirmed.

Conclusion: Camptotheca ecologically represented a specific phase in riparian forest development, where it followed on Carya, Pterocarya and Salix during stages when the forest was relatively open. This study is a first step in understanding the past natural ecology of Camptotheca, which may provide information useful for management of Camptotheca plantations for medicinal purposes.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Anticonvulsant Activity of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Telfairia occidentalis in Mice

Oloruntobi Joshua Imoru, Oyemitan Idris Ajayi, Ilesanmi Olapade Rufus

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 272-280
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/13665

Aims: This work evaluated the anticonvulsant effect of aqueous leaf extract of Telfairia occidentalis in Mice. This was to validate the use of T. occidentalis in the treatment of sudden attack of convulsions in folkloric medicine.

Study Design: One-factor, two controls - three test groups experimental design.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria, between October 2012 and January 2013.

Methodology: Anticonvulsant effect of T. occidentalis was evaluated using the following animal models of convulsion: strychnine, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock (MES). Five groups of white albino mice (n = 6) were randomly selected. Group 1 was the control (normal saline, 10 ml/kg, i.p.), group 2 was the positive control (diazepam, 1 mg/kg, i.p.), while group 3, 4 and 5 were treated with aqueous leaf extract at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p., respectively. All the animals in each group were pre-treated for 30 minutes before administration of PTZ (85 mg/kg, i.p.), strychnine (2 mg/kg, i.p.) or exposure to MES. The latency to convulsion, duration of convulsion and percentage protection from mortality were recorded in each group.

Results: T. occidentalis (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) was not effective in preventing strychnine and PTZ-induced convulsions, and did not prevent Hind Limb Tonic Extension (HLTE) in MES.

Conclusion: Aqueous leaf extract of Telfairia occidentalis did not show significant anticonvulsant activity as claimed in folkloric medicine.


Open Access Original Research Article

Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis L.) Water Requirement, Crop Coefficients Determination and SIMDualKc Model Implementing

Houshang Ghamarnia, Fatemeh Mousabeygi, Isa Arji

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 281-296
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/14138

The crop water requirements and coefficients should be determined for proper irrigation management and scheduling. The present study was conducted to determine water requirements, and single and dual crop coefficients of Lemon balm in a semiarid climate using water balance lysimeters during years 2012 and 2013. For these purposes, twelve water balance drainable lysimeters were used and three lysimeters were applied for grass evapotranspiration while three others were used for bare soil evapotranspiration estimation. Also, in six lysimeters, Lemon balm was planted in two groups including group A in which plant grew continually until the end of flowering stage and the appropriate time was reached for extraction, and group B in which plant was harvested three times, after reaching a height of 12-15 cm. The two year average water requirements of Lemon balm in two lysimeters groups, viz. groups A and B, were determined to be 539 and 415 mm, respectively. Single and base crop coefficients for lysimeters in group A were determined to be 0.68, 0.93 and 1.19, 0.42, 0.92 and 1.16, respectively for the initial, development and middle stages of plant. For lysimeters in group B, the average single crop coefficients on first, second and third harvests were determined to be 0.77, 0.77 and 0.81, respectively. In the present study, SIMDualKc model was calibrated and validated by comparing measured and simulated Dual Kc and evapotranspiration (ETc) values. The results showed the model capability and accuracy with low RMSE and MBE and high R2 = 0.89 for proper irrigation planning and scheduling in semi-arid climates.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Crude Extract of Dry Fruits of Piper guineense on Male Fertility Parameters of Adult Sprague Dawley Rats

A. E. Memudu, I. D. Akinrinade, O. M. Ogundele, B. J. Dare

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 297-303
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/9466

Objective: To study the effect of aqueous extract of dry fruits of Piper guineense on male fertility parameters of adult male Sprague Dawley rats.

Materials and Methods:  30 adult male Sprague Dawley rats weighing between 120g -150g were used. They were divided into three (3) groups. The control (group A), Short term treatment Group A (Group B) received 200 mg/kg of extract for 4 weeks (28 days) and long term treatment (Group C) received 200 mg/kg of extracts for 8 weeks (56 days). Extract was given via gastric intubation. The controls as well as treated animals were allowed free access to pelleted feed and water ad libitum. The animals were sacrificed and blood taken for serum biochemical analysis. Testicular weight was taken and recorded. Caudal epididymis excised for semen analysis.

Results: There was an increase in animal body weight gained throughout the duration of the experiment as compared with the control. There was also a significance increase in testicular weight. Serum testosterone level increased in treated groups.

Semen analysis reveals normal parameters no oligospermic or azoospermic condition was detected. Sperm morphology was normal and no teratozoospermic sperm found.

Conclusion: The aqueous extract of Piper guineense at dose of 200mg/kg for 4 weeks and 8 weeks respectively had a positive impact on male fertility parameters.  From results obtained, Piper guineese enhances testicular hormone secretion. This study revealed no deleterious effects of aqueous extraction of dry fruits of Piper guineense on male fertility.


Open Access Original Research Article

Autophagy Inhibition Enhances the Mitochondrial-Mediated Apoptosis Induced by Mangrove (Avicennia marina) Extract in Human Breast Cancer Cells

Luke Esau, Sunil Sagar, Vladimir B. Bajic, Mandeep Kaur

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 304-317
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/14181

Aims: Avicennia marina (AM) is a widely distributed mangrove plant that has been used in traditional medicine for centuries for the treatment of a number of diseases. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the leaf ethyl acetate extract of AM for its cytotoxic and apoptotic potential along with in-depth investigations of its mechanism of action in breast cancer MCF-7 cells.

Study Design:  The ethyl acetate extract of leaves and stems of AM was tested against estrogen positive breast cancer cell line MCF-7 using various assays.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia, from July 2013-June 2014.

Methodology: Dose- and time-dependent growth inhibition of cancer cells was measured using MTT assay. The mechanisms of apoptosis induction were determined using various assays: phosphatidylserine exposure, caspase-3/7 activation, mitochondrial membrane potential disruption, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cell cycle analysis, autophagy, and protein expression using western blotting. The modulation of apoptotic genes (p53, Mdm2, NF-kB, Bad, Bax, Bcl-2 and Casp7) was also determined using real time PCR.

Results: The AM extract inhibited breast cancer cell growth and induced apoptosis in a concentration dependent manner. We demonstrated a non-classical mode of apoptosis induction in MCF-7 cells by AM extract, where ROS production altered the mitochondrial membrane potential to induce apoptosis. Breast cancer cells treated with 200 µg/ml concentration of AM extract showed increased ROS production and disrupted MMP but no PARP-1 cleavage and a marked decrease in Caspase-7 protein levels (24 and 48 h) were detected. A significant amount of autophagy was also observed at the same concentration. However, treatment of MCF-7 cells with 200 µg/ml of AM extract along with the inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine, significantly increased the apoptosis from 20% to 45%.

Conclusion: Our data provide evidence that AM extract triggers ROS-mediated autophagy as well as caspase-independent apoptosis. The results also strengthen the view that concurrent targeting of apoptotic and autophagic pathways may provide effective therapeutic strategy against cancer.