Open Access Short Research Article

Petiveria alliacea L (Guinea Hen Weed) and Its Major Metabolite Dibenzyl Trisulfide Demonstrate HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitory Activity

Henry I. C. Lowe, Ngeh J. Toyang, Alonso Heredia, Kenneth N. N. Ayeah, Charah T. Watson, Joseph Bryant

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 88-94
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/12064

Aim: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a major public health concern despite the discovery and development of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapies (HAART). There is as such a need to continue to search for new and effective therapies for this global pandemic. In an effort to discover new anti HIV agents, the aim of this study was to determine the anti HIV-1 activity of Petiveria alliacea and its metabolites.

Methodology: The extracts of P. alliacea and dibenzyl trisulfide were screened for anti HIV-1 properties in primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) infected with the HIV-1JR-CSF strain.

Results: The anticancer metabolite of P. alliacea called dibenzyl trisulfide and the crude methanol and ethyl acetate extracts inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in infected cells, with EC50 concentrations of 5.60 µg/ml, 21.6 µg/ml and 68.0 µg/ml, respectively. The reference compound AZT had an EC50 value of 0.005 µg/ml. The tested extracts had IC50/EC50 selectivity index (SI) values of ≥ 1.47. The results were confirmed in another assay measuring the expression of p24.

Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that extracts of P. alliacea may contain anti HIV-1 metabolites that could provide leads for the discovery of new agents against the HIV virus. 

Open Access Short Research Article

Antiplasmodial Activity of Phyllanthus amarus Preserves Renal Function in Plasmodium berghei Infected Mice

I. Onyesom, I. F. Onumaechi, J. Ehiwario, R. Dagana

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 109-116
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/13230

The antiplasmodial effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Phyllanthus amarus on the biomarkers of renal function was investigated. The phytochemical constituents of the extract were screened. The renal function markers investigated include levels of uric acid, creatinine, urea and electrolytes (HCO3-, Na+, K+ and Cl-) in serum of Plasmodium berghei infected mice treated with P. amarus. Twenty-five (25) adult mice (22-27g bwt) randomly divided into 5 groups (n= 5/grp) were used. Group 1; Normal control (uninfected and untreated), Group 2; malarial control (infected with P. berghei and untreated), Group 3; infected and treated with Pyllanthus amarus leaf extract (200mg/kg bwt), Group 4; uninfected but treated with same dose of Phyllanthus amarus and Group 5; standard control (infected and treated with quinine, 5mg/kg). Each group was so treated for 5 days and on the 6th day the animals were sacrificed under chloroform anaesthesia after an overnight fast. Whole blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture and then, prepared for biochemical assay using standard methods. Results show that P. berghei malaria infection significantly (p<0.05) increases serum uric acid (9.68±0.21mg/dl), creatinine (1.60±0.26mg/dl) and urea (47.46±0.24mg/dl), but reduced (p<0.05) electrolytes` (Na+: 106.40±10.10mEq/L, K+:2.20±0.42mEq/L, Cl-: 60.00±14.38mEq/L and HCO3-: 10.98±2.64mEq/L) levels when compared with the control mice. However, treatment of the malaria infection with P. amarus abated the malaria effects in a manner that compares well with the standard quinine treatment and there were no significant differences compared with the control values. The extract and quinine suppressed Plasmodium by 94.5% and 94.7%, respectively in experimental mice. Phytochemicals identified in the leaf extract include alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids and glycosides. Results indicate that malarial infection induces renal dysfunction. However, this compromise could be mitigated by the ethanolic leaf extract of P. amarus probably because of its potent in vivo antiplasmodial activity arising from its active phytochemicals. It would therefore be worthwhile to purify and extract the active components of the herb, by a bioassay-guided isolation. With the enriched fractions or the pure compounds, researchers would be able to assess the parasite life phase on which the plant extract is most active.


Open Access Original Research Article

Actions Underlying Antidiabetic Effects of Ocimum sanctum Leaf Extracts in Animal Models of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

J. M. A. Hannan, O. O. Ojo, L. Ali, B. Rokeya, J. Khaleque, M. Akhter, P. R. Flatt, Y. H. A. Abdel-Wahab

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/11840

Aim: This study investigated mechanisms by which O. sanctum leaf extracts ameliorate hyperglycaemia using animal and cellular models of diabetes. 

Place and Duration of Study: Diabetes Research Laboratory, University of Ulster, Coleraine, United Kingdom and Research Division, BIRDEM, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 8 months.

Methodology: Acute anti-diabetic effects of ethanolic extracts of O. sanctum were examined in normal and chemically-induced type 1 and 2 diabetic rats. Effects of extracts on glucose absorption, intestinal disaccharidase activity and gastrointestinal motility in type 2 diabetic rats and on glucose uptake and insulin action in 3T3-L1 cells were assessed. 

Results: Treatment with the extract (1.25 g/kg bw) significantly improved oral glucose tolerance in normal and type 2 diabetic rats and suppressed blood glucose elevation after oral sucrose (2.5 g/kg bw) administration. The extract significantly reduced glucose absorption, gastrointestinal motility and disaccharidase activity. A 28-day treatment with O. sanctum decreased serum glucose, increased liver glycogen and enhanced circulating insulin and total oxidant status in type 2 diabetic rats. Glucose transport and insulin action in 3T3-L1 were increased by extract. 

Conclusion: O. sanctum represents a useful as a source for discovery of novel antidiabetic compounds and as a dietary adjunct for the management of type 2 diabetes and its complications.


Open Access Original Research Article

Neuroprotective Effect of Aqueous Extract of Garcinia kola on Monosodium Glutamate - Induced Cerebellar Cortical Damage in Adult Wistar Rats

Ajibade Adeshina John, Fakunle Ponle Bamidele, Shittu Oluwaseyi Ridwan

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 13-22
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/4499

Aims: This study assessed the neuroprotective effect of the aqueous extract of Garcinia kola on monosodium glutamate- induced toxicity in the cerebellar cortex of adult Wistar rats.
Study Design: Twenty-five adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned into five groups (n=5): A, B, C, D, and E. Group A served as the control while the other groups served as the treated groups. Animals in group A were given feed and water liberally.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Animal Holdings of the Department of Anatomy, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Ogbomoso, Nigeria between September 2011 and December, 2011.

Methodology: Animals in group B received 2.5 g/kg of monosodium glutamate orally for 14 days, group C received 200 mg/kg of Garcinia kola extract orally for 14 days, group D received 2.5 g/kg of monosodium glutamate and 200 mg/kg of Garcinia kola extract orally for 14 days and group E was pretreated with 200 mg/kg of Gracinia kola extracts orally for 14 days prior to the administration of 2.5 g/kg of monosodium glutamate for 14 days. The brain was excised and weighed before fixing in 10 % formal saline for histological processing.

Results: The results reveal intact cerebellar neurons in group A, C and D. Group B reveals some cellular degeneration of cortical layers compared with other groups. Preservation of cerebellar tissue was observed in group B. Group E which was pretreated with Garcinia kola shows an appreciable preserved cerebellar tissue.

Conclusion: This study concluded that Garcinia kola has protective effects on monosodium glutamate-induced cerebellar damage in adult Wistar rats.


Open Access Original Research Article

Herbal Healing: An Old Practice for Healthy Living among Khumi, Marma and Tripura Communities of Thanchi Upazila, Bangladesh

Mohammad Abdul Motaleb, M. M. Abdullah-Al-Mamun, M. K. Hossain, M. Khairul Alam, Marufa Sultana

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 23-52
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/10244

Background: At present, only a limited amount of documentation exists that shed light on aspects of plants used by Traditional Healers (THs) in Bangladesh for treating general ailments. The current study is concerned with information on medicinal plants (MPs) used in Traditional Medicine (TM) by the Khumi, Marma and Tripura communities of Bangladesh.

Aims: The study attempted to collect, analyze and evaluate Traditional Knowledge (TK) of the healing powers of plants used in TM in Thanchi upazila during August 2011 to January 2013; and to classify as far as possible the plants encountered in the study.

Methodology: Semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information through          Focused Group Discussions (FGD) and one to one discussions with the selected indigenous community people.

Results: A total of 91 different diseases (faced by the above three communities of the study area) were recognized that were treated by the THs using 116 herbs and shrubs belonging to 50 different families. Scientific name of different plant species, parts used, preparation process including doses, and names of user communities are also mentioned.

Conclusion: This documentation will encourage the relevant stakeholders, authorities and conservationists in emphasizing the proper management of TK, including the conservation initiatives.


Open Access Original Research Article

Ginger and Honeybee Modulates MTX-induced Oxidative Stress in Kidney of Rats

Mona S. El Kutry

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 53-65
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/11837

Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine the curative effects of aqueous extract of ginger and honey bee solutions on methotrexate (MTX) induced kidney toxicity.                  

Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight adult female Wistar albino rats (aged 8–12 weeks). It is divided into four groups (n = 7): group I used as control negative; 2 methotrexate groups: G2, G3 and G4 injected with vehicle intraperitoneally of MTX (20 mg/kg body weight) one dose only. In treating groups 3&4 rats were pre-treated and continue seven days with aqueous extract of ginger and the honeybee solution, respectively.

Results and Discussion: It had indicated the treated rats with aqueous extracts of ginger and\or   honey bee solution had caused the lowest significantly decreased (P ≤ 0.05) at urea concentration in blood. As well as significantly increased at (P ≤ 0.05) in Hb, RBC,S and WBc.s markers compared to the control +ve. In addition, treatment rats with aqueous extracts of ginger and\or   honey bee solution had caused significant increase in total antioxidant levels (1.40±0.22 & 1. 70±0.24 mM / L), respectively, compared the rats give MTX only 1.00±0.96 mM/L. Concerning, the MDA concentration in the treatment groups with aqueous extract of ginger or honey bee solution the data indicated that improvement and significantly decreased in the MDA levels (P< 0.05) compared to the control +ve. The histopathology results supported this conclusion.

Recommendation: Ginger and honey bee solution probably protect from MTX induced kidney damage by scavenging of free radicals and inflammation.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antioxidant, Brine Shrimp Lethality and Antimicrobial Activities of Galphimia gracilis Bartl. Leaf Extracts Using in vitro Assay Models

Md. Rakib Hasan, Nizam Uddin, Md. Monir Hossain, Md. Mahadi Hasan, Afroza Parvin, Milon Mondal, Md. Mahmudul Hasan, Md. Sohel Rana

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 66-76
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/11695

Aims: Galphimia gracilis Bartl. (Family- Malpighiaceae) is known as gold shower or shower of gold. The current study was designed to evaluate in vitro antioxidant, brine shrimp lethality and antimicrobial activities of methanol, ethyl-acetate and petroleum ether extracts of G. gracilis leaf.

Study Design: Phytochemical screening, in vitro antioxidant, brine shrimp lethality and antimicrobial activities.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacy, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka-1342. The studies were carried out from November 2013 to February 2014.

Methodology: In vitro antioxidant activity of the extracts were studied using DPPH radical scavenging assay, Nitric oxide (NO) scavenging assay, total phenol content, total flavonoid content, total antioxidant content, total tannin content and lipid peroxidation in human erythrocyte cell assays. Lethality bioassay was performed on Artemia salina Leach nauplii. Antimicrobial activity was investigated by disc diffusion technique.

Results: Presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, tannins, saponins and glycosides were identified in the extracts. Ethyl-acetate extract (GLEA) showed highest activities in DPPH (IC50 of 21.70±0.51 µg/ml), NO (IC50 of 35.50±0.30 µg/ml), lipid peroxidation in human erythrocyte cells (IC50 of 10.38±0.34 µg/ml), total phenol (934.04±3.21 mg/g Gallic Acid Equivalent), total flavonoid (236.88±2.66 mg/g Quercetin Equivalent) and total antioxidant capacity assays (978.58±1.66 mg/g Ascorbic Acid Equivalent) among three different extracts. Methanol extract (GLM) showed promising reducing capacity than other extracts in cupric reducing (correlation coefficient, r= 0.95 and P<0.05) and reducing power capacity assays (r= 0.993 and P<0.001). Besides, it showed dose dependent activity in both assays. Methanol extract showed maximum content in total tannin assay (89.34±1.37 mg/g Tannic Acid Equivalent). In brine shrimp lethality bioassay, methanol extract was found to be more potent than other extracts (LC50=64.46 µg/ml, χ2=39.87, P<0.0001). In disk diffusion technique, all the extracts showed poor activity.

Conclusion: The present findings suggest that leaf extracts of G. gracilis have promising antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Moreover, the extracts can be used as potential candidates for lead compounds.


Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation of Natural Product Hits from Peperomia species with Synergistic Activity against Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Strains

Moses N. Ngemenya, Haelly M. Metuge, James A. Mbah, Denis Zofou, Smith B. Babiaka, Vincent P. K. Titanji

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 77-87
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/13158

Aims: This study investigated the antiplasmodial activity of crude extracts, fractions and pure isolates of P. vulcanica and P. fernandopoioana (Piperaceae). Toxicity and interaction between the most active natural products were also assessed.

Study Design: Bioassay-guided approach was used to identify and further investigate the most active components against chloroquine-sensitive and resistant P. falciparum strains. 

Place and Duration of Study: Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Chemistry and Biotechnology Unit, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, Cameroon for one year.

Methodology: Test substances were prepared from the two plants and screened on four strains of P. falciparum (chloroquine-sensitive 3D7, multidrug resistant W2mef and Dd2, and a field isolate SHF4). Activity was determined by fluorescence microscopy and the parasite lactate dehydrogenase assay. The most active pure compounds were tested in combination and also tested in BALB/c mice for acute toxicity.

Results: The crude extracts showed moderate activity (IC50 from 7.05 – 22.59 µg/mL). Eight of 16 compounds isolated from the hexane and methylene chloride extracts of P. vulcanica showed high activity (IC50 from 0.89 - 3.23 µg/mL against W2mef). Four of the most active compounds tested in two different combinations showed synergism and two of them showed no signs of acute toxicity. Four fully characterized isolates: 5-Demethyltangeretin (1), Stigmasterol (2), Matairesinol dimethyl ether (3) and Peperovulcanone A (4) showed high to moderate activity (IC50s ranging from 1.14 – 22.29 µg/mL).

Conclusion: These findings support the use of P. vulcanica in traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria and the plant material should be further evaluated towards development into a phytomedicine. Further exploration of the hits in combination with standard antimalarials may yield new efficacious antimalarial treatments.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Drought Stress and Different Types of Organic Fertilizers on Yield of Cumin Components in Sistan Region

Mohamad Forouzandeh, Mohamad Ali Karimian, Zaynab Mohkami

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 95-100
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/12564

Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) is one of the most economical medicinal plants. Cumin is indigenous to Northern Egypt, Syria, the Mediterranean region, Iran and India; it grows easily throughout Iran. In order to study the effects of drought stress and different types of organic fertilizers on yield components of cumin this experiment was conducted in 2014 at the Agricultural Research Institute of University of Zabol, Iran in a complete randomized block in factorial design with three replications. Treatments included irrigation intervals (I1: two times irrigation, I2: three times irrigation and I3: four times irrigation that is irrigation at germination, seedling, flowering and seed filing stages) and fertilizers treatment (T1: without fertilizer application (Control), T2: 10 t/ha vermicompost, T3: 15 t/ha compost and T4: 30 t/ha animal manure. Characteristics such as seed yield, thousand –seed weight, number of seed per plant, number of seed per umbrella, number of umbelet per umbrella and number of umbrella per plant were evaluated. The results showed that these indices there were significant differences in all times irrigation treatments settlement number of umbelet per umbrella. Also the highest (458.29 kg/ha) and lowest (146.08 kg/ha) seed yield was produced under the traits 4 and 2 irrigations times. The application of 15 t/ha compost obtain highest number of umbrella per plant, number of umbelet per umbrella, number of seed per umbrella and number of seed per plant. The application of 30 t/ha animal manure produced highest seed yield (316.39 kg /ha) and thousand –seed weight (4.61) per plant.


Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Antitheilerial Activity of the Aqueous Extract of Kigelia africana Unripe Fruits against Theileria lestoquardi

Hayat M. Farah, Tigani H. El Amin, Abdel Rahim M. El Hussein, Hassan E. Khalid

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 101-108
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2015/10213

Aims: To investigate the in vitro schizonticidal activity of aqueous extract of Kigelia africana unripe fruits (Um shotour) Lam. Benth. In Hook. against Theileria lestoquardi.

Study Design: In vitro screening of the aqueous extract of the fruits at different concentrations against T. lestoquardi.

Place and Duration of Study: University of Khartoum, Veterinary Research Institute, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Institute, Khartoum, Sudan, between September 2007 and August 2009.

Methodology: Aqueous extract of K. africana fruits was screened for the first time to test in vitro activity against T. lestoquardi at different concentrations. Blood was collected separately from normal sheep and sheep infected naturally with T. lestoquardi. Normal Lymphocyte cells and lymphocyte cells infected with T. lestoquardi were isolated from heparinized blood with Ficoll-paque, grown in minimum essential medium and sub cultured continuously till passage 8 (5x104 cell/ml) which was used for the test.  The parasite was identified with indirect fluorescent antibody test.

Results: The results revealed in vitro activities of 20%, 58% and 80% at concentrations of 500, 5000 and 10000 µg/ ml, respectively. Lethal dose 50% (LC50) was 2660.28 µg/ ml. The extract activity significantly (P<0.05) caused death of macroschizonts, decreasing the number of macroschizonts per cell, and significantly (P<0.05) increasing the number of extra cellular macroschizonts at concentrations of 5000 and 10000 µg/ml. The number of dividing cells, and number of viable cells significantly (P<0.05) decreased at concentrations of 5000 and 10000 µg/ml compared with the control. Beside the activity, the highest concentration 10000 µg/ml revealed some lymphoblast cells with vacuolated cytoplasm.

Conclusion: This study showed that aqueous extract of K. africana fruits has antitheilerial effect on T. lestoquardi and could be an effective candidate for the treatment of malignant ovine theileriosis after in vivo confirmation. Further studies are recommended for phytochemical analysis and mode of action.