Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemistry and Hepatoprotective Effect of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Corchorus olitorius on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Toxicity

O. F. Ujah, S. S. Ipav, C. S. Ayaebene, I. R. Ujah

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 882-892
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/9357

The liver serves as a processing factory, redistribution center and a receiving depot of the body. In the light of these roles, the effect of ethanol leaf extract of Corchorus olitorius on CCl4 induced liver damage in wistar rats was assessed. CCl4 (0.5ml/kg) was used to induced hepatotoxicity. 25-albino rats of wistar strain (120-150g) were used for the study and were divided into five groups of five rats per group. Group A serves as normal control and was given distilled water of treatment equivalence, group B serves as a negative control and was treated with CCl4 and olive oil as a vehicle at the ratio of 1:1. Group C, D, and E were induced with CCl4 and the extract administered through oral gavages at scalar doses of 500mg/kg, 750mg/kg and 1g/kg daily. The administration lasted for 15 days period after which the animals were sacrificed. Serum enzyme assay revealed that there was a marked reduction in the elevated activity of the hepatic enzymes viz alanine aminotransferase (ALT) A (71.2±3.27), B (98.8±2.61), C (78.0±3.74), D (74.8±2.77), and 74.6±1.95) respectively. Similar trend was observed for aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels when compared with the controls (P=.05). More so, the result revealed that the extract lowers serum albumin, no significant change in billirubin but increased total protein levels in all treated groups when compared with the controls (P=.05). Furthermore, it showed a significant decrease (P=.05) in White blood cell count (WBC), and platelet but no significant decrease (P=.05) in packed cell volume (PCV) and Hb. From the above findings, it is obvious that the ethanolic leaf extract of Corchorus olitorius could have hepatoprotective property.


Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Water Based-extraction Methods for the Preparation of Bioactive-rich Ginger Extract Using Response Surface Methodology

K. D. P. P. Gunathilake, H. P. Vasantha Rupasinghe

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 893-906
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/10322

Aims: Evaluation of three extraction methods to prepare bioactive-rich ginger extract for incorporation into a functional beverage.

Study Design: Response surface methodology.

Methodology: For the preparation of bioactive-rich ginger extract with water, conventional hot water extraction, ultrasonic-assisted extraction and high pressure homogenization-assisted extraction were evaluated. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the extraction conditions of each method with respect to the highest polyphenols, antioxidant capacity (ferric reducing antioxidant power; FRAP) and percent inhibition of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol oxidation.

Results: Multiple response optimizations revealed that the optimum extraction conditions for each extraction method were 60min extraction time under 55°C for hot water extraction, 15min ultrasonication under 52°C for ultrasonic-assisted extraction and 62°C under 140MPa homogenization pressure for high pressure homogenization-assisted extraction.

Conclusion: The extract prepared from the ultrasonic-assisted extraction method exhibited the highest polyphenol recovery and antioxidant activity, compared to the extracts prepared from other two methods.


Open Access Original Research Article

Qualitative Characterization of Solvent and Cooked Extracts of Tribulus terrestris L. Fruit

Sasikala Sasikumar, Kannan Eagappan, D. Brindha

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 907-919
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/8091

Currently there has been an increased attention globally to identify antioxidant compound that are pharmacologically potent and have low or no side effects. As plants are source of natural antioxidants, much concentration has been given to plants. A variety of free radical   scavenging antioxidants exists within the body in which many of them are derived from dietary sources like fruits, vegetables, etc. Tribulus terrestris L. fruit extract has an ancient tradition in folk medicine and in ayurveda as a diuretic, antiseptic, mood enhancer and anti-inflammatory agent. Though already few studies are available on antioxidative properties of   Tribulus terrestris, yet no research has explored what happens to boiled or cooked extract of the sample. This was conceptualized in the present study with the hypothesis whether the extract can be incorporated into foods rather than as medicine. Hence, in this study, preliminary qualitative phytochemical analysis of Tribulus terrestris fruit was observed and also antioxidant activity of the methanol, ethanol, aqueous and cooked extract of Tribulus terrestris fruit was determined along with nitric oxide, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assays. It was found that the cooked extract of Tribulus terrestris fruit too possessed greater percentage of inhibition activity when compared with other solvent extracts. Further, the results of preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed that the cooked extract was absent for tannins and glycosides which are generally considered as antinutritional factors. Further, quantification of various bioactive substances including saponins in Tribulus terrestris fruit extract may suggest whether it may be suitable for formulating as a functional food.


Open Access Original Research Article

Seed Germination of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal

Afshan Niyaz, Enam Nabi Siddiqui

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 920-926
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/8916

Aim: Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal or Ashwagandha is a valuable medicinal plant having a consistent demand in pharmaceutical industries. Traditionally it is propagated from seeds but it’s germination capacity is poor. So in the present study different methods were considered to sort out a suitable method that can be used for its cultivation in the field of Hazaribag, Jharkhand, India.                                                                             

Study Design: The study was done in the laboratory and field of Hazaribag, Jharkhand, India.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Botany, Vinoba Bhave University, Hazaribag, Jharkhand, India. The study was carried out from July 2012 to August 2012 and again from mid June 2013 to August 2013.

Methodology: Different pre germination treatments including 24 hours water soaking , 48 hours water soaking, mechanical scarification, heat treatment at 50 degree Celsius (5min, 10min, 15min) and Gibberellic acid [GA3] (250µg/l, 500µg/l, 1000µg/l) treatments were proposed. The mean germination percentage and the mean germination time were calculated for each of the treatments.

Results: The  results revealed that GA3 500µg/l treated seeds showed increased germination percentage  in laboratory (86±0.34%) and in soil (84.1±0.36%) as well as reduced mean germination time in laboratory (5.8±0.41 days) and in soil (10.6±0.17 days). Whereas heat treatment at 50 degree Celsius (5min, 10min, 15min) drastically reduced germination percentage in laboratory (32±0.47%, 16±0.36%, 12±0.31%) and in soil (51±0.49%, 49.6±0.49%, 32.2±0.46%), respectively.

Conclusion: Pre treating fresh seeds of Ashwagandha with GA3 500µg/l for 24 hours before sowing can be adopted to overcome dormancy of seeds with good germination percentage. Likewise mechanical scarification of seeds can also be taken into consideration as an alternative, cost-effective and eco-friendly way to break seed dormancy which has also given favourable results.


Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical and Biological Evaluation of MeOH Extract of Casuarina equisetifolia (Linn.) Leaves

S. M. Moazzem Hossen, Jahidul Islam, S. M. Shakhawat Hossain, M. Mofizur Rahman, Firoj Ahmed

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 927-936
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/9820

Aims: The present study was aimed at investigating the phytoconstituents in order to correlate the folkloric claims with the bioactive compounds present in Casuarina equisetifolia. Also evaluate the antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic property of Casuarina equisetifolia.

Methodology: In the present study, the leaf extracts were investigated for different phytochemical groups using specified reagents. Antioxidant activity by following DPPH free radical scavenging study, antibacterial activity by disc diffusion method and cytotoxic activity by Brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay procedures.

Results: The qualitative phytochemical screening revealed that the extract contains alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, steroids, etc. The extract showed strong antioxidant activity in DPPH free radical scavenging study (IC50: 25.89μg/mL), while, it showed moderate cytotoxic activity in Brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay study (LC50: 77.98μg/mL). It also showed mild antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria.

Conclusion: The present study tends to suggest the antioxidant, cytotoxic and mild antibacterial activity of MeOH extract of Casuarina equisetifolia.


Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Phytochemical and Antibacterial Activity of Carissa spinarum Linn Crude Extracts

Clarence Rubaka, Patrick Ndakidemi, Hamisi Malebo, Francis Shahada

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 937-945
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/8236

Aims: To screen for the antibacterial activity of Carissa spinarum L. crude extracts against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The phytochemicals that are responsible for the bioactivity were also screened.

Study Design: In vitro assay of antibacterial properties.

Place and Duration of Study: Samples were collected from Samunge village at Loliondo in Ngorongoro district located in northern Tanzania. Extraction and phytochemical analyses were conducted at the Department of Traditional Medicine of the National Institute of Medical Research (NIMR) in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Antimicrobial bioassay was carried out at Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology at the University of Dar-es-Salaam between March 2013 and June 2013.

Methodology: Disk diffusion test was used to determine antimicrobial activity of the plant extracts. Chemical tests were used to determine the group of phytochemicals present in the sample extracts.

Results: Sensitivity testing results indicated that S. aureus was found to be more sensitive than E. coli. Carissa spinarum L. methanolic extracts were the most active constituents and demonstrated the zone of inhibition values of 11.66±0.42 mm and 13.33±1.53 mm in diameter against E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. The highest percentage values of relative inhibition zone diameter of 57.24% (E. coli) and 70.17% (S. aureus) were demonstrated by C. spinarum L. root methanolic extracts. In contrast, C. spinarum L. bark extracts did not show any antibacterial activity against the two bacterial species. Plant extracts demonstrated the minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 312 to 5000 μg/ml. Phytochemical screening of crude extracts revealed the presence of saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and sterols. The presence of these phytochemicals in the extracts was linked with observed antibacterial activity.

Conclusion: This study has revealed that the antibacterial activity of different extracts of C. spinarum L. was attributed to the presence of several phytochemicals. The study findings suggest likelihood of designing and developing potentially active antibacterial agents from C. spinarum L.


Open Access Original Research Article

Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Dichrostachys glomerata (Forssk.) Hutch Fruits

Atsang A. Kiki Gisèle, Dzeufiet Djomeni Paul Désiré, Foyet Harquin Simplice, Dimo Théophile, Kamtchouing Pierre

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 964-978
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/10471

Aims: Dichrostachys glomerata is a plant found in the humid areas of Africa and widely used for the treatment of many ailments including rheumatism and snake bite. The present study has been undertaken to assess the analgesic and the anti-inflammatory properties of aqueous extract Dichrostachys glomerata fruit.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Animal Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, Cameroon. Between January 2012 and October 2012.

Methodology: Pain was induced in mice by the intraperitoneal administration of 1% acetic acid, hot plate, formalin and tail immersion test. Carrageenan and serotonin (1%) were used to induce inflammation in rat paws.

Results: Dichrostachys glomerata significantly inhibited pain induced by acetic acid with a percentage inhibition of 19.4, 69.8, 33.7 and 24.3% respectively at the doses of 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg. An acute pretreatment of mice with extract significantly increased reaction time in the hot plate test with a percentage inhibition more than 68%. Formalin induced pain was also significantly inhibited after treatment of rat with the plant extract at the doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg for the neurogenic phase with percentage of inhibition of 56.14 and 61.46% respectively. The extract significantly reduced oedema induced by carrageenan injection with a PI of 72.57 and 79.85% at the doses of 200 and 25 mg/kg respectively. In contrast, a pi of 65.03% was obtained with the plant extract at the dose of 50 mg/kg on serotonin-induced oedema.

Conclusion: The Results obtained showed that D. glomerata aqueous extract have both analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties and could be a potential source of new oral anti-inflammatory and/ or analgesic drug.


Open Access Original Research Article

Protective Properties of Citrullus lanatus on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Liver Damage in Rats

Abiodun Humphrey Adebayo, Omolara Faith Yakubu, Tolulope Mariam Balogun

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 979-989
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/9690

Aim: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the leaf extract of Citrullus lanatus on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver damage in rats.

Methodology: Hepatoprotective study was conducted using five groups (A-E) of six male rats per group. Groups A and B served as the control groups and were respectively administered with distilled water and CCl4 in olive oil while groups C, D and E were administered respectively with 500, 1,000 and 1,500mg/kg body weight of the ethanolic leaf extract of C. lanatus for 7 days. Animals were subsequently anaesthetized, blood samples were collected for alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, total protein and albumin assays; liver organ was isolated and processed for biochemical and histopathological studies.

Results: There were significant increases (P=0.05) in the serum levels of ALT and AST both in the plasma and liver homogenate in the group treated with CCl4 as compared to negative control group; while in the extract treated group, there was a decrease in the levels of the aminotransferases. Histopathological studies showed severe portal congestion and necrosis of hepatocytes in the group treated with CCl4 while the groups administered with the extract treated group showed a moderate venous congestion with absence of necrosis.

Conclusion: These results highlight the ability of the leaf extract of C. lanatus to ameliorate damage in the liver of albino rats.


Open Access Original Research Article

Combined Extracts of Bryophyllum pinnatum and Aloe Barbadensis Induce Hepato-renal Dysfunctions and Elevated Hematological Indices in Wister Rats

Abdulazeez A. Abubakar, Nurain O. Ismaila, Muhibi A. Musa, J. K. Fadairo

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 990-997
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/9024

The study was conducted to investigate the safety of combined extracts of Bryophyllum pinnatum (family: Crassulaceae) and Aloe barbadensis (family: Xanthorrhoeaceae) in rats. Forty rats were randomly selected and divided into four groups. Rats in groups I were administered with placebo as the control animals, while rats in groups II, III and IV were administered with aqueous extracts at 25mg/ml, 50mg/ml and 100mg/ml respectively for 28 days. Five milliliter (5ml) of blood was collected from either the ocular vein or aorta of each animal for evaluation of baseline and post – treatment values of AST, ALP, ALT, BUN, Total protein, and Creatinine, WBC, RBC, Platelet, MCV, MCH and MCHC. Data were expressed as Mean±Standard Error of Mean and analyzed using one- way ANOVA. Difference of means was considered statistically significant at   P<0.05. Quantitative phytochemical assay revealed mainly alkaloids, with one gram each of B. pinnatum and A. barbadensis extracts containing 5.3mg and 9.1mg of alkaloids respectively. Administration of the combined extracts elevated the serum levels of Alkaline phosphatase, Aspartate amino transaminase, Total protein, Creatinine and BUN in the entire rats in test groups especially those in group IV (P<0.05). In ALT, there was no significant variation between the baseline and the post-treatment values especially in animals in groups III and IV (P>0.05). Rats in groups  II, III and IV exhibited significant increase in values of WBC, RBC, Platelet, MCV and MCH  (P<0.05) while MCHC value for rats in group IV  showed insignificant differences when compared to the control rats (P>0.05). Administration of the combined extracts may be tolerated at ≤25mg/kg bodyweight, if prolonged administration is avoided.


Open Access Review Article

Phytochemical and Biological Potential of Cassia tora Linn.

Khomendra Kumar Sarwa, Mithun Rudrapal, Manabendra Debnath, Atul Kumar, Vinod Kumar Verma

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 946-963
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/8549

Cassia tora Linn. (Caesalpinaceae) is a semi-wild annual herb grown widely in different places of south-east Asia including India, Northern Australia and Americas. This plant species is well known for having potential in traditional medicine practices for the treatment of a variety of disorders and ailments ranging from simple cough, hypertension to diabetes. Recent scientific investigation reveals its phytochemical as well as biological potential. C. tora has been proven to be medicinally effective for having antimicrobial, antiantioxidant, antihypertensive, antidiabetic and antimutagenic activities, just to name a few. This paper encompasses a comprehensive review on phytochemical and biological aspects of Cassia tora L.