Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Modulation of Pancreatic Insulin Secretion and Extra Pancreatic Insulin Action, Enzymatic Starch Digestion and Protein Glycation by Terminalia chebula Extracts

V. Kasabri, P. R. Flatt, Y. H. A. Abdel-Wahab

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 771-782
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/8496

Aim: Traditional plant treatments have been used throughout the world for the therapy of diabetes mellitus.

Study Design: Using multiple in vitro models; this study was designed to investigate the efficacy and mode of action of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae) used traditionally for treatment of diabetes.

Place and Duration of Study: School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, 2001-2004.

Results: T. chebula aqueous extract stimulated basal insulin output and potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion concentration-dependently in the clonal pancreatic beta cell line, BRIN-BD11 (p<0.001). The insulin secretory activity of plant extract was abolished in the absence of extracellular Ca2+  and by inhibitors of cellular Ca2+  uptake, diazoxide and verapamil, (p<0.001).  Furthermore, the extract increased insulin secretion in depolarised cells and augmented insulin secretion triggered by IBMX, but not by tolbutamide or glibenclamide. T. chebula extract did not display insulin mimetic activity but it enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose transport in 3T3 L1 adipocytes by 280% (p<0.001).  At (0.5-5.0mg/mL) concentrations, the extract also produced 22-84% (p<0.001) decrease in starch digestion In vitro and inhibited protein glycation (p<0.001) at 1mg/ml aqueous extract.

Conclusion: This study has revealed that water soluble bioactive principles in T.chebula extract stimulate insulin secretion, enhance insulin action and inhibit both protein glycation and starch digestion. The former actions are dependent on the bioeffective component(s) in the plant being absorbed intact.  Future work assessing the use of Terminalia chebula as dietary adjunct or as a source of active antidiabetic agents may provide new opportunities for the treatment of diabetes.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Effect of Sorghum bicolor Aqueous Extract on the Haematological, Renal and Hepatic Parameters in Rats Fed with Low and High Iron Diet

Sule Ola Salawu, Yahaya Adesina Salimon

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 783-793
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/7847

Aims: To determine the effect of Sorghum bicolor aqueous leaf sheath extract on the hematological, renal and hepatic parameters in rats fed with low and high iron diets.

Study Design:  Phytochemical screening of leaf sheath of Sorghum bicolor and effect of the leaf extract on hematological, hepatic and renal indices of rats fed with iron deficient and iron sufficient diets.

Results: The result of the phytochemical screening indicated the presence of cardiac glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins and terpenoids. The evaluated hematological parameters (PCV, Hb, RBC,MCV,MCH, MCHC) prior the administration of the leaf sheath extracts (control) in the iron sufficient fed rats revealed a higher value compared to the result obtained in iron deficient fed rats, with the exception of MCHC. Subsequently, the administration of the leaf sheath extracts at different concentration (200,400,800,1600mg/kg body weight of the sample) for both iron sufficient and iron deficient fed rats revealed increased values of the hematological parameters, with the highest values recorded upon the administration of 1600mg extract/kg, Similarly, the results of the evaluated liver biomarkers for the control (albumin, AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase and total protein)  in the iron sufficient fed rats  showed a higher value compared to the result obtained in iron deficient fed rats. The result of the liver biomarkers after administration of leaf sheath showed a slight elevation in both iron sufficient and iron deficient fed diet. Furthermore, the result revealed that aqueous sorghum leaf sheath extracts showed a slight increase in the renal function indices at varying concentration of the extracts.

Conclusion: The present study showed that administration of sorghum leaf sheath extract enhanced the hematological parameters in rats fed with iron deficient diet thereby supporting the claim that the leaf sheath extract could be used in alleviating anemic condition. The studies further established that the extract is non toxic to the liver and also that the integrity of the kidney is maintained after administration. This on the overall confirms the safety of the extract upon consumption.


Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Analysis of Plectranthus sp. Extracts and Application in Inhibition of Dental Bacteria, Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus mutans

Neusa L. Figueiredo, Pedro Luis Falé, Paulo J. Amorim Madeira, M. Helena Florêncio, Lia Ascensão, Maria Luisa M. Serralheiro, Ana Rosa L. Lino

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 794-809
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/7544

Aims: Evaluation of leaves methanol extracts from Plectranthus barbatus and Plectranthus ecklonii (Lamiaceae) against oral pathogens.

Place and Duration of the Study: P. barbatus and P. ecklonii, cultivated in Botanic Garden of the University of Lisbon, were collected during winter 2009.

Methodology: Methanol extracts were prepared and the compounds separated and identified by HPLC-DAD and mass spectrometry. The anticariogenic activity was determined by measuring the inhibition activity towards the growth of the pathogens Streptococcus mutans and S. sobrinus together with the inhibitory activity against the enzyme glucosyltransferase (GTF) involved in the biosynthesis of glucans.

Results: Phytochemical analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of two abietane diterpenoids in P. barbatus and two quinone methides together with rosmarinic acid in P. ecklonii. The two Plectranthus extracts showed bacteriostatic activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 0.3 mg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) obtained for both extracts were 0.6 mg/mL against S. sobrinus and 0.8 mg/mL against S. mutans. After exposing both strains during 2h to P. ecklonii extract, 80% of inhibition against viable cells on a 24h old biofilm was observed. When methanol extracts of P. barbatus and P. ecklonii were used to inhibit the growth of the two bacterial strains in biofilm, IC50 (inhibitory concentration) values were 1.9 mg/mL and 0.57 mg/mL against S. sobrinus biofilm and 0.7 mg/mL and 0.8 mg/mL against S. mutans biofilm, respectively. P. barbatus IC50 values for the biofilm formation were 0.63 mg/mL and 0.13 mg/mL against S. sobrinus and S. mutans, respectively. P. ecklonii IC50 values for the biofilm formation were 0.07 mg/mL and 0.12 mg/mL against S. sobrinus and S. mutans biofilm. GTF from S. sobrinus was inhibited in 30% when 0.3 mg/mL of P. barbatus extract was used.

Conclusions: These extracts are important in the control of biofilms and useful in the prevention of oral diseases.


Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of a Novel GABAA Receptor Channel Ligand Derived from Melissa officinalis and Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oils

Mwajuma Mahita, Rushdie Abuhamdah, Melanie- Jayne Howes, Abdel Ennaceur, Sawsan Abuhamdah, Paul Chazot

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 810-818
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/9397

Aims: Melissa officinalis (Mo) and Lavandula angustifolia (La) essential oils and their major constituents ((E) - caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, geranyl acetate, linalool, nerol, Oct-1-en-3-ol, 3-Octanone, myrcene, allo-ocimene, p-cymene and α- terpineol) assessed by GC-MS) which are shared by these two essential oils were probed in an attempt to identify the GABAAR ligand(s).

Study Design: [35S] t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS) radioligand binding assay to GABAA receptors. In vitro neuronal viability assay.

Place and Duration of Study: School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Durham University, United Kingdom (December 2012 and January 2013).

Results: One of the major component (s) of (Mo), trans-ocimene, inhibited [35S] (TBPS) binding to native GABAA receptors in a concentration-dependent manner with an apparent IC50 of 40μM.

Concentrations (0.001 mg/ml) of whole (Mo) were shown to display modest beneficial effects upon neuronal viability while at a higher concentration (0.1 mg/ml) of (Mo) and (La) oils induced a neurotoxicity effect.

Conclusion: These data provide the first evidence that allo-ocimene is an neuroactive GABAA R inhibitory component found in both (Mo) and (La), and represents a novel GABAA  receptor channel chemotype derived from a natural product.


Open Access Original Research Article

Modulating Roles of Ethanolic Roots Extract of Crossopteryx febrifuga on Blood Glucose, Lipid Profile, Glycosylated Haemoglobin and Cytoarchitectural Changes on Pancreatic Beta Cells in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

A. O. Ojewale, O. S. Ogunmodede, O. T. Olaniyan, A. M. Akingbade, B. J. Dare, O. A. Omoaghe, L. A. Enye, W. S. Nnaemeka

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 819-834
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/7922

Aim: The study investigated the modulating roles of ethanolic roots extract of Crossopteryx febrifuga (CF) for its antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, glycosylated hemoglobin effects and cytoarchitectural changes on pancreatic beta cells in alloxan-induced diabetic rats 

Study Design: Experimental diabetes using animal models.

Methodology: Twenty- Five (25) male albino rats were randomly divided into five (5) experimental groups: control, diabetic, standard drug (glibenclamide 10 mg/kg body wt) and C. febrifuga (375 and 500 mg/kg bwt) treated diabetic groups The animals in four out of five groups were fasted for 18 h and were made diabetic by injecting with a single dose of alloxan (ALX) 150 mg/kg, Diabetic rats 5 per group received graded doses (375 and 500 mg/kg bwt) of the extracts and glibenclamide 10 mgkg-1 for 15days. Blood was collected on days 0, 5, 10 and 15 for glucose estimation. Lipid profile was measured using DiaSys Kits from Germany which utilized the colorimetric method. Insulin Assay was measured using Monobind Insulin Microplate Elisa test while HbA1C was analyzed by Biosystem Kits (Barcelona Kits, Spain) using chromatographic method.

Twenty (20) male albino rats were randomly distributed to four groups; I, II, III and IV with each consisting of five animals received 20% (w/v) glucoseorally at a dose of 0.5ml /100 g bwt. After 30 min, the animals received extracts as follows: Group I, C. febrifuga (500 mg/kg bwt); Group II, C. febrifuga (250 mg/kg bwt); Group III, C. febrifuga (100 mg/kg bwt); Group IV, 0.5 ml (2% w/v) acacia solution and served as control. Blood glucose levels were then monitored at 30, 60, and 120 min. intervals and reported as the average glucose level of each group.

Results: A significant reduction in postprandial sugar level was observed after 60min in all treatments.

Diabetic rats without treatment showed significant increases (p<0.05) in the levels of blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein LDL-cholesterol while the high density lipoprotein HDL-cholesterol level were significantly decreased         (p<0.05) compared to normal rats. In addition, the diabetic rats treated with the CF and glibenclamide showed significant decrease (p<0.05) in blood glucose, TG and LDL-cholesterol levels and a significant decrease (p<0.05) in HDL-cholesterol level compared to diabetic untreated rats. There were significant reductions (p<0.05) in low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels and significant increase (p<0.05) in the treated diabetic group compared to the negative control.

Apart from these, cytoarchitectural changes also revealed the protective nature of the ethanolic roots extract of Crossopteryx febrifuga against alloxan induced necrotic damage of pancreatic tissues.

Conclusion: The ethanolic roots extract of Crossopteryx febrifuga modulated hyperglycemic by potentiating insulin release from the beta cells of pancreas and ameliorated dyslipidaemia.


Open Access Original Research Article

Fibroblast Growth Stimulation, DPPH Antioxidant Assay and Antimicrobial Activities of Funtumia elastica (Preuss) Stapf (Apocynaceae) Leaf Extracts

Samuel N. Osei-Djarbeng, Sally J. Cutler, Ronald R. Cutler, Olivia Corcoran

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 835-843
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/9316

Aims: To investigate the scientific basis for the wound-healing properties of Funtumia elastica (Apocynaceae) leaf extracts using relevant in vitro fibroblast growth stimulation, antimicrobial and DPPH-antioxidant assays.

Place and Duration of Study: School of Health, Sports and Bioscience (Bioscience Laboratories), University of East London in the United Kingdom, between July 2007 and May 2010.

Methodology: Methanolic extract of the leaves, and petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions partitioned thereof were tested for antimicrobial activities against common wound pathogens (such as Staphylococcus spp, Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Escherichia coli). The Broth dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the extracts and fractions. The antioxidant activities were also determined using a 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical assay; whilst the ability to stimulate fibroblast growth was investigated using the MTT (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay.

Results: The n-butanol fraction exhibited the greatest overall activities. It stimulated the growth of fibroblast cells by 28%, and showed MIC range of 0.13 - 1.0 mg/mL against the Staphylococci species, P. aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and E. coli. The non-polar petroleum ether fraction exhibited MICs greater than 2.0 mg/mL against all the organisms. All the fractions exhibited antioxidant activities greater than or comparable to that of ascorbic acid.

Conclusion: Collectively, the antioxidant activity, fibroblast growth stimulation and the antimicrobial activities demonstrated by F. elastica leaf extracts provide some evidence to support the use of the plant to manage wounds in African folklore medicine.


Open Access Original Research Article

Fatty Acid Composition of Lebrunia bushiae Staner and Tephrosia vogelii Hook.f. Seed Oils

Benjamin Bavhure, Félicien M. Kasali, Aladdin O. Mahano, Kazadi Minzangi, Amani Matabaro, Ithe Mwanga, Justin N. Kadima

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 844-853
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/9722

Aim: The nutritive and medicinal values of vegetable oils rely on the nature of their fatty acids (FAs). This study aimed to determine the nature and content of FAs in Lebrunia bushiae Staner and Tephrosia vogelii seed oils which are used by the local population of South Kivu province in DRC mainly for medical purposes.

Materials and Methods: The seeds were harvested from Bunyakiri, zone close to the National Parc Kahuzi-Biega, in South-Kivu province/DRC. The oils were manually expressed, and the FAs composition characterized by gas chromatography (GCMS).

Results: Ten major FAs were detected in Lebrunia bushiae seed oil comprising of 4 saturated and 6 unsaturated of which oleic acid (18:0;43.0%), linoleic acid (18:1;11.74%) and erucic acid (22.1;14.07%) predominate. In the Tephrosia vogelii oil, 5 saturated and 5 unsaturated FAs were detected comprising in majority of linoleic acid (40.34%), oleic acid (19.97%), alpha linolenic acid (7.62%), palmitic acid (13.98%) and stearic acid (5.78%).

Conclusions: The yield in oils from these two plants is sufficient for being exploited. The composition of Tephrosia oil presents high nutritive value while the nutritive value of Lebrunia oil may be limited by a high content of erucic acid, making it much valuable for medicinal interest unless its erucic acid content is reduced to make it edible. 


Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Phytochemical Constituents and Antibacterial Potentials of Extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca (Del.) Parts on Antibiotic Resistant Bacterial Isolates

M. Y. Tula, T. B. Danchal, F. O. Iruolaje, G. A. Onyeje

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 854-864
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/9216

Aims: To determine the phytochemicals and antibacterial potentials of parts of Balanite aegyptiaca on clinically important antibiotic resistant bacteria isolates

Study Design:  Phytochemicals and in vitro assay of antibacterial

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biological Science Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State, between April, 2013 and January, 2014

Methodology: Collection of bacterial isolates; antibiogram of the bacterial isolates; preparation of plant extracts; phytochemical analyses of the plant parts on aqueous extracts; In vitro susceptibility test (agar well diffusion assay)

Results: The antibiogram showed that all the isolates used in this study are multidrug resistant. The results of the phytochemical analyses on aqueous extracts showed that the leaves of B. aegyptiaca possessed all the phytochemical components tested except anthroquinones and alkaloids, while root bark lack anthroquinones, cardiac glycosides and phlobatannins and stem bark possessed only flavonoids and polyphenols. The presence of phytochemical components in the stem bark is significantly less than those in the leaf and root bark (p<0.05). The presence of these phytochemicals has provided some biochemical basis for ethno pharmacological uses of this plant parts in the treatment and prevention of various diseases and disorders. Using agar well diffusion method, the B. aegyptiaca parts were screened for antibacterial activities against antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp. and Citrobacter sp. at 100mg/ml concentration. The results of the antibacterial activity showed that the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of all the parts of B. aegyptiaca has varying antibacterial activity against the tested isolates. The hot aqueous and cold aqueous extracts of leaves of B. aegyptiaca have no activity against Citrobacter spp. and Staphylococcus aureus respectively. The hot aqueous extract of stem bark has significant antibacterial activity against all the tested isolates except Salmonella spp, while the cold water extract of the same part has no activity against Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. and Citrobacter spp. The ethanolic, hot and cold aqueous extracts of root bark of B. aegyptiaca have no activity against Salmonella spp. Although the presence of phytochemical components in the stem bark is significantly less than those in the leaf and root bark (p<0.05), their antibacterial activities however, showed no significant difference (P=0.10) to all the isolates.  The results further showed that the antibacterial activity of cold aqueous extracts of Balanite aegyptiaca parts is significantly lower than those of ethanolic extracts and hot aqueous extracts (p<0.05). However, there is no significant difference between the antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract and hot aqueous extract of all the parts on the isolates (P=0.06).

Conclusion: This study investigates and reports the phytochemicals antibacterial potentials of Balanites aegyptiaca on resistant bacteria isolates. This therefore justify the use of this plant in traditional medicine practices for the diseases caused by the microorganisms.


Open Access Original Research Article

Fertilizer Source in Biomass Production and Quality of Essential Oils of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.)

C. R. Juárez-Rosete, J. A. Aguilar-Castillo, M. N. Rodríguez-Mendoza

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 865-871
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/9169

Aims: The goal of this study was performed in order to test the effect of the source of crop fertilization and harvest days in the production of biomass and measure the qualitative and quantitative properties of the principal components of the essential oil of thyme.

Study Design:  A randomized complete block experimental design with five replications and a factorial arrangement was used.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was at the Colegio de Postgraduados, Campus Montecillo (Texcoco, Mexico), during the 2007 spring-summer season.

Methodology: We included three harvests at 60, 90 and 120 days after transplantation. The organic fertilization was with applications of humic acid in the irrigation and by adding a liquid fertilizer combined with biosynthetic amino acids. Steiner solution at 75% concentration was used for the inorganic fertilization as mineral treatment. We evaluated plant height, fresh and dry biomass of the plant, and main stem diameter.  Essential oils were extracted using steam distillation of water. The concentration (μg/mL) of thymol and carvacrol was determined. Quantitative and qualitative comparisons were carried out by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

Results: The results show that inorganic fertilization increased plant height (PH) by              36.8%, fresh shoot biomass (FSB) by 72.19%, fresh root biomass (FRB) by 59.27%, stem diameter (SD) by 12.15%, and dry shoot biomass (DSB) and dry root biomass (DRB) by 69.85% and 68.15%, respectively. Days to harvest (DH) influenced positively (p=.05) the evaluated morphological characters but they did not show differences in the total yield of essential oil. 

Conclusion: Our data show that fertilizer source modifies fresh and dry biomass production in thyme plants.  The total yield of essential oils in thyme was not affected by days to harvest and fertilizer source. However, essential oil quality was higher in the mineral treatment at 90 DH due to the content of thymol and carvacrol in the extract.


Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological Contamination and Anti-bacterial Traits of Common Oral Herbal Medicinal Products within Dhaka Metropolis

Samia Quaiyum, Nusrat Islam Tanu, Marufa Sharmin, Laboni Paul, Md. Sakil Munna, Kamal Kanta Das, Mrityunjoy Acharjee, Rashed Noor

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 872-881
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/10165

Aims: Present study endeavored to examine the growth and survival of microorganisms within 6 categories of oral herbal medicines commonly used by the community within Dhaka metropolis.

Methodology: Samples were analyzed for the presence of bacteria and fungi up to 14 days. The microbial analysis was conducted by conventional cultural and biochemical methods. The in vitro anti-bacterial activity of the medicines was also detected employing agar well diffusion method.

Results: Initially all samples were found to be contaminated with total viable bacteria (102-104cfu/ml); however, the fungal and pathogenic growth was not observed. In course of time, the bacterial and fungal load increased up to 106cfu/ml and 103cfu/ml, respectively in most of the samples up to 14 days. The staphylococcal growth commenced after 48 hours in all samples and vigorously increased in two samples up to 105cfu/ml. Two categories of samples were found to be populated with Klebsiella spp. (102cfu/ ml); while other pathogenic bacteria were completely absent. Out of 6 categories of samples tested, 4 were found to exhibit the anti-bacterial trait against a few bacteria examined. Significant activity was found for sample 1 against E. coli, and sample 3 against E. coli and Staphylococcus spp. Sample 2 exhibited moderate activity against 4 test bacteria; while sample 4 was also noticed to be moderately active against 2 test bacteria.

Conclusion: Overall, together with the trivial anti-bacterial features, the appearance of massive bacteria and fungi after 14 days in most of the samples with an excessive staphylococcal load may pose the probable health risks to the medicine users.