Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of L-arginine and L-citrulline on Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Ulceration and Gastric pH in Male Albino Rats

Dabo Usman, Oluwole Frank Sunday, Adedeji Temitope Gabriel

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 623-640
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/8213

Aims: The anti-ulcerogenic activity of L-arginine and L-citrulline were evaluated in indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration. Degree of ulcerogenesis, gastric pH and microscopic histological evaluation were carried out.

Study Design: Six groups of albino rats weighing between 180-280g were pre-treated respectively with distilled water (ulcer control), omeprazole (20mg/kg, reference control 1), cimetidine (100mg/kg reference control 2), L-arginine (experimental control 1), 300mg/kg and 900mg/kg L-citrulline (experimental controls 2 and 3).

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Physiology, College of Medicine. University of Ibadan, Nigeria between April 2012 and February 2013.

Methodology: Forty-eight albino rats weighing between 180-280g were pre-treated respectively with distilled water (ulcer control), omeprazole (20mg/kg, reference control 1), cimetidine (100mg/kg reference control 2), L-arginine (experimental control 1), 300mg/kg and 900mg/kg L-citrulline (experimental controls 2 and 3) sixty minutes prior to oral administration of indomethacin to generate gastric mucosal injury. ). Ulcer was induced using 40mg/kg BW Indomethacin. Four hours later, rats were sacrificed and gastric contents as well as stomach wall samples were collected. Gastric ulcer score was determined macroscopically as well as gastric pH. Tissue samples were also prepared and examined histologically

Results: With gross examination, ulcer control exhibited severe injury to the gastric mucosa and decreased pH of gastric contents, whereas rats pre-treated with L-arginine and L-citrulline showed significant dose-dependent reduction of gastric lesion formation accompanied by significant increase in gastric mucus production and pH of gastric fluid. Gastric protection was more prominent in L-arginine (300mg/kg) and L-citrulline (900mg/kg) groups. Histologically, the ulcer control showed the most severe and deepest gastric mucosal necrotic damage, with oedema of the submucosal layer compared to experimental and reference control groups.

Conclusion: The results suggest that a possible explanation for the protective activity of L-arginine and L-citrulline may be due its stimulation of defensive mucin secretion and a consequent increase in pH of gastric contents, which result in less mucosal injury and limited or absent oedema of submucosa.


Open Access Original Research Article

Wild Plants Used as Nutraceuticals from Nebbi District, Uganda

Godwin Anywar, Hannington Oryem-Origa, Maud Kamatenesi Mugisha

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 641-660
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/7634

Aims: To inventory the wild plant species used both as food and medicine and how they are used in Panyago Sub County, Nebbi district.

Study Design:  Ethnobotanical study.

Place and Duration of Study: The villages of Kaal, Padoch South, Nyakaduli and Pacer South, Panyango Sub County, Jonam County in Nebbi district, between May and July 2011.

Methodology: Data were collected from the local people using questionnaires, Focus Group Discussions (FGD’s) and field observations. Both purposeful sampling and simple random sampling methods were used to obtain the required information. Triangulation was achieved by combining the different data collection techniques and tools.

Results: Forty six plant species belonging to 28 different plant families were reported to have overlapping uses as both foods and medicines. They were reported to treat 32 conditions, the commonest being stomach or abdominal aches. Leaves were the most frequently used parts of the plants as food (45.1%), while roots were the most commonly used parts of the plants as medicine (33.8%). Some of the plant species were reported to have the same parts used both as medicine and eaten as food (26.1 %) while other plant species had different parts used either as food or medicine. Infusions were the most commonly used methods of preparation, while most medicines were administered orally. An additional nine plant species belonging to eight plant families were reported to be used as famine foods, with no apparent medicinal benefits.

Conclusion: Several species of wild plants are used as nutriceuticals or as medicines by the people of Nebbi. Notably, many of the plants have overlapping uses as food and medicine. Many families still rely heavily on these plant species but are not consistently transferring the knowledge to the younger generations.


Open Access Original Research Article

Study to Evaluate the Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities of Roots Extracts of Doronicum hookeri in CCl4 Treated Rats

S. N. Syed, W. Rizvi, A. Kumar, A. A. Khan, S. Moin, P. A. Khan

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 675-685
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/4683

Aims: To screen the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of ethanol (EDH) and aqueous (ADH) extracts of roots of Doronicum hookeri Hook. f.(Asteraceae).

Study design: Animal study

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Anatomy (Histology section), J N Medical College, AMU, Aligarh, India, between July 2010- July 2012.

Methodology: The extracts were subjected to antioxidant tests (Total reducing power and Total phenolic content) and preliminary phytochemical screening. The rats were divided into 7 groups.  The Control groups comprising of normal control (Saline 1ml/kg), negative control group (CCl4) and positive control group (Silymarin 50mg/kg). The Test drugs were given in a dose of 300mg/kg and 500 mg/kg for both EDH and ADH extract. Blood was collected for assaying biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, ALP, Total Bilirubin). The liver tissue was used for histopathological examination and in vivo antioxidant tests [Catalase (CAT), Glutathione Reductase (GSH) and Malonlydialdehyde (MDA)].

Results: The phytochemical study showed the presence of flavanoids, alkaloids, saponins, cardiac glycosides. EDH 500mg/kg showed a significant (p<0.01) increased in levels of AST, ALT and ALP as compared to negative while EDH 300 mg/kg (p<.05) and ADH group showed minimal activity. The GSH (p<0.001) and CAT (p<0.05) in EDH 500 mg/kg were significantly increased while MDA levels were decreased (P< 0.01) as compared negative control. The findings were confirmed histopathological examination.

Conclusion: The ethanol extract of Doronicum hookeri showed dose dependent partial hepatoprotection against CCl4 toxicity.


Open Access Original Research Article

Betulinic Acid from Antimicrobial Root Wood Extract of Dalbergia saxatilis Hook f.(Fabaceae)

Okwute Simon Koma, Isyaka Mohammed Sani

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 686-694
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/8601

Aims: The root wood of Dalbergia saxatilis was studied to assess its antimicrobial activity and chemical constituents and confirm its traditional medicinal uses.

Study Design: The source of the plant was identified and the plant material was collected at a particular time of the year and authenticated. The crude 95% ethanol extract of the dry root wood was obtained and screened for phytochemicals and antimicrobial activity against pathogens of economic interests. A process for isolation and identification of bioactive components was then developed using standard procedures.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was undertaken between October 2011 and November 2012 at the Department of Chemistry, University of Abuja, Nigeria. Methodology: The 95% ethanol crude extract was obtained by percolation and then fractionated into acidic, basic, polar and non-polar neutral fractions. The crude extract and fractions were subjected to antimicrobial screening against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtillis and Streptococcus viridans. The crude extract was also subjected to phytochemical screening. The active non-polar neutral fraction was purified using flash column chromatography. The isolates were characterized by spectral analyses.

Results: The extracts, with the exception of the acidic fraction, were found to possess antimicrobial activity against some of the test organisms, particularly E. coli and B. subtilis. Phytochemical screening of the crude 95% ethanol extract showed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, sterols, terpenoids, carbohydrates and saponins. Column chromatography of the antimicrobial non-polar neutral fraction gave a partially pure compound which on spectral analyses led to the identification of the previously known bioactive pentacyclic triterpenoid, betulinic acid.

Conclusion: This is the first report of the presence of betulinic acid in the genus, Dalbergia. Based on this a crude management drug for some globally important infections such as HIV/AIDS, malaria and cancer may be formulated using betulinic acid as a biomarker.  


Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Leaf Extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn. (Prickly Chaff Flower)

Garima Pandey, Ch V. Rao, Shyam Sundar Gupta, Kishen K. Verma, Munna Singh

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 695-708
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/8786

Aim: The present study was undertaken to establish the potential role of Achyranthes aspera Linn for cure of skin diseases.

Study Design: The plant is traditionally used by various tribes for curing a wide range of diseases. A 50% ethanolic extract of the leaves was subjected to phytochemical studies and further investigated for in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

Place and Duration of Study: CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute (NBRI), Lucknow, between December 2012 and November 2013.

Methodology: In vitro antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH free radical scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, β-Carotene-linoleic acid assay and reducing power assay. Antibacterial activity was studied by agar well diffusion method.

Results: The total phenol and flavonoid content was estimated to be 3.363% and 6.36% respectively. The HPTLC analysis showed the presence of oleanolic acid, lupeol and β-sitosterol. The free radical scavenging activity of the extract was concentration dependent and IC50 was observed at a concentration of 62.24µg/ml for DPPH free radical scavenging activity and 68.32µg/ml for hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. The extract showed significant total antioxidant activity and reducing power. Antibacterial activity was studied by well diffusion method and the MIC was recorded at 0.75 mg/ml for S. aureus, 0.8 mg/ml for M. luteus, 2.75 mg/ml for E. coli and 0.8 mg/ml for P. aeruginosa.

Conclusion: The results obtained from current study demonstrate that the leaf extract of Achyranthes aspera L possess significant antioxidant and antibacterial properties. Presence of various classes of phytocompounds e.g. Phenols, flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids etc. contribute highly to its medicinal values, thus indicating its potential for cure of skin diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties of Ganoderma lucidum Extracts Grown in Turkey

Gokcen Yuvalı Celık, Dilsad Onbaslı, Berrak Altınsoy, Hakan Allı

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 709-722
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/8546

Aim: To determine antimicrobial and antioxidative effects of Ganoderma lucidum.

Place and Duration of Study: Erciyes University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Biotechnology research laboratory,Kayseri, Turkey, between January to March, 2013.

Methodology: Antimicrobial inhibitory effects were carried out on the extracts using disc diffusion method. Antioxidant activities of the ethanolic and methanolic extracts from G.lucidum were evaluated by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] radical scavenging, metal chelating, total flavonoid and total antioxidant activity assays. In addition, the amounts of phenolic compound, β-carotene and lycopene components in the extracts were determined.

Results: The antimicrobial effects of ethanolic and methanolic extracts of G. lucidum were tested against one species of Gram positive bacteria,  two species of Gram-negative bacteria and two yeast. The highest inhibitory activity was determined against Candida glabrata RSKK 04019 [25±1 mm, inhibition zone diameter]. On the other hand, the lowest inhibitory activity was determined against Candida albicans ATCC 90028 and Bacillus subtilis RSKK 244  [10±1 and 10±0 mm, inhibition zone diameter]. DPPH radical scavenging effect was detected in the methanol extract [IC50 = 3.82±0.04 µg/mL] was higher than the ethanol extracts [IC50 = 7.03±0.07 µg/mL]. Compared to reference antioxidant, the methanol and ethanol extracts of G.lucidum provided a lower IC50 than butylated hydoxyanisole [BHA] [IC50 = 0.30±0.01 µg/mL]. Phenolic compounds were the major antioxidant component found in the mushroom extracts.

Conclusion: These results showed that G. lucidum may be used in pharmaceutical applications because of its effective antioxidant properties.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Field Grown and Tissue Cultured Root Callus of Mangrove Species

Chinnappan Ravinder Singh, Kandasamy Kathiresan, Sekar Anandhan, Kanagaraj Suganthi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 723-742
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/7340

Aim: The main aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-oxidant and antimicrobial activity of mangrove species and the development of the callus biomass.

Study Design: This is the first comparative evaluation report of field grown root and tissue cultured root callus of mangrove on anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial activity. Acanthus ilicifolius, Calophyllum inophyllum and Excoecaria agallocha were tested in this present investigation.

Place and Duration of Study: Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Annamalai University, Parangipettai 608 502, Tamil Nadu, India. Between February 2012 and July 2013

Methodology:  In order to develop callus biomass, a number of growth hormones were supplemented with the MS medium. Following the callus development, anti-oxidant and anti-microbial activities were tested with field grown root and its tissue cultured root callus of Acanthus ilicifolius, Calophyllum inophyllum and Excoecaria agallocha. This was confirmed by different anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial and minimum inhibitory concentration assays.

Results: Maximum (89%) root callus biomass was obtained from Acanthus ilicifolius on MS medium fortified with 0.3+0.3 mg/L of 2,4-D and KIN. 2,4-D 0.3mg/L and BAP 0.5 mg/L showed the maximum callus from both Calophyllum inophyllum (81%), Excoecaria agallocha (58%). In addition anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial effect of root and root callus of these three species were tested. In this study the root callus materials of all the three species showed the best anti-oxidant anti-bacterial activities.

Conclusion: The metabolites from mangroves are good remedy for number of health problems especially the enhanced level of metabolites through the tissue culture techniques. The present study confirmed the anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial effect of Acanthus ilicifolius, Calophyllum inophyllum, Excoecaria agallocha n root extract.   This study will be a key to develop a new drug to achieve healthy life. especially the root callus materials showed the better activity when compared to the field grown plants.


Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-diarrhoeagenic Properties of Aqueous Extract of Phragmanthera capitata S. Balle in Albino Rats

L. P. Takem, B. A. S. Lawal, J. A. Lennox

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 743-752
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/9064

Aim: To investigate diarrhoeagenic activities of aqueous extract of Phragmanthera capitata (AEPC) in albino rats.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria, between October 2013 and January 2014.

Methodology: Diarrhoeagenic activities were assessed using three models; enteropooling, gastrointestinal transit and faecal discharge. In each of these models, all rats were overnight fasted with access to drinking water until the start of the experiment. The rats were randomized into 5 groups of 7 rats. Group I (control) received saline (10 ml/kg), Group II (standard) and Groups III-V (test) received AEPC (100, 200, 300 mg/kg respectively) by oral gavage. To assess enteropooling activity, castor oil (1 ml) and magnesium sulfate (10 ml/kg in saline) were used to induce enteropooling in two separate experiments. Group II in both experiments received loperamide (3 mg/kg). Intestinal contents were weighed before and after discharging the contents and recorded. To investigate gastrointestinal transit, 0.25 ml of charcoal meal was administered to the rats with standard group receiving atropine (5 mg/kg i.p.). Distance traveled by charcoal meal was measured and recorded. To assess the rate of faecal discharge, castor oil (1 ml) was used to induce diarrhoea and faeces were collected, weighed and recorded. One way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was performed followed by Tukey test as post hoc.

Results: The results revealed significant (P =.05) reduction in faecal discharge, weight of intestinal contents and distance traveled by charcoal meal.

Conclusion: AEPC possesses anti-secretory, anti-electrolyte permeability and hence anti-diarrhoeagenic properties.


Open Access Original Research Article

Emblica officinalis Stimulates the Secretion and Action of Insulin and Inhibits Starch Digestion and Protein Glycation In vitro

V. Kasabri, P. R. Flatt, Y. H. A. Abdel-Wahab

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 753-770
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/8585

Aim: Medicinal, edible and aromatic plants and natural products have been used worldwide for the management of diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and mode of action of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Phyllanthaceae) used traditionally for treatment of diabetes.

Study Design: Using multiple In vitro models; this study was designed to investigate the antidiabetes efficacy and mode of action of E. officinalis.

Place and Duration of Study: School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, 2001-2004

Results: E. officinalis aqueous extracts (AEs) stimulated basal insulin output and potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion concentration-dependently in the clonal pancreatic beta cell line, BRIN-BD11 (p<0.001). The insulin secretory activity of plant extract was abolished in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ and by inhibitors of cellular Ca2+ uptake, diazoxide (p<0.001, n=8).  Furthermore, the extract increased insulin secretion in depolarised cells and further augmented insulin secretion triggered by IBMX and tolbutamide. E. officinalis AE (1 mg/mL) displayed insulin mimetic activity (230%, p<0.001). Furthermore, it enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose transport in 3T3 L1 adipocytes by 460% (p<0.001). E. officinalis augmented also synergistically (p<0.001) insulin action, when co-incubated with insulin sensitizers; metformin (2.4-fold), vanadate (4.9-fold), tungstate (4.8-fold) and molybdate (6-fold). At higher concentrations (0.5-5 mg/mL), the extract also produced 8-74% (p<0.001) decrease in enzymatic starch digestion In vitro. E. officinalis AEs (1-50 mg/mL) inhibited protein glycation 44-87% (p<0.001).

Conclusion: This study has revealed that water soluble bioactive principles in E. officinalis extract stimulate insulin secretion, enhance insulin action and inhibit both protein glycation and starch digestion. The former actions are dependent on the bioeffective component (s) in the plant being absorbed intact.  Future work assessing the use of Emblica officinalis as adjunctive therapeutic nutraceutical or as a source of bioactive antidiabetic principles may provide new opportunities for the integrated management/prevention/reversal of diabetes.


Open Access Review Article

The Efficacy of Hyptis Suaveolens: A Review of Its Nutritional and Medicinal Applications

L. Umedum Ngozi, Nwajagu Ugochukwu, P. Udeozo Ifeoma, E. Anarado Charity, I. Egwuatu Chinyelu

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 661-674
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/6959

Aims: To review the phytochemical composition, medicinal uses and pharmacological properties of different parts of the plant, Hyptis suaveolens.

Methodology: Detailed data were collected from studies carried out by several researchers on the use of different parts of the plant so as to authenticate the claims by traditional healers in some parts of the world.

Results: Hyptis suaveolens has been shown to contain vital nutrients: proteins, carbohydrates, fats, fibre and the phytochemicals: alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, and terpenoids which are responsible for its therapeutic use.

Conclusion: There is need to isolate and identify compounds from the plant which would serve as food supplements and also used to improve already existing drugs and formulate new ones.