Open Access Short communication

Phytochemical Evaluation and Effect of Saponins’ Mixture Isolated from Astragalus monspessulanus on HepG2 Cell Line

Viktor Bratkov, Magdalena Kondeva-burdina, Rumyana Simeonova, Virginia Tzankova, Ilina Krasteva

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 522-527
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/7860

Aims: Purified saponin fraction was obtained from butanol extract of the aerial parts of Astragalus monspessulanus var. monspessulanus. The fraction was analyzed by HPLC and six saponins were determined. The saponin mixture was investigated for possible cytotoxicity on HepG2 cell line.

Study Design: HPLC, in vitro study, biochemical analysis - lactate dehydrogenase leakage in medium

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Drug metabolism and drug toxicity, between September and November 2013.

Methodology: The saponin mixture was studied on HepG2 cell line in 3 different concentrations –1, 2, 4 mg/ml for 24, 48 and 72 hours. The release of lactate dehydrogenase in the medium was measured spectrophotometrically.

Results: It was found that the saponins have statistically significant cytotoxicity only in the highest concentration 4 mg/ml on 48 and 72 hours. At this concentration the sample increased the level of LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) with 37 % on 48 h and with 52 % on 72 h.

Conclusion: Purified saponin fraction, isolated from Astragalus monspessulanus was found to be cytotoxic at the highest concentration 4 mg/ml on 48 and 72 hours in HepG2 cell line.

Open Access Original Research Article

Demethylation of RARβ2 Gene Promoter by Withania somnifera in HeLa Cell Line

Abhimanyu Kumar Jha, Mohsen Nikbakht, Neena Capalash, Jagdeep Kaur

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 503-510
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/5975

An important molecular target for cancer therapy is the possible reactivation of tumor suppressor genes that have been silenced by promoter methylation.  It was observed that the treatment of an adenocarcinoma cervical cancer cell line, HeLa with 20 µg/ml of the ethanolic extract of Withania somnifera  for 6 days resulted  in demethylation of promoter of RARβ2 gene.  However, treatment with Ocimum sanctum and Azadirachta indica (20µg/ml) did not cause the reversal of hypermethylation after 6 days of treatment. This is the first report to show the reversal of hypermethylation of RARβ2 gene by Withania somnifera   extract in a cervical cancer cell line.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-pyretic Activity of Garcinia kola Seed Extract

Kakjing D. Falang, Mary O. Uguru, Nkoli L. Nnamonu

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 511-521
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/4484

Garcinia kola (Heckel) has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of several ailments. One of these is its use for the treatment of conditions involving pain and inflammation with accompanying pyrexia. Our objective is to evaluate the anti-pyretic property of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seed extract in albino Wistar rats. Twenty-five albino Wistar rats of both sexes, randomized into five groups were used. Group one served as the control and received only the vehicle, propylene glycol. Group two received paracetamol 150 mg/kg body weight orally while groups three to five received 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg body weight of the extract orally respectively. Pyrexia was induced using brewer’s yeast. We found LD50, determined by Lorke’s method to be greater than 5000 mg/kg indicating the wide margin of safety of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds. The extract at doses of 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg respectively showed statistically significant (P<0.01) dose dependent reduction of brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia in albino Wistar rats. The study shows that Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds possess significant anti-pyretic activity, thus justifying its ethnomedicinal use.

Open Access Original Research Article

Launaea taraxacifolia Ameliorates Cisplatin-Induced Hepato-renal Injury

A. S. Adejuwon, O. Femi-Akinlosotu, J. O. Omirinde, O. R. Owolabi, A. M. Afodun

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 528-541
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/7314

Aims: The protective potential of aqueous leaf extract of Launaea taraxacifolia against Cisplatin-induced hepato-renal damage in Wistar rats.

Study Design: Randomized controlled experiment

Place and Duration of Study: Experimental Animal Unit and Department of Anatomy, University of Ibadan between July and September, 2013.

Methodology: Thirty rats were randomly divided into 6 groups of 5 rats each. Group A- control; Group B- cisplatin (CIS)  alone; Group C  and D- Launea taraxacifolia (LT) 100 mg and 400 mg respectively  and Group E and F-  treated with LT 100 mg and 400 mg respectively and then given CIS. Kidney and liver sections were taken for histopathological evaluations. Serum samples were taken for alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], bilirubin [BIL], total protein (TP), albumin [ALB], blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CREAT) level assessments. The remaining tissues were processed for the assessment of biochemical markers of oxidative stress: Lipid peroxidation (LPO), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and Glutathione (GSH).

Results: Hepatorenal histological toxicities were observed in rats exclusively exposed to cisplatin while dose-dependent ameliorations of these histopathologies were seen in those with combined exposure (Groups E and F) with the aqueous extract of Launaea taraxacifolia and virtually normal histoarchitecture was seen in extract alone treated rats. The hepatic (ALT, AST, BIL) and renal (BUN and CREAT) injury markers significantly (p<0.05) increased in groups exclusively exposed to cisplatin with less severity in co-treated (E and F) groups. The oxidative stress markers, LPO, SOD and CAT levels which were significantly elevated (p<0.05) in cisplatin exclusively exposed Group B, were not altered in other groups when compared with control. However, glutathione level significantly decrease (p<0.05) in GSH levels in kidney and liver tissues of (Group B) cisplatin alone relative to control.

Conclusion: Launaea taraxacifolia provides protection against cisplatin-induced hepatorenal damage through its antioxidant activities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Investigation of the Anti-asthmatic Potential of Kalanchoe integra Leaf Extract Using a Model of Allergic Airway Inflammation

Asiedu- Gyekye Isaac Julius, Awortwe Charles, Tagoe Nii Aryee Benjamin, Antwi Daniel Ansong, Adjei Samuel, Edusei Dwamena Isaac, Benoit N’guessan Banga Kwame, Amoateng Patrick, Nkansah Edwin

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 542-562
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/7377

Objective: Kalanchoe integra is known to possess antihistaminic and mast cell stabilizing effect. Inflammatory mediators, such as histamine and eicosanoids have been implicated in the pathophysiology of allergen-induced asthma including bronchospasm, vasodilation, increased vascular permeability, perivascular and peribronchial oedema, acute functional changes in the lungs and diarrhea due to increased intestinal motility. This study is to ascertain the anti-inflammatory effect of Kalanchoe integra aqueous leaf extract (KILE) on bronchial hyper-responsiveness in ovalbumin-sensitized guinea-pigs.

Method: Bronchial asthma was induced in guinea pigs using Ovalbumin. In vivo skin tests were carried out on all guinea pigs using ovalbumin and histamine as allergens. The diameters of wheals were recorded and the means determined. OA-sensitized guinea-pigs were challenged with 2% OA aerosols after 1 hour per os of drugs (KILE or prednisolonefor the treated groups) for two weeks. A piece of excised trachea was suspended in a tissue bath and challenged with histamine in the presence and absence of KILE, as well as Prednisolone (2.5 mg/kg). The results were reported as mean ±S.E.M. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni’s post hoc test.

Results: Biological assaying of KILE showed significant dose-dependent reduction in histamine induced vasodilation of cutaneal blood vessels (P<0.05 in all groups at all times of wheal measurements) and contractile responses of isolated trachea to histamine. KILE generally reduced the effect of histamine in all groups.

Conclusion: This study has shown that KILE has the potential of alleviating signs of bronchial hyper-responsiveness and skin allergies in ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs with the female models been more sensitive than the male counterparts.


Open Access Original Research Article

Lethality and Antioxidant Activity of some Sudanese Medicinal Plants’ Fixed Oils

Muna F. Abushama, Yasmin I. Hilmi, Haidar M. AbdAlgadir, Eltayeb Fadul, Hassan E. Khalid

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 563-570
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/7741

The objective of the undergoing work is investigating antitumor therapy potential and antioxidant capacity of Sudanese medicinal plants Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae), Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae), Nigella sativa L. (Ranunculaceae), Sesamum indicum L. (Pedaliaceae) and Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del (Zygophyllaceae) by studying the plants seeds fixed oils for their cytotoxicity and antioxidant activity. This study was conducted at the Sudan National Research Center, Medicinal & Aromatic Plants Research Center, Khartoum, Sudan, in June-August, 2013. The five fixed oils cytotoxicity was studied using Brine Shrimp Lethality and antioxidant activity by DPPH and Iron Chelating Assays. Obtained results showed that Ricinus communis fixed oil has the highest toxicity with LC50 1.7014, followed by Nigella sativa with LC50 606.2, when analyzed by Finney Probit Analysis. Antioxidant activity results of the five fixed oils measured using DPPH showed that Nigella sativa fixed oil showed high antioxidant potential (85%), while Ricinus communis and Helianthus annuus fixed oils showed moderate antioxidant activity (52%) and (51%) respectively. All of the fixed oils showed no activity when using Iron Chelating Assay. Results justify the plants use in folkloric medicine although dosages should be monitored for its safe use. Studies directed towards identification of bioactive compounds are recommended.


Open Access Original Research Article

Mechanisms of Antiulcerogenic Effect of Garlic (Allium sativum) in Albino Rats

Salaudeen Aminat Tope, Oluwole Francis Sunday, Adedeji Temitope Gabriel

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 571-578
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/8140

Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible effects of garlic juice, as well as feed supplemented with Allium sativum, on gastric ulceration, antioxidant activity and gastric mucus cell count in wistar rats.

Study Design: The albino rats were divided into six groups each group containing eight animals and treated for 30 days. A low dose (250mg/kg body weight) and high dose (500mg/kg) of garlic juice was orally administered to two of the experimental groups, while two other groups were fed with 5% and 10% Allium sativum/standard feed mix. The control group was fed on the standard rats’ feed and water only, while a positive control group was given Misoprostol (10μgkg-1) orally as a standard drug.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Physiology, University of Ibadan between September 2011 and June 2012.

Methodology: Forty eight adult albino rats were divided equally into six groups. Groups I, II, III, IV, V and VI received fed standard, 250 mg Allium sativum /kg body weight,  500mg of Allium sativum/kg body weight, 5% supplement of Allium sativum, 10% supplement of Allium sativum and 10 ug of Misoprostol / kg body weight, respectively for 30 days. At the end of the study period, experimental ulceration was induced by administering 40mg/kg-1 body weight Indomethacin and six hours later the animals were sacrificed. The stomachs were excised and macroscopically examined for ulcers. Gastric mucous cell count (MCC) and antioxidant activity were subsequently assayed for.

Results: The result showed that pre-treatment with garlic was significantly effective in reducing gastric ulceration incidence in animals (p < 0.05) as mean ulcer score decreased significantly in all groups treated with garlic. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) increased significantly, especially in animals in the high dose group. No significant variation in the lipid per oxidation in all groups, while gastric mucus cell count was also significantly increased in most treatment groups.

Conclusion: These results suggest that garlic decreases ulcerogenesis in experimental animals. This can be attributed to its effects of increasing antioxidant activity and gastric mucous cell count.


Open Access Original Research Article

Kaurenoic Acid Isolated from the Root Bark of Annona senegalensis Induces Cytotoxic and Antiproliferative Effects against PANC-1 and HeLa cells

Theophine C. Okoye, Peter A. Akah, Chukwuemeka S. Nworu, Adaobi C. Ezike

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 579-589
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/6926

Aims: Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide with an estimated 6.7 million deaths and 24.6 million people living with cancer in 2002. Presently, there is a global increase in prevalence, mortality and health burden of various malignancies. World Health Organization (WHO) report projected that cancer prevalence rates could further increase by 50% to 15 million new cases in the year 2020. The bioactivity guided isolation of the bioactive constituent and its characterization, responsible for the anticonvulsant effects of the root bark extract of A. senegalensis yielded kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (KA). Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-proliferative activity of kaurenoic acid from A. senegalensis on selected cancer cell lines.

Study Design: The study was designed to ascertain the antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of kaurenoic acid, a diterpenoid isolated from the root bark of Nigerian Annona senegalensis (Annonaceae).

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria, between October 2010 and June, 2012.

Methodology: Human embryonic kidney cells expressing SV40 Large T-antigen (293 T), Pancreatic tumour (PANC-1) and Henrietta Lacks’ cervical (HeLa) cell lines were used in the study using standard MTT, 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazoliumbromide, assay method.

Results: Kaurenoic acid (KA) exhibited cytotoxic effects against the cells with estimated IC50 values of 0.93, 0.74 and 0.52 M concentrations for 293 T, HeLa and PANC-1 cells respectively. This is an indication of the possible potentials of KA in the treatment of cervical and pancreatic cancers.

Conclusions: Kaurenoic acid (KA), a diterpenoid, possesses antiproliferative effect against HeLa and PANC-1 cell lines, and could be the anticancer constituent in the root bark extract of A. senegalensis with potentials as a lead in the chemical synthesis of standard anti cancer agents.


Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Nutrient Content, Phytochemical Content, Antioxidant Activity and Antibacterial Activity of Inedible Portion of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.)

K. L. S. R. De Silva, D. Y. Jadhav, R. M. U. S. K. Rathnayaka, A. K. Sahoo

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 610-622
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/7561

Pomegranate is a plant with high potential to have antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds. In the present study inedible parts (peel and seed) of pomegranate, variety “Bhagawa” were examined for the presence of phytochemicals, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthocyanin, antioxidant and anti-microbial compounds. Further, nutrition value of the samples was also examined. Results of GC-MS analysis carried out using four different solvents showed 12 and 25 fractions for peel and seed extracts respectively. Both peel and seed were with high amount of Anthocyanin, Phenolic compounds and Flavonoids. Both extracts gave 100% free radicals reduction in DPPH assay showing high antioxidant activity. Further, both extracts showed antibacterial activity against eight tested food borne pathogens. Antibacterial activity shown by peel extracts was higher than that of seed extract. Both peel and seed extracts showed highest and lowest antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocyatogenes respectively. Both extract showed same antibacterial activity which was shown by Kanamycin for Shigella fexneri. According to the present study, pomegranate peel and seed can be used to extract antibacterial, antioxidant compounds and flavonoids for the use in food industry.


Open Access Review Article

The Story of Beta-sitosterol- A Review

Soodabeh Saeidnia, Azadeh Manayi, Ahmad R. Gohari, Mohammad Abdollahi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 590-609
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/7764

Aims: Phytosterols are a subgroup of the steroids, as an important class of bioorganic molecules, widespread in plants, animals, marines as well as fungi and have similarity to cholesterol in structure. These compounds have a long history of consumption as food or pharmaceutical products, and generally recognized as safe without undesirable side effects.

Place and Duration of Study: Medicinal plants Research Center and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, between March 2013 and May 2013.

Results: Amongphytosterols, β-sitosterol is usually used for heart disease, hypercholesterolemia, modulating the immune system, prevention of cancer, as well as for rheumatoid arthritis, tuberculosis, cervical cancer, hair loss and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Furthermore, diverse biological activities whereby natural compounds or the extracts were considered including trypanocidal and mosquito larvicidal, even neutralization of viper and cobra venom characteristics was recorded.

Conclusion: Some of the above indications are evidence based, but others are still in doubt and need more investigations to confirm its efficacy and safety. Regarding to the importance of these natural sterols and β-sitosterol as the most abundant of them, the main pharmacological and biological activities together with their clinical trials is reviewed here.