Open Access Original Research Article

Biological Activities of the Hydro-alcoholic and Aqueous Extracts of Achillea falcata L. (Asteraceae) Grown in Jordan

Hana M. Hammad, Simona- Carmen Litescu, Suzan A. Matar, Hala I. Al-Jaber, Fatma U. Afifi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 259-270
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/7245

Aim: This study aimed to screen the aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Achillea falcata L. (Asteraceae) grown in Jordan for their antioxidant, antibacterial, antiplatelet and anti-proliferative efficacy.

Study Design: HPLC-MS evaluation of the aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts and in vitro investigations.

Place and Duration of Study: Faculties of Pharmacy and Science, The University of Jordan and Centre of Misanalysis, National Institute for Biological Sciences, between August  2012 and June 2013.

Methodology: Total phenols and flavonoids were determined colorimetrically. The radical scavenging activities were evaluated using 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity assay. Antimicrobial activities were determined by the disc-diffusion method, and the minimum inhibition concentration and the minimum bactericidal concentration tests. In vitro antiplatelet activity was tested on human whole blood using an electrical impedance method. Anti-proliferative activity was investigated using the MTT assay. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) evaluation was performed.

Results: Hydro-alcoholic extract had a bactericidal activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus and Klebsiella pneumoniae rather than inhibitory effect. No significant activity was observed against gram negative bacteria and Candida albicans. In vitro antiplatelet activity was tested on human whole blood using an electrical impedance method. At concentrations (50, 100, and 200 μg/ml), hydro-alcoholic extract did not show effect on platelet aggregation. Extracts did not possess cytotoxic activity against the MCF-7 cells at concentrations up to 200 μg/ml. HPLC-MS analysis resulted in the identification of 8 phenolic compounds in the hydro-alcoholic extract and 6 compounds in the aqueous extract; quercetin 3-β-D-glucoside was the main component for both extracts.

Conclusion: The present investigation supported the traditional use A. falcata in the Jordanian folk medicine as a depurative agent and as an antimicrobial active representative of the genus Achillea.


Open Access Original Research Article

Pharmacological Activities of Agave seemanniana and Isolation of Three Steroidal Saponins

S. A. Mina, F. R. Melek, S. M. Abdel-khalik, F. S. El-Shaarawy, Jacqueline Eskander

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 271-283
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/7380

Aim: To investigate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and ulceroprotective properties of Agave seemanniana methanolic leaf extract (MEAS) and its saponin containing fraction (SFAS), in animal models compared to standard drugs. In addition to separation and characterization of the major saponin fraction of Agave seemanniana leaves.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt, between June 2011 and March 2013.

Methodology: The analgesic activity was assessed using the hot plate method and aspirin being a positive standard, the anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using the standard carrageenan-induced paw edema method against indomethacin as standard and the ethanol induced ulcer was used to record the ulcer protective effect of methanolic leaf extract of Agave seemanniana (MEAS) and saponin fraction of Agave seemanniana (SFAS). Separation and characterization techniques were used for the phytochemical study of the saponin content of the extract.

Results: The results of analgesic activity of MEAS and SFAS using the hot plate test, revealed significant increase in the reaction time at dose of 100mg/kg b.wt. The same dose of the two test drugs demonstrated significant ulcer protective activity. The results of anti-inflammatory activity revealed that the reduction of the carrageenan-induced paw edema was significant at a dose of 100mg/kg b.wt. Furthermore, SFAS contained mainly saponins of pregnane and furostanol types. The structures of three isolated and characterized saponins indicated that these saponins had a common oligosaccharide moiety linked to the aglycone C-3 position and identified as α-L- rhamnopyranosyl– (1→4)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl- (1→4)-β-D-galactopyranosyl.  

Conclusion: This study contributes to the search for potent and locally available plant materials as analgesic, anti-inflammatory and ulcer protective drugs known for their high saponin content. 


Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Aqueous Extracts of Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) Fruit Peels Using Bioautography Method

B. I. Aderiye, O. M. David

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 284-291
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/6722

Aims: Bark, leaves and gum of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) have been reported to be effective in curtailing the growing problems of resistance of bacterial pathogens. The in vitro activity of aqueous extracts of cashew apple peels was determined in this study against two clinically important pathogens.

Place and Duration of Study: The work was conducted at the Department of Microbiology, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria and processed immediately. This study was carried out between June, 2009 and January, 2010. 

Methodology: Bioautographic method was used to test the antibacterial activity of aqueous (cold and hot water) extracts of cashew apple peels on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The zones of inhibition of the extracts were compared. 

Results: The activity of the fifth hour hot water extract was highest with zones of inhibition of 415.48 and 346.30 sq. mm against E. coli O157:H7 and MRSA respectively. E. coli O157:H7 was more susceptible to the extract with the zone of inhibition ranging between 176.79 and 283.53 sq. mm while that of MRSA was153.94 - 346.30 sq. mm. The 5 h extract of cold water was more potent on the test organisms with 615.75 and 490.87 sq. mm diameters of inhibition on E. coli O157:H7 and MRSA respectively. Cold water extracts produced more active compounds (13 biologically active spots) that inhibited the growth of the test organisms than the hot water extracts, with six spots.

Conclusion: The extracts of the peels of the cashew apple against the test organisms are promising. However, the nature and mechanisms of action of the biologically active compounds in the extracts are still open to investigation.


Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antioxidant and Anticancer Properties of Active Compounds from Methanolic Extract of Pteris multifida Poir. Leaves

Hoang Le Son, Tran Huynh Phuoc Thao

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 292-302
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/7053

Aims: To isolate pure compounds from the methanolic fraction obtained from successive fractionation of defatted ethanolic extract and evaluate in vitro antioxidant and anticancer activity of the crude ethanolic extract, methanolic fraction and pure compounds isolated from methanolic fraction from leaves of Pteris multifida Poir.

Study Design:  Isolation and identification of the compounds, evaluation of antioxidant and anticancer activity on cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), lung carcinoma cell line (NCI-H460) and breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7).

Place and Duration of Study: Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology of Ho Chi Minh City and School of Biotechnology, International University, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City, between December 2012 and September 2013.

Methodology: The crude ethanolic leaf extract and methanolic fraction obtained from successive fractionation of defatted ethanolic extract from Pteris multifida leaves were prepared. The isolated compounds from methanolic fraction were identified using different spectroscopic techniques. Antioxidant activity of the samples was evaluated by using the stable free radical 2, 2- diphenyl picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay was exploited for determination of anticancer activity against three selected human cancer cell lines: HeLa, NCI-H460 and MCF-7.

Results: Two main compounds were isolated from methanolic fraction obtained from successive fractionation of defatted ethanolic extract: rutin (1) and apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2). The crude ethanolic leaf extract showed weak antioxidant activity (IC50 = 89.84 µg/mL) whereas the methanolic fraction expressed quite strong antioxidant activity (IC50 = 21.9 µg/mL). Rutin (1) showed a good ingredient of antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 37.70 ± 0.03 µg/mL. Crude ethanolic leaf extract had cytotoxic activity against HeLa and NCI-H460 cell lines while the methanolic fraction had cytotoxic activity against HeLa, NCI-H460 and MCF-7 cell lines. Apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2) had strong anticancer activity against MCF-7 cell line with IC50 = 22.62 ± 0.59 µg/mL. 

Conclusion: The crude ethanolic leaf extract and its methanolic fraction of P. multifida showed the potential activity in antioxidant and anticancer activity. Rutin had a potent antioxidant activity while apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside had a strong anticancer activity against the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7.


Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemicals, Nutritional Analysis and In vitro Antioxidant Activities of Pickled Perilla frutescens Ethanolic Leaf Extract

Yongfu Li, Jiangning Gong, Chan Liu, Zhengwu Wang, Yan Wu, Yanling Gao, Jinhong Wu

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 303-314
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/7453

Aims: With pickled perilla leaves as raw materials, this paper proposed the optimal ethanol extraction conditions and made a profound analysis for extract in the compositions of major active ingredients, nutrients, mineral elements and amino acid to characterize the nutritional and biological properties of pickled perilla leaves, which could aid its finely processing and future application in the development of functional food.

Methods: The optimum ethanol extraction process for preparing freeze-dried powder from pickled perilla was studied by means of orthogonal experiments, with the concentration of ethanol, extracting temperature and extracting time as factors. Meanwhile, the contents of the activity components, such as polysaccharide, flavones and rosmarinic acid, as well as the mineral elements and nutritional contents in the freeze-dried powder were determined according to the methods reported by relevant literatures without or with a few modifications.

Results: The optimal extracting conditions as follows: 50ºC of temperature, 60 min of extraction time and 80% of ethanol concentration. Under the optimal extracting conditions, the extraction rate of the freeze-dried powder was 1.71%. Moreover, perilla leaf extract contained rich biological and nutritional ingredients, including 33.39% of flavonoids, 9.24% of polysaccharides, 22.79% of rosmarinic acid, 5.47% of protein, 7.61% of fat, 2354 mg/kg of Ca, 111.4 mg/kg of Fe, 5.045 mg/kg of Zn, 1817 mg/kg of K , 12.66 mg/kg of Mn and nine of essential amino acids. In addition, perilla leaf extract exhibited obvious scavenging effects on the DPPH•, •OH and O2-•.

Conclusion: In summary, pickled perilla leaf ethanol extract was rich in biological ingredients as well as a variety of nutrients, and showed antioxidant activities in vitro, thus it is valuable and promising in the development of functional foods in the future.


Open Access Original Research Article

Phenolic Constituents of Pomegranate Peels (Punica granatum L.) Cultivated in Oman

Amani S. Al-Rawahi, Giles Edwards, Mohammed Al-Sibani, Ghanim Al-Thani, Ahmed S. Al-Harrasi, Mohammed Shafiur Rahman

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 315-331
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/6417

Aims: This study was undertaken to analyze total phenolics and total flavonoids contents; and total antioxidant capacity of pomegranate peel extract and to identify the major functional components in the extract.

Study Design: The extract was subjected to ESI-MS/MS.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Sultan Qaboos University and DARIS Research Center, University of Nizwa, between December 2011 and August 2012.

Methodology: Pomegranate peel extract was analyzed using a Waters Quattro Premier XE tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer (Waters Corporation, Manchester, UK) equipped with electro-spray ionization (ESI) source. Instrument control and data acquisition were performed using Mass Lynx ver. 4.1 software. The instrument was calibrated for nominal resolution for MS1 and MS2 up to 1200 m/z using the sodium caesium iodide standard calibration solution.

Results: Results revealed high contents of total phenolics (64.2 mg Gallic acid equivalent/ g dry solids) and total flavonoids (1.4 mg Catechin equivalent/ g dry solids) respectively. Total antioxidant capacity ranged from 42.3 – 461.2 µmolTrolox equivalent/ g dry solids. The analysis revealed the presence of 61 different polyphenols in the extract among which 12 hydroxycinnamic acids, 14 hydrolysable tannins, 9 hydroxybenzoic acids, 5 hydroxybutanedioic acids, 11 hydroxy-cyclohexanecarboxylic acids and 8 hydroxyphenyls. Major compounds were tannins and flavonoids such as; illogic acid, gallic acids, punicalin, and punicalagin.

Conclusion: A wide variety of phytochemicals present in pomegranate peel extract were identified. These functional compounds in pomegranate peels could be utilized by the food industry and pharma/nutraceutical’s industry. Further work should be done to isolate and quantify major functional compounds of pomegranate peels such as ellagic acid.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antibacterial Effects and Phytochemical Analysis of Lantana camara linn Leaf and Berry Extracts

A. A. Ajiboye, O. O. Oyedara, D. A. Agboola, O. T. Familola

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 332-341
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/6992

In order to assess the antibacterial activities of methanolic and aqueous leaf extracts (MLE and ALE) as well as that of methanolic berry extract (MBE) of Lantana camara Linn, we screened each for antibacterial effects against 14 bacterial isolates using agar-well diffusion method at concentration of 25mg/ml with streptomycin as control antibacterial. Data obtained were analyzed with ANOVA and t-test using SPSS 15.0 for Windows. The MLE is comparable to streptomycin in antibacterial activity as they both showed antibacterial activity against 13 (92.86%) bacterial isolates with inhibition zone diameter (IZD) of 12mm-20mm. The ALE and MBE however, showed inhibitory activities against 3 (21.43%, IZD 10mm-11mm) and 7 (42.86%, IZD 11mm-17mm) bacterial isolates respectively. Flavonoids, saponin and alkaloids were present in the three extracts while phlobatannin, cardiac glycoside and steroid were absent. Terpenoids and tannin were only present in the MBE and MLE respectively. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and zinc were observed in the leaf and berry of Lantana camara. Iron, copper and manganese were present in trace amount with lead (Pb) totally absent. Though the three extracts showed antibacterial effects against the isolates, the MLE was the most effective. The phytochemical analysis revealed that Lantana camara has compounds with antibacterial activities and can possibly be used as alternative therapy to infections caused by the sensitive study bacteria.


Open Access Original Research Article

In vivo Antimalarial Activity of Stem Bark of Dry Zone Cedar Pseudocedrela kotschyi (Meliaceae) in Mice

A. Dawet, D. P. Yakubu, N. N. Wannang, G. S. Mwansat

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 342-352
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/2822

Background: Malaria infection remains the most devastating infectious parasitic disease responsible for the death and economic losses among half the world’s population. The development of resistance to the present antimalarial drugs by Plasmodium species has necessitated the search for effective antimalarial drugs. The stem bark of dry zone cedar (Pseudocedrela kotschyi) Meliaceae is used locally for the treatment of fever, hence the choice of the plant to prove scientifically the traditional claim.

Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the antimalarial activity of the stem bark extracts of P. kotschyi in mice.

Methodology: One hundred and twenty grammes of the plant powder were successively extracted. A total of three hundred and sixty mice were used for the study, one hundred and twenty for each extract (ethanol, ethyl acetate and aqueous) and forty per each test (suppressive, curative and prophylactic). Male and female, albino mice were inoculated with drug sensitive NK 65 Plasmodium berghei berghei. In each test animals were divided into five groups, each consisted of eight animals and treated separately with one of the following: 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg extracts, chloroquine / pyrimethamine and normal saline. Blood films were prepared and examined.

Results: The ethanol, ethyl acetate and aqueous crude extracts of P. kotschyi at 200 mg/kg significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the parasitaemia by 39.43%, 26.99% and 28.36% respectively in the suppressive test. Ethanol and ethyl acetate crude extracts also showed significant (p<0.05) cure rate of 29.17% and 20.28% respectively. However there was no significant (p>0.05) reduction in parasitaemia load in the prophylactic tests, indicating that the plant is probably not a potential prophylactic subject.

Conclusion: The results of the study showed that P. kotschyi indeed has antiplasmodial property, which could be exploited in the search for malaria drugs in the present day scenerio.


Open Access Original Research Article

Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Activities of Methanolic Extract of Sphenocentrum jollyanum on Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Wistar Rats

M. O. Alese, O. S. Adewole, O. M. Ijomone, S. A. Ajayi, O. O. Alese

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 353-364
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/7618

Aims: This study is to provide scientific basis for the folkloric use of Sphenocentrum jollyannum roots in the management and/control of Diabetes mellitus. The effects of the extract on blood glucose level and serum lipid profile in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was investigated. The efficacy was also compared with that of glibenclamide, a known antidiabetic drug.

Study Design: Experimental Study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria and Department of Chemical Pathology, Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria, between November, 2010 and April, 2012.

Methodology: Twenty four adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (A, B C and D) of six rats each and used for this research. Diabetes mellitus was induced in groups B, C and D by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (80mg/kg body weight) dissolved in 0.1 M citrate buffer. Group A, the control rats were intraperitoneally injected with an equivalent volume of citrate buffer. Group B diabetic rats were untreated while groups C and D received Methanolic extract of Sphenocentrum jollyanum (MESJ) (200mg/kg) and glibenclamide (0.5mg/kg) once daily for two weeks respectively.

Results: The result showed a significant (P < 0.05) fall in blood glucose and serum lipid levels with MESJ and glibenclamide administration. A significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the raise of lipids in serum and improvement in the lipid levels to an almost normal condition was also observed.

Conclusion: Sphenocentrum jollyanum roots possess hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects on diabetic rats lending credence to its use in the traditional management and/or control of Diabetes mellitus.


Open Access Review Article

Greco-Arab and Islamic Herbal Medicine: A Review

Bashar Saad

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 249-258
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/6530

Traditional Greco-Arab and Islamic medicine continues to be practiced within the Mediterranean as well as most Islamic countries. This medicine was developed during the Golden Age of Arab-Islamic civilization, which spanned from the seventh to fifteenth century and extended from Spain to Central Asia and India. During the Islamic Golden Age, there was a huge enlightenment in the Arab-Islamic world at a time when Europe was in the grip of the Dark Ages, stifled by Church authority. Greco-Arab and Islamic medicine has influenced the fates and fortunes of countless human beings. It also influenced Europe where it formed the roots from which modern Western medicine arose. There is no doubt that the earlier Greco-Roman scholarly medical literature was the stem from which much Arab-Islamic medicine grew, just as, several centuries later, Arab-Islamic medicine was to be the core of late middle ages and early European medical education. As will be seen in this review, however, Arab-Islamic medicine was not simply a continuation for Greek ideas but it was a venue for innovation and change. Medical innovations introduced by Arab and Muslim physicians included: The discovering of the immune system, the introduction of microbiological science, and the separation of pharmacological science from medicine. The high degree of development achieved in Greco-Arab and Islamic medicine is observable in a statement of Rhazes who said: "when the disease is stronger than the natural resistance of the patient, medicine is of no use. When the patient’s resistance is stronger than the disease, the physician is of no use. When the disease and the patient’s resistance are equally balanced, the physician is needed to help tilt the balance in the patients favour”. This article provides a comprehensive overview on traditional Greco-Arab-Islamic herbal medicine including the historical background, medical innovations introduced by Arab physicians, methods of therapies, and a state of the art description of traditional Arab herbal medicine.