Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Activity of Phenylpropanoyle from the Rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae)

Talla Emmanuel, Bealem Aristide, Tatsadjieu Ngoune Leopold, Ngassoum Martin Benoît, Wansi Jean Duplex, Yaya Gbaveng, Dabole Bernard, Meli Alain, Mbafor Tanyi Joseph, Alain Roch

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 126-134
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/6884

Aim: This study was carried out to determine the phytochemical and the antimicrobial activities of Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) Rhizome.

Methodology: The air-dried and powdered rhizome (1.0 kg) of Z. officinale was extracted with ethyl acetate (1.5 L) at room temperature for 72 h. After evaporation under reduced pressure, 46.5 g of crude extract was obtained. The CH2Cl2 extract was purified by column chromatography over silica gel 60 (230-400 mesh) and preparative TLC using a gradient system of hexane, ethyl acetate and MeOH.

Agar diffusion test plates with Escherichia coli CIP 548, Listeria monocytogenes CIP 82110, Enterococcus faecalis CIP 76117, Bacillus cereus CIP 6624, Staphylococcus aureus CIP 7625, Pseudomonas fluorescents CIP 6913, Bacillus substilis ATCC 6636, Candida lusitaniae ATCC 200950, Candida tropicalis ATCC 750, Cryptococcus neoformans CIP 95026,  Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus parasiticus as test strains were performed.

Results: A new nonyl-3-phenylpropanoate (1), together with known compounds, 8-hepthyl-12- propyldecanol (2) were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the rhizome of Zingiber officinale. The structures of the two compounds were determined by comprehensive analyses of their 1D and 2D NMR, mass spectral data, chemical reactions, and comparison with previously known analogue.

The two compounds isolated from ethyl acetate extract showed antibacterial and antifungal activity and the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) against the test fungi varied from 3.34 mM to 5.08 mM for compound 1 and from 3.81 mM to 5.08 mM for compound 2.

Conclusion: One new compound, nonyl-3-phenylpropanoate, isolated from ethyl acetate extract of Zingiber officinale  rhizome exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities.


Open Access Original Research Article

Protective Role of Onion Oil on Hepato- testicular Oxidative Damage Induced by Gamma Irradiation in Rats

O. A. Gharib

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 135-144
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/7210

Aim: Onions have potential antioxidant properties that lower the oxidative status. The Present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity of onion oil in irradiated male albino rats.

Study Design: Randomized controlled experiment.

Place and Duration of Study: Experimental Animal Unit, Drug Radiation Research Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo Egypt.

Methodology: Animals were divided to the following groups each of eight rats. Control group, Onion oil group: Rats received 200 mg/kg b.wt onion oil orally for seven days. IRR group: Rats were exposed to γ- ray as a fractionated dose of 9 Gy for 7 days, Onion oil + IRR group: Rats were administered with onion oil orally along with γ- ray exposure. At the end of this study the animals were sacrificed and the effects of onion oil against hepato- testicular oxidative damages were monitored by assaying the levels of serum alanine transferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phoshatase (ALP), as well as testosterone and DHEA level. In addition both liver and testis lipid peroxidation (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were examined.

Results: The results showed a significant increase in serum ACP, AST, and ALT activities (107.7%, 91.1% and 100.2% compared to control) with a decrease in testosterone (12% compared to control) and non- significant change in DHEA. The levels of SOD (59.31±10.67 & 0.21± 0.022), CAT (0.2081± 0.022 & 0.247±0.0453) and GSH (0.32±0.046 & 3.46± 0.476) were significantly decreased in irradiated group, accompanied by significant increase in both liver and testis MDA (171.2±13.69 202.2±49.34) respectively. The levels of reversal effects of irradiation were shown by Onion oil + IRR group in both liver and testis.

Conclusion: Data concluded that onion oil showed the reversal effects of ionizing radiation induced hepato- testicular oxidative stress.


Open Access Original Research Article

Lipoprotein Lipase Expression, Serum Triacylglycerol and Tissue Lipid Deposition in Rats Fed on Switching Type of Diet and Treated with Glycyrrhizic Acid

Hui Ping Yaw, So Ha Ton, Shing Wei Ng, Khalid Abdul Kadir

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 145-157
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/6700

Aims: To determine the anti-hyperglycaemic and anti-hyperlipidaemic effects of glycyrrhizic acid (GA), the root extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra in rats with switching type of diet i.e. between normal diet (ND) and high-fat diet (HFD).

Study Design:  In vivo study.

Place and Duration of Study: School of Science, Monash University Sunway Campus between January 2010 and October 2010.

Methodology: Sixteen Sparague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups having eight animals each i.e. group A- ND+GA→ HFD+GA; group B- ND+GA→HFD+no GA. Rats were fed with the corresponding diet and GA (100 mg/kg) for 28 days. The blood glucose, insulin and triacylglycerol levels, lipoprotein lipase expression in the liver, kidney, heart, abdominal muscle (AM), quadriceps femoris (QF), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and tissue lipid deposition were measured.

Results: No significant difference in blood glucose levels between groups. GA significantly lowered (P=.05) triacylglycerol in rats fed on a ND with GA and later switched to a HFD without GA (group B) compared to rats fed on a ND with GA and later switched to a HFD with continuous GA supplementation (group A). For LPL expression, group B had significant lower (P=.05) LPL expression in the liver, AM, kidney and heart than group A. Group A had significantly smaller (P=.05) size of VAT than group B.

Conclusion: These findings may indicate the role of GA in lowering blood glucose and triacylglycerol in subjects who had a switch from a ND with GA to a HFD without GA but not in those who had a switch from a ND with GA to a HFD with continuous GA supplementation.


Open Access Original Research Article

An Evaluation of the Preventive Effect of the Methanol Extract of Thai Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) on Ethanol-induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Saramma George

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 158-170
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/6513

Aim: The present study was investigated the preventive effect of methanol extract of Ocimum bacilicum (MOEB) on ethanol induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

Study Design: Male Wistar rats weighing 200–250 g were divided into six groups of six rats each as follows: the normal control rats we read ministered with distilled water(NC), the ethanol control was administered with ethanol (5 g/kg)(EC), extract treated group given only the extract (120 mg/ kg body)(ET) and experimental groups EX1 to  EX3 were fed  with ethanol (5 g/kg) plus MOEB in graded doses of 80 mg, 120 mg and 160 mg/kg body for 30 days.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at the Department of Biological Sciences (DBS) of University of Botswana between July 2009-June 2010.

Methodology: At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed; blood and liver tissue were collected to conduct the bioassays.  From the blood collected, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were estimated together with the liver markers such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). From the liver tissue collected, about 10 small pieces were fixed in 10% formalin for histological preparations and the rest was used for bioassays such as TBARS, GSH, CAT and SOD.

Results: The results indicated that there were significant difference between the experimental rats (EX-groups) when compared with alcohol control (EC-group) in all the parameters checked and they were not significantly different from the normal control (NC-group). Again, the groups, treated with extracts only, did not show any negative effect, which clearly indicated that the extract had no toxic effects. A significant reduction in the levels of TBARS, ALT, and AST and a significant increase in the levels of GSH, CAT and SOD were noticed in EX groups when compared with the EC groups. Thus the results indicated a significant protection by these extracts against ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity (P ≤0.05).

Conclusion: The present study showed that MEOB is a potent antioxidant agent in preventing and controlling the hepatotoxicity induced by ethanol and induce a protective effect by decreasing the oxidative stress and increasing the antioxidant status.


Open Access Original Research Article

A Natural Formulation Increases Brain Resistance to Oxidative Stress

Luigi Menghini, Claudio Ferrante, Lidia Leporini, Giorgio Pintore, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Rugia Shohreh, Lucia Recinella, Giustino Orlando, Michele Vacca, Luigi Brunetti

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 171-182
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/7150

Aims: Oxidative stress is an imbalance in the pro-oxidant/antioxidant homeostasis, characterized by excess accumulation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and free radicals that can be toxic for cells by initiating disruptive peroxidation reactions on cellular substrates such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Neurons have a high content of unsaturated fatty acids which are easily peroxidable by the elevated levels of ROS and RNS produced by brain oxygen metabolism, yielding isoprostanes among which 8-iso-PGF derived from arachidonic acid represents a stable marker of lipoperoxidation, in vivo. Numerous findings pointed to the protective role of natural products against oxidative stress in the brain.

Methodology: In the present work we evaluated the effects of a natural formula containing bacopa extract, vitamin E, astaxanthin and phosphatidylserine on lipoperoxidation in rat brain cortex, both in vivo and in vitro.

Results: The results demonstrate that the natural formula could reduce basal and hydrogen peroxide- and amyloid β peptide-induced oxidative stress, as evidenced by the reduction of 8-iso-PFG and ROS/RNS production in the rat brain.

Conclusion: Results could account for a rational use of herbal products in the treatment of conditions characterized by increased burden of oxidative stress and defective antioxidant mechanisms, such as aging and neurodegenerative disorders.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Spondias pinnata Kurz. Leaves

Preeti Jain, Khondker Rufaka Hossain, Tamanna Rashid Mishu, Hasan Mahmud Reza

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 183-195
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/7048

Aims: To evaluate the antibacterial and antioxidant potential of various extracts of S. pinnata leaves.

Study Design:  Cold extraction of the leaves using various solvents followed by in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial assays.

Place and Duration of Study:  Department of Pharmacy, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh, August 2011 to February 2012.

Methodology:  Dried leaves were powdered and extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol followed by screening for the presence of phytochemicals. The antioxidant potential of the extracts was evaluated using multiple in vitro models which included 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide and superoxide radical scavenging assays and reducing power estimation. Ascorbic acid and quercetin were used as the reference antioxidants. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were determined using Folin–Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride colorimetric method respectively. Antibacterial property of the extracts was evaluated against four gram-positive and four gram-negative bacteria using disc diffusion technique followed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) determination.

Results: The extracts obtained in this study showed a varied level of scavenging activities. Ethanol extract exhibited the highest free radical scavenging activity at tested concentrations. High scavenging activity was also observed with ethyl acetate extract while hexane extract showed poor antioxidant activity. The reducing power increased with increasing amounts of extract in all cases. Ethanol extract displayed the highest total phenolic content (27.76±1.11 mg GAE/g extract) while the highest flavonoid content was shown by ethyl acetate extract (86.53±1.95 mg QE/ g extract). Again, all the extracts showed antibacterial activity with zone of inhibition ranging from 8.33±1.53 to 28.67±0.58 mm. The Lowest MIC and MBC values were found with ethanol extract which was 2.0 and 3.5 mg/ml respectively against Staphylococcus aureus.

Conclusion:  The results suggest that extracts of S. pinnata leaf may serve as a potential source of natural antioxidant and antibacterial agents for pharmaceutical application.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Protective Effect of Coriandium sativum Extract on Hepato-renal Toxicity Induced in Irradiated Rats

H. A. Fahmy, N. H. Shreif, O. A. Gharib

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 196-205
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/7238

Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of ethanolic extract of coriander leaves as a potent in vivo antioxidant agent in an effort of finding possible sources of antioxidants for future use in food and pharmaceutical formulations.

Study Design: Randomized controlled experiment.

Place and Duration of Study: Experimental Animal Unit, Drug Radiation Research Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo Egypt.

Methodology: Antioxidant activity of ethanol extract of coriander leaves was estimated by oxidative stress induced by radiation exposure with the dose of 4 Gy, Silymarin was used as a reference antioxidant drug in female albino rat.

Results: Results of experiment revealed that radiation exposure caused a significant increase in serum caspase3 (0.870± 0.086), alanine transaminase (ALT) activity (24.43± 5.02) as well as urea (42.53± 6.11) and creatinine (0.865± 0.064) levels with an increase in liver and kidney lipid peroxidation (MDA) (307.0± 29.22 & 285.5± 48.93) respectively, while decrease in serum albumin (3.003± 0.355), protein (8.66± 0.436) as well as glutathione (GSH) contents of liver and kidney tissues (63.24± 12.19 & 17.38± 1.414)  were estimated respectively. In addition serum globuline level and albumin /globuline ratio showed no significant changes.  On the other hand, the administration of coriander (600 mg/kg bw) and silymarin (70 mg/kg bw) pre-treatment effectively prevented these alterations and maintained the antioxidant status.

Conclusion: Data from present results revealed that Coriandum Sativum act as an antioxidant agent due to its free radical scavenging and cytoprotective activity.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antisickling Properties of Two Calliandra Species: C. portoricensis and C. haematocephala (Fabaceae)

O. O. Amujoyegbe, J. M. Agbedahunsi, M. A. Akanmu

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 206-219
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/2996

Aim: To investigate the antisickling potentials of two Calliandra species namely C. portoricensis (Jacq) Benth and C. haematocephala Hassk in vitro.

Study Design: Evaluation of antisickling activities of medicinal plants on human sickled red blood cells in vitro.

Place and Duration of Study: Research Laboratory of Drug Research and Production Unit, Faculty of Pharmacy Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Nigeria. September 2010 to November, 2011.

Methodology: After obtaining ethical clearance, fresh blood samples (5ml) each were collected from confirmed sickle cell anaemia patients who were in a steady state and were attending the routine clinic. Water and 70% ethanol were used separately for the extraction of the leaves and roots of the two plants. The extracts were assessed using the inhibitory and reversal methods in vitro.

Results: It was observed that there was linear increase in inhibitory and reversal activities of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the parts used as the concentration increased. The ethanolic root extract of C. portoricensis exhibited the highest activity for inhibitory (90.19%) and reversal activities (92.63%) both at 4mg/ml.

Conclusion: Calliandra species possessed antisickling properties in vitro with C. portoricensis being the more active plant.


Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Composition and In vitro Studies of the Essential Oil and Aqueous Extract of Pelargonium graveolens Growing in Jordan for Hypoglycaemic and Hypolipidemic Properties

F. U. Afifi, V. Kasabri, R. Abu-Dahab, IM. Abaza

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 220-233
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/7022

Aims: This study aimed to analyze the chemical composition of essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens L. Her. ex Ait. growing in Jordan and to test the efficacy of the leaves aqueous extract and essential oil against pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase (PL), α-amylase and α-glucosidase.

Study Design: GC-MS analysis of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation and Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) methods as well as in vitro enzymatic investigations.

Place and Duration of Study: Faculty of Pharmacy, The University of Jordan, between November 2012 and August 2013.

Results: The hydrodistilled oil of P. graveolens fresh leaves yielded twenty eight components, accounting for 95.83 % of the total oil content, while thirty seven components were detected from the fresh leaves by SPME (98.86%). Twenty six and thirty one components were identified in the hydrodistilled and SPME oils of the dried leaves amounting to 96.08 % and 97.83 %, respectively. Oxygenated monoterpenes predominated the volatile fractions of the leaves of both methods with citronellol, citronellyl formate and menthone/isomenthone as the major constituents.  Similar to orlistat (PL IC50 of 114.0 ± 4.0 ng/mL), P. graveolens extract and volatile oil  as well as their purified phyto-constituents inhibited highly substantially in a dose dependent trend PL in vitro (n=3). The P. graveolens extract PL- IC50 was 207.4±15.2 µg/mL. As for their volatile oils’ components, PL- IC50 (%) (V/V) in an ascending order were: menthone; 0.01±0.0 <geraniol; 0.34±0.02 < linalool; 0.7 ± 0.0 < caryophyllene; 1.17±0.12 <P. graveolens oil; 2.93 ± 0.27. Comparable to acarbose, P. graveolens leaves aqueous extracts (AEs) were identified as in vitro potent and efficacious dual inhibitors of α-amylase and α-glucosidase with IC50: 4.6±0.1 mg/mL  (p<0.001, n=3).

Conclusion: Taken together, P. graveolens leaves, as a nutraceutical modulating gastrointestinal carbohydrate and lipid digestion and absorption, maybe advocated as candidate for obesity-diabetes/metabolic syndrome management.


Open Access Original Research Article

Nephroprotective and Curative Assessment of an Aqueous Seed Extract of Parkia clappertoniana Keay in Gentamicin-induced Renal Damage in Sprague-dawley Rats

Alex Boye, George Asumeng Koffuor, Joyce Ampong, Enoch Odame Anto, Lydia Francisca Otoo

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 234-248
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/6328

Aim: To assess the nephroprotective and curative effects of an aqueous seed extract of Parkia clappertoniana on gentamicin-induced renal damage (GIRD) in Sprague-Dawley rats.

Study Design: Experimental

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Medical Laboratory, University of Cape Coast, Ghana between September, 2012 and May 2013.

Methodology: In assessing nephro protective effect, rats were pretreated (10 days) with P. clappertoniana aqueous seed extract (1-2 g kg-1; p.o) prior to induction of renal damage by treatment with gentamicin (0.08g kg-1; p.o, for 8 days. Serum biochemical markers (Creatinine, Urea, Na+ and K+) and urine parameters (leukocyte, protein, specific gravity and pH) of renal damage were determined and compared with baseline values. In a curative study, GIRD in rats was treated with Normal Saline (2 ml kg-1; p.o), Losartan (0.05 g kg-1; p.o), or extract (1-2 g kg-1; p.o) for 14 days and serum and urine parameters determined for all treatments. Histopathology and changes in kidney weights for normal and treated rats in both studies were assessed. The extract was screened for DPPH radical scavenging activity.

Results: The extract significantly (P ≤ .001) reduced elevated serum creatinine and urea secondary to GIRD (P ≤ .05) and significantly (P ≤ .05) reduced elevated serum Na+ but had no effect on K+. Elevated urine proteins and leucocytes secondary to GIRD was significantly (P ≤ .05) reduced; but had no significant effect on urine pH and specific gravity. Elevated kidney weights associated with GIRD was significantly (P≤ .01) reduced. Histopathological assessment revealed healing effect by extract to GIRD. Effects of the extract were similar to Losartan. Pretreatment with extract however had no significant effect on GIRD as serum and urine parameters, as well as kidney weights were significantly (P≤ .01) elevated on induction of renal damage.

Conclusion: The aqueous seed extract of Parkia clappertoniana has curative but no nephroprotective effect on gentamicin-induced renal damage in Sprague-Dawley rats.