Open Access Short Research Article

Identification of cis- and trans- Melilotoside within an Artemisia annua Tea Infusion

J. Mouton, F. Van der Kooy

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 52-63
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/6385

Aims: To identify the major chemical components contained within the Artemisia annua tea infusion, which has been traditionally used to treat fevers and chills.

Study Design:  Currently, little chemical data exists on the tea infusion as previous work only focused on LC-MS analysis and although a valuable analytical tool it remains difficult to identify new compounds. Our study therefore employed LC-MS and NMR analysis in order to confirm the identities of the major compounds.

Place and Duration of Study: Natural Products Laboratory, Institute of Biology, Leiden University between Jan 2012 and December 2012.

Methodology: A thorough chemical analysis of the tea infusion was completed using both LC-MS and NMR analyses. Tea infusions were prepared using deionised water and were subjected to LC-MS analysis followed by semi-preparative fractionation and NMR analysis to confirm the identities of the major compounds.

Results: Eleven major compounds were identified including chlorogenic acids, feruloylquinic acids, flavonols, coumarins, of which two compounds, cis- and trans-melilotoside, are new for Artemisia spp.

Conclusion: The melilotosides are known to be active against diarrhoea causing pathogens and therefore might explain the traditional use of A. annua to treat diarrhoea. Future work will focus on the quantification of the melilotosides and the identification of other compounds (major and minor) in the tea infusion.


Open Access Original Research Article

Medicinal Plants from the Brazilian Savanna with Antibacterial Properties

Ary Fernandes Júnior, Gabriela S. da Silva, Lidiane N. Barbosa, Fernanda C. B. Alves, Bruna F. M. T. Andrade, Mariana Albano, Luiz C. Di Stasi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/5945

Aims: Research on natural antimicrobials has increased due to the emergence of microbial strains resistant to conventional antibiotics. We investigated and report here the in vitro antibacterial properties of crude extracts from Brazilian savanna plants (Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC (“macela”), Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville (”barbatimão”), Miconia rubiginosa (Bonpl.) DC (“quaresma branca”), Davilla elliptica A. St.-Hil. (“lixinha”), Siparuna guianensis (“negramina”) and Solanum lycocarpum A. St.-Hil. (“lobeira”).

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Biosciences Institute, São Paulo State University from January 2010 to December 2011.

Methodology: Antibacterial activities were investigated using two methods: the disk diffusion method against American Type Culture Collection bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus – ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli – ATCC 22652, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa – ATCC 27853) and the susceptibility assays by agar dilution method (Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA) aiming the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and MIC90% (mg.mL-1), against S. aureus, E. coli and P. aeruginosa strains isolated from human clinical specimens. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of crude extracts was also performed.

Results: By agar dilution test, the D. elliptica leaf extract was efficient against all strains (MIC90% values of 0.7, 2.6, and 2.1 mg.mL-1 against S. aureus, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa, respectively), while the S. guianensis leaf extract showed the lowest activity (12.2, >32.0, and 26.0 mg.mL-1 against S. aureus, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa, respectively). We detected flavonoids and phenolic compounds in all studied extracts.

Conclusion: All studied extracts showed antibacterial activity by the agar dilution method, although M. rubiginosa and S. guianensis leaves extracts did not show inhibitory action against E. coli and P. aeruginosa strains. There was a greater sensitivity of S. aureus and the D.elliptica leaf extract showed the highest efficiency over most of the strains tested. Additionally, the results show that it is possible to obtain conflicting results using the disk diffusion method and the dilution method.


Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatoprotective Effect of Origanum elongatum against Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Induced Toxicity in Rats

B. Douhri, M. Idaomar, N. Skali Senhaji, A. Ennabili, J. Abrini

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 14-28
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/5132

Aims: This study was undertaken to investigate the potential effect of methanol extract of Origanum elongatum (OEME) given orally by gavage against intraperitoneal injection a single dose of Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)(0.6 ml/kg) induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

Study Design: Biochemical analysis, histological examination and in vivo study.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Biology and health (Faculty of Science), between June 2012 and August 2012.

Methodology: Hepatoprotective activity of OEME at four doses of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg and 2000 mg/kg body weight. The degree of protection was estimated by biochemical analysis of serum liver biomarkers: AST, ALT, ALP and by liver histopathological examination.

Results: The total phenolic content of OEME (83.61 ± 0.19 mg AGE / g extract) and total flavonoid content (10.85 ± 0.05 mg QE / g extract) were found significantly high. The present study showed that OEME was dose dependently decreased hepatic histopathological changes and serum liver biomarkers levels in CCl4 intoxicated rats.

Conclusion: Data from present results revealed the hepatoprotection of OEME against hepatotoxic products or drugs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ethnopharmacological Survey of Medicinal Plants Used against Malaria in Bukavu City (D. R. Congo)

F. M. Kasali, A. O. Mahano, D. S. Nyakabwa, N. J. Kadima, F. M. Misakabu, D. S. T. Tshibangu, K. N. Ngbolua, P. T. Mpiana

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 29-44
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/5766

Aims: An Ethnopharmacological survey was conducted in the city of Bukavu, in order to identify plant species and recipes used in Congolese folk medicine for the treatment of malaria.

Study Design: Survey; plant collection; plant identification and classification: family, used part, treated disease, recipes preparation; floristic characterization.

Place and Duration of Study: “Université Officielle de Bukavu” (DR Congo), from February 2011toDecember 2012.

Methodology: Forty-nine healers belonging to different ethnic groups were interviewed about the plant species used in traditional medicine for the management of malaria in the city of Bukavu.  The name of the plants, the plant parts, the modes of preparation and the modes of administration of recipes were recorded. Cited plants were collected and identified at herbarium of the Laboratory of Ecology and Plants Resource Management, Faculty of Sciences, “Université Officielle de Bukavu”. The plants ecological status was also determined.

Results: Forty species of plants belonging to twenty seven botanical families were identified. The main habitat preference of species is cultivated (62%), trees constituted 33% of morphological type while 30% of biological type are microphanerophytes. The decoction was the main mode of preparation (47.5%) and almost all recipes (100%of cases) are administrated by oral route. Leaves constituted sixty percent of plant organs used for drug preparation.

Conclusion: Some plant species cited (62.5%) are known in the literature to possess antimalarial activity. Further studies should be undertaken to investigate effectiveness of other plants that have not yet been studied and to determine their chemical composition.


Open Access Original Research Article

Screening for Antimicrobial Activity of Cissampelos pareira L. Methanol Root Extract

Njeru S. Ngoci, Musa Ramadhan, Mwaniki S. Ngari, Oduor P. Leonard

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 45-51
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/5464

Aims: To screen for the antibacterial activity of Cissampelos pareira L. using six bacteria (Two Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae) and four Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris). The phytochemicals that are responsible for the bioactivity were also screened.

Study Design: An In vitro antibacterial assay was done using disc diffusion.

Place and Duration of Study: Samples were collected from Mbeere community, Embu county-Kenya. Authentication of botanical identity was done at the department of biological sciences while extraction and phytochemical analysis was undertaken in the department of Chemistry, Egerton University-Kenya. Antimicrobial bioassay was carried out at Department of Microbiology, Rift Valley Provincial General Hospital.

Methodology: Disc diffusion test was used to determine antimicrobial activity to plant extracts. Chemical tests were used to determine the group of phytochemicals present in the sample extract.

Results: Cissampelos pareira L. methanol root extract demonstrated antibacterial activity to four of the six tested bacteria. The highest inhibition was demonstrated toward S. aureus (20 mm), S. typhimurium (17 mm), K. pneumoniae (14 mm) and E. coli at (9 mm). P. vulgaris and S. pneumoniae were not sensitive to the extract at all. The phytochemical screening demonstrated the presence of all phytochemicals tested (alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids and steroids).

Conclusion: This study reveals that Cissampelos pareira L. has antibacterial activity to both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. This antibacterial activity is associated with the variety of phytochemicals found in this plant. Therefore, the plant has potential to be harnessed for further study in drug discovery.


Open Access Original Research Article

Microtuberization of Ceropegia pusilla Wight and Arn. an Endangered Medicinal Plant

K. Kalimuthu, R. Prabakaran, S. Paulsamy, S. Jeyaraman

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 64-74
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/5266

An efficient micropropagation (direct & indirect) and microtuberization protocol for an endemic and ethanomedicinal plant Ceropegia pusilla is described. The highest number of shoot initiation (3.50 ±0.34) and higher average shoot number in shoot subculture (15.40 ± 1.65) were recorded on MS medium supplemented with BAP+NAA (2.5+0.5 mg/l). The best performance of callus induction and morphogenesis was found on MS medium supplemented with BAP and NAA from stem. The callus initiation was recorded on MS medium supplemented with BAP+NAA (0.5 + 1.0 mg/l) and the higher percentage of callus forming shoots from callus subculture is determinate to be 90-95 ± 7.93. MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of cytokinins and auxins supported the induction of microtubers, in vitro flowering and roots. The microtubers and root formation occurred on the basal region of the shoots in MS medium containing BAP (1.5mg/l) and NAA (0.5mg/l). The higher average number of root length was (2.8 ± 0.68cm) also observed in the same concentration. The plantlets regenerated in vitro with well-developed shoots, microtubers and roots were successfully established in pots containing hardening media and grown in a shade house with 81± 3.16% survival rate.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Properties of the Leaf Extracts of Anthocleista djalonensis A. Chev on Some Pathogenic Organisms

A. I. Akinyemi, A. O. Ogundare

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 75-85
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/4250

Aims: To determine the antibacterial effect of methanol, petroleum ether and hot water extracts of Anthocleista djalonensis A. Chev on some pathogenic bacteria and to establish the use of the leaf extract in herbal medicine.

Study Design: In vitro assay of antibacterial properties.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria, between November 2011 and January 2012.

Methodology: Collection of bacterial isolates; preparation of plant extracts; phytochemical screening; in vitro susceptibility test (agar well diffusion assay); minimum inhibitory concentration; antibiotics sensitivity test (disc diffusion assay); rate of killing of plant extracts; sodium and potassium ion leakage.

Results: The results of the phytochemical screening showed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroid, terpenoid and cardiac glycosides. All the leaf extracts inhibited all the test organisms except Escherichia coli which was not inhibited by petroleum ether extract. The methanol extract had the highest effect on the test organisms. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extracts ranged between 10 mg/mL and 40 mg/mL. The result of the antibacterial activity of the leaf extracts compared favourably with the activity of standard antibiotics. It was observed that the number of bacterial cells was decreasing with increase in time of interaction between the extracts and the bacterial cells at a concentration 50 mg/mL of the extracts. There was also increase in the number of sodium and potassium ion leaked from the bacterial cells by the leaf extracts.

Conclusion: The results of the study indicate the antibacterial potential of Anthocleista djalonensis A. Chev which may be a source of new bioactive compounds for drug development. The results obtained also establish the use of the plant in traditional phytomedicine for the diseases caused by the microorganisms.


Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Leaf-extracts of Pterocarpus santalinoides

Odeh I. Chic, Tor- Anyiin T. Amom

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 105-115
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/5455

Aim: This study was undertaken to examine the phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of leaf-extracts of Pterocarpus santalinoides, a plant with wide application in Igede people’s traditional medicine against microbial infections.

Methodology: Successive extraction of leaves of this plant at room temperature using petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, butanol, ethanol and water was carried out. These extracts were phytochemically screened qualitatively for the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and terpenoids using established literature procedures. Agar well diffusion technique was used to screen the extract for antimicrobial activity. MICs, MBCs and MFCs for the various extracts were determined by the tube dilution technique. Graded concentrations of the extract solutions in Mueller Hinton broth were used for the tests. MBCs and MFCs were done to establish the nature of antimicrobial activity of these extracts.

Results: Qualitative phytochemical screening of leaf-extracts of P. santalinoides revealed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins-glycosides and tannins (except ethanol extract that contained no tannins). These extracts inhibited growth of test organisms, and implies antimicrobial activity on E. coli, P. mirabilis, S. typhi, S. aureus and C. albicans.  Zones of inhibition ranged from 17-24 mm. The MICs ranged from 5.0 mg/ml to 10 mg/ml while MBCs and MFCs ranged from 10 mg/ml to 20 mg/ml. Ethanol extracts showed the widest zone of inhibition followed by aqueous extracts (24 mm and 21 mm, respectively).

Conclusion: These results lend support to the ethnomedicinal applications of this plant by the Igede people of North Central Nigeria, in treating infections caused by these test organisms which are human pathogens. The ethanol extract in particular, may be exploited as a possible antimicrobial agent for the management of infectious pathogenic diseases caused by these microorganisms.


Open Access Original Research Article

Syzygium sp (Myrtaceae) Extracts: Inhibition of Alpha Amylase

Tuanny Cavatão de Freitas, Chrystian Araújo Pereira, Luciana Lopes Silva Pereira

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 116-125
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/6781

Aims: The aims of this study were: a) prepare crude extracts of commercial teas Syzygium sp by different methods (maceration, decoction and infusion) in different proportions (1:20, 1:50 and 1:100) and b) submit them the inhibition assays digestive enzyme alpha-amylase before and after exposure to a simulated gastric fluid.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratório de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas e Naturais, Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro, Brazil, between August 2012 and July 2013.

Methodology: Five samples of Syzygium sp teas were purchased commercially from pharmacies, drugstores and health food stores.

Results: In the first step - inhibition of enzymatic extracts of the teas without simulated gastric fluid - the results showed significant inhibition of alpha-amylase (mean 92.84%, CV = 3.86%). However, when these extracts were placed in contact with the simulated gastric fluid was observed decreased inhibition of alpha – amylase, suggesting a possible reduction of hypoglycemic potential of these teas under physiological conditions.

Conclusion: Aqueous extract Syzygium sp have high percentages of inhibition of the enzyme amylase, suggesting a potential hypoglycemic effect. Additional studies aiming at elucidating the chemical compounds present in the extracts of Syzygium sp using chromatographic techniques will be performed.


Open Access Review Article

Genus Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae): A Review of Its Ethnomedicinal, Botanical, Chemical and Pharmacological Properties

Rola Milad, Sherweit El-Ahmady, Abdel Nasser Singab

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 86-104
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2014/5901

Genus Kalanchoe comprises hundred species. Different extracts of these Kalanchoe species have been widely used in traditional medicine. Recently it has been reported that Kalanchoe extracts possess various biological activities viz. antiviral, sedative, antiulcer, immunomodulatory, antileishmanial, CNS depressant, anti-inflammatory, thyroid peroxidase inhibitor, cytotoxic, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, analgesic, anticonvulsant, antimicrobial, inhibition of B cell development, cardiovascular, antihyperglycemic, acetylcholinesterase inhibition, insecticidal and larvicidal activities. Earlier studies on different Kalanchoe species have reported the isolation of polysaccharides, flavonoids, sterols, ascorbic acid, trace elements, organic acids, hydrocarbons, triterpenoids, phenolic components and bufadenolides. This review presents the botany, chemistry, traditional uses and pharmacological data of genus Kalanchoe.