Open Access Original Research Article

Preparation and Evaluation of Annona glabra L. Leaf Extract Contained Alginate Film for Burn Healing

Hoang Le Son, Nguyen Thanh Tram

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 485-499
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2013/5001

Aims: To prepare and evaluate herbal wound dressing comprising of Annona glabra L. leaf extract and calcium alginate on experimental animal models.

Study design: Qualitative analysis for phytochemicals was carried out. Wound dressing material was formulated and characterized before the efficacy of formula was evaluated.

Place and Duration of Study: School of Biotechnology, International University, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City, between August, 2012 and May, 2013.

Methodology: Phytochemicals from ethanol leaf extract were screened by standard methods. Extract-loaded calcium alginate films were first dried cast from the gel formulations of 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0%, 4.0%, and 0% (w/v) extract. The dried film morphologies and in vivo wound healing profiles were then investigated. Third-degree burn wounds were induced in Swiss albino mice divided into seven groups of 5 mice each. Groups I-V were given formula containing 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0%, 4.0%, and 0% (w/v) extract, respectively. Group VI (negative control) received no treatment at all while group VII (positive control) was applied the standard dressing, Urgo Algoplaque (Laboratories Urgo).

Results: Phytoconstituents that were detected including flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, tannins, steroids, acidic compounds, and anthraquinones. There was a negligible difference in the physicochemical appearance of the prepared dressings. The topical application of these extract-loaded films with a dose of up to 4% extract accelerated significantly (P<0.001) wound healing process compared to the standard dressing Urgo Algoplaque. Groups I-IV were healed in a mean time of 16.8, 14.6, 11.6, and 11 days respectively, which were even faster than that of the standard dressing (18.4 days). The most prominent formula facilitated wound contraction without dermal irritation was the film impregnated 3.0% extract.

Conclusion: Administration of the A. glara contained dressing promotes burn healing as evidenced by decreased healing time and faster wound contraction. It could be stated that A. glabra leaves possess wound healing property.


Open Access Original Research Article

Protective Effect of Methanolic Extract of Hylocereus polyrhizus Fruits on Carbon Tetra Chloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rat

Abu Mohammed Taufiqual Islam, Md. Ashraf Uddin Chowdhury, Muhammad Erfan Uddin, Md. Mominur Rahman, Md. Razibul Habib, Md. Golam Mezbah Uddin, M. Atiar Rahman

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 500-507
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2013/5090

Aims: This research investigated the Protective effect of methanolic extract of Hylocereus Polyrhizus fruits on carbon tetra chloride-induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss-albino rat.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacy, IIUC, Chittagong, Bangladesh and Functional Food Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Gangneung Institute, Gangneung, Korea, between August 2011 to October, 2012.

Methodology: Hepatoprotective potential was evaluated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver injured animal model using male albino rats. Carbon tetrachloride significantly elevated the serum levels of biochemical markers like ALT, AST, ALP, bilirubin, total protein, total cholesterol, triglycerides.

Results: The methanolic extract of Hylocereus polyrhizus at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight (p.o.) significantly protected the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver toxicity in albino rat model. The activity of extract was also comparable to that of silymarin, a known hepatoprotective drug.

Conclusion: The study suggests that oral intake of Hylocereus polyrhizus fruits extract enhances the defense status against liver injury.


Open Access Original Research Article

Long Term Anti-Diabetic, Anti-Hyperlipidaemic and Anti-Atherogenic Effects of Carica papaya Leaves in Streptozotocin Diabetic Rats

Omonkhua Akhere A., Onoagbe Iyere O., Ajileye Afolabi F., Aladegboye Lekan O., Adetoboye Ayodeji R.

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 508-519
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2013/4097

Aim: To evaluate the long term (24 weeks) anti-diabetic, anti-hyperlipidaemic and anti-atherogenic effects of aqueous leaf extract of Carica papaya in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats.

Study Design: The effect of daily oral administration of C. papaya aqueous leaf extract in streptozotocin diabetic rats was monitored for 24 weeks by assessing fasting blood sugar and serum lipid profile.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry Laboratory and Central Research Laboratory, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria. March to October, 2009.

Methodology: 24 rats in three groups, normal control (group 1), diabetic control (group 2) and C. papaya treated diabetic rats, TDR (group 3) were used for this study. Body weight, fasting blood sugar (FBS), total cholesterol, total triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholestrol, as well as atherogenic index (AI) and coronary risk index (CRI), were assessed periodically in the serum for 24 weeks.

Results: Treatment of STZ diabetic rats with C. papaya leaf extract produced significant (P<.05) reductions in FBS from week 2 of treatment. Normoglycaemia was attained in week 8 and sustained till week 24. Significant (P<.05) reductions in serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were also observed for most of the points monitored while HDL-cholesterol was significantly (P<.05) increased. The high AI and CRI caused by STZ diabetes was significantly (P<.05) reduced in the C. papaya treated diabetic rats.

Conclusion: The findings from this study substantiate the long term potential and traditional usage of C. papaya for antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effects.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant, Antliglycation and Antimicrobial Activities of Ziziphus oxyphylla and Cedrela serrata Extracts

Rizwan Ahmad, Atul Upadhyay, Mansoor Ahmad, Luc Pieters

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 520-529
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2013/4890

Aims: To determine the antioxidant, antiglycation and antibacterial activity of two selected plants found wild in Pakistan (Ziziphus oxyphylla and Cedrela serrata).

Study Design: In vitro assessment of antioxidant assays, phenolic and flavonoid content, protein-glycation inhibition and antibacterial study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp Belgium (February - April 2013; Antioxidant, Protein glycation). Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Karachi, Pakistan (March – June, 2012; antibacterial).

Methodology: In vitro laboratory experimental tests; preparation of plant extracts, antioxidant assays (ABTS.+, PMS-NADH radicals), total phenol, total flavonoid; protein glycation (fluorescence); susceptibility tests (zones of inhibition).

Results: The bark of C. serrata contained the highest amount of total phenol (0.35 ± 0.04 mg GAE/g extract) and exhibited significantly superior ABTS.+ and PMS superoxide radical scavenging activity with IC50 values of 0.043 ± 0.001 mg/ml and 0.18 ± 0.01 mg/ml, respectively (P=0.05). Similarly, the protein-glycation assay revealed that the bark of C. serrata had the best inhibitory property with a low IC50 value of 0.61 ± 0.02 mg/ml (P=0.05), probably due to the presence of high amounts of total phenol. Furthermore, the various extracts showed considerable inhibition against both Gram–positive and –negative bacterial growth when compared against two standard drugs neomycin and doxycycline.

Conclusion: The results of this study substantiate a probable role for these plants to be utilized as a natural source of antioxidant having a wide range of bioactivities.


Open Access Original Research Article

Ipomoea batatas L. Extract Reduces Food Intake, Fasting Blood Glucose Levels and Body Weight

Olubobokun Titilope Helen, Aluko Esther Olusola, Iyare Eghosa E., Anyaehie Ugochukwu Bond, Atang Dara Ezekiel

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 530-539
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2013/4673

Aim: Obesity is a global epidemic and increased awareness of the association between chronic disease and excess body weight has motivated consumers to seek weight loss and management aids that are safe and effective. Ipomoea batatas L. (Sweet potato) is among the most nutritious subtropical and tropical vegetables, it is believed to contain substances that can help maintain body weight without side effects. It is also used in traditional medicine for type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study was therefore conducted to determine the effect of the aqueous extract of Ipomoea batatas L. (IB) on food intake, fasting blood glucose and body weight in male wistar rats.

Materials and Methods: Twenty four in-bred male wistar rats weighing 170g-180g were used for this study. The potato tubers were chopped into small pieces and homogenized in distilled water for 30seconds. Homogenate was filtered through muslin cloth into centrifuge tubes and then centrifuged at 120rpm for 20 minutes. The residue was evaporated to dryness; the dried extract was reconstituted in freshly prepared normal saline for administration to test animals. The animals were randomly assigned into four groups of six rats each. Group 1 served as the control and was fed with 0.3ml of normal saline; Group 2-4 was fed with IB extract at 100, 200 and 300mg/kg body weight respectively.

Results: The results showed that in the extract-treated groups, the food intake, blood glucose level and body weight were significantly reduced at p<0.05 when compared with the control group.

Conclusion: Consumption of Ipomoea batatas L. caused a reduction in food intake probably by increasing satiety and reduction in weight gain by using up the body’s reserve of fat as a result of the low blood glucose.


Open Access Original Research Article

Bioactive Constituents and In vitro Antioxidant Capacity of Water Leaf (Talinum triangulare) as Affected by Domestic Cooking

Eleazu Chinedum Ogbonnaya, Eleazu Kate Chinedum

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 540-551
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2013/4577

Background and Aim: Despite the pharmacological relevance of Water leaf (Talinum triangulare), there is paucity of information in literature on the effect of boiling on its pharmacopotency as well as nutritional properties.

Methodology: The total chlorophyll, carotenoids, proximates, phytochemicals, minerals, vitamins and antioxidant assays of the leaves of the vegetable were performed using standard techniques.

Results: The raw leaves of water leaf (Talinum triangulare) possessed considerable amounts of proximates, phytochemicals, minerals, vitamins, chlorophyll as well as anti-oxidant activity but had low levels of carbohydrates and energy value. Cooking of the raw leaves of the vegetable for 5 minutes resulted in insignificant (P>0.05) losses of proximates, phytochemicals, Ca, Fe, Zn, thiamin, riboflavin,  niacin and tocopherol, but significant (P<0.05) losses of vitamin C, carotenoids, Mg, P, chlorophyll and antioxidant activity with a corresponding increase in moisture, proteins and crude fibre contents.

Conclusion: The conventional method of cooking of the raw waterleaf in Nigeria leads to an increase in its protein and crude fibre contents which justifies the usage of the cooked vegetable in the management of obesity, stroke and diabetes mellitus in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vivo Interaction between Extracts of Khaya grandifoliola (Welw) CDC (Meliaceae) and Artemisinin in a Murine Malarial Model

J. M. Agbedahunsi, I. F. Umeevuruo, T. O. Elufioye, A. O. Adepiti

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 552-560
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2013/2862

Aims: To evaluate the antimalarial activity of the aqueous (KGA) and n-hexane (KGN) extracts of the stem bark of Khaya grandifoliola (Meliaceae) in combination with artemisinin (ART) in mice.

Study Design:  Preclinical antimalarial assessment in mice subjects.

Place and Duration of Study: Biological Laboratory, Drug Research and Production Unit, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife between November 2006 and September 2007.

Methodology: In the first phase, 65 mice inoculated intraperitoneally with Plasmodium berghei were divided into groups of five mice each. Oral administration of KGA and KGN (50-400 mg/kg each) and artemisinin (0.2-1.6 mg/kg) was done for four days starting on the day of inoculation in the 4-day antimalarial test model. Giemsa-stained thin blood smear, from the tail of each mouse, was microscopically assessed for the parasitized and total number of red blood cells of ten fields. The combinations of the sub - effective doses of each of KGA and KGN (100 mg/kg) with ART (0.2 mg/kg) were similarly evaluated and assessed.

Results: The median effective doses (ED50) were 0.29, 140 and 160 mg/kg for Artemisinin, KGA and KGN, respectively. The combinations (KGA: ART and KGN: ART) resulted in improved parasitemia suppression which were statistically significant (P = .05) when compared with the percentage parasitaemia obtained for individual agents of the combinations.

Conclusion: Extracts of K. grandifoliola potentiated the antimalarial activity of Artemisinin.  The results showed beneficial interaction with potentials in antimalarial combination therapy.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antinociceptive and Hypoglycemic Activities of Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott in Laboratory Animals

Nafisa Ferdous, Shehla Unaiza Hridi, J. M. A. Hannan

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 561-576
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2013/ 5259

Aims: The fruit of Scindapsus officinalis is known as Gajapeepal in Ayurveda. The folk lore claim of S. officinalis fruits are antidiabetic, anthelmintic, antidiarrhoeal, carminative, expectorant, tonic, antiprotozoal, anticancer, sharpening hearing, cardiotonic and regulating the bowel and appetite. It is also used in dysentery, asthma, troubles of the throat, bronchitis and for many other medical conditions. Hence the present studies were undertaken to highlight the chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of the fruit.

Study Design: In this study, the ethanol extract of S. officinalis (EE0SF) was primarily evaluated through phytochemical screening. The compounds found in the fruit are of pharmacological interest which prompted us to focus the research on its possible analgesic and anti-diabetic activity and whether these effects are of any statistical significance.

Place and Duration of Study: The research experiments were conducted in the Pharmacology laboratory of Department of Pharmacy, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The studies were carried out during July 2013 to January 2013.

Methodology: Qualitative phytochemical tests for the identification of various chemical constituents in the fruit extract were carried out with proper reagents. Analgesic potential of the fruit extract was assessed using acetic acid induced writhing response in Swiss albino mice. In this method, acetic acid is injected intraperitoneally to the experimental animals and the response is contraction of the abdominal muscles and the stretching of the hind limps. The fruit was further subjected to anti-diabetic study through six segment method and was investigated for anti-hyperglycemic effects in Long Evans rats.

Results: Phytochemical analysis of ethanolic extract of S. officinalis has indicated the presence of steroid, carbohydrate, flavonoid, alkaloid, tanin, saponin and terpenoid-compounds. The analgesic experiment yielded a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in writhing at both 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight dose of extract in a dose dependent manner. The extract, at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight, caused a significant (p<0.05) dose dependent inhibition of sucrose absorption in six different segments of the gut and manifested hypoglycemic effects in rats at four different hours.

Conclusion: In conclusion, these observations provide evidence and possible mechanisms of action for the medicinal properties of fruit of S.officinalis claimed in Ayurveda medicine.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antiulcerogenic Activity of Kigelia africana, Nauclea latifolia and Staudtia stipitata on Induce Ulcer in Albino Rats

R. T. Orole, O. O. Orole, T. O. Adejumo

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 577-590
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2013/4971

Aim: Ethanolic extracts of Kigelia africana, Nauclea latifolia and Staudtia stipitata were investigated for their phytochemical constituents and antiulcerogenic potential on aspirin induced ulcer in albino rats at 150mg/kg, 300mg/kg, and 450mg/kg body weights.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at Department of Biochemistry, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria, between June 2009 and August 2010.

Methodology: Ulcer was induced by administering aspirin (200mg/kg body weight) orally to albino rats. Phytochemical screening of leaf extracts was done using standard methods after ethanolic extraction had been concluded.  Biochemical parameters showing the effects of ethanolic extracts of the different leaves used in treating ulcer were tested using standard methods.

Result: The extracts gave positive results to saponin, tannins, phylobatannins, anthraquinones and cardiac glycosides. K. africana at a concentration of 450 mg/kg body weight gave the best results with a significant decrease in ulcer index (0.67±0.16) on aspirin-induced ulcerogenic animals compared to 3.0 for the reference drug (Cimetidine at 300mg/kg) and control with 1.67±0.27, while the leaf extracts of S. stipitata showed the least efficacy.

Conclusion: This study contributes to the search for potent and locally available plant materials for managing ulcer disease caused by non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Oral Administration of Methanolic Extract of Ocimum gratissimum on Intestinal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats

J. F. Akinrinmade, A. S. Akinrinde

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 591-602
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2013/ 5425

Aim: The effect of the methanolic extract of Ocimum gratisimum (OG) leaves on the tissue damage induced by ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in the rat intestine was investigated.

Study Design: Randomized controlled experiment.

Place and Duration of Study: Experimental Animal Unit and Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria from March to May, 2013.

Methodology: 18 rats were divided randomly into 3 groups of 6 rats each. Group I served as control; Group II had IR injury by laparotomy with clamping of the Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) for 30 minutes followed by removal of the clamp for 45 minutes; Group III was pre-treated orally for 7days with methanolic extract of Ocimum gratissimum (MEOG) followed by IR injury. Sections of the duodenum and ileum were cut for histopathological examination. The remaining tissues were processed for the determination of biochemical markers of oxidative stress including Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Glutathione concentrations.

Results: Mean values of MDA and H2O2 levels were significantly elevated (P=0.004 and P=0.03, respectively) in intestinal tissues following IR compared to control while reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were not significantly altered. OG (500mg/kg) caused significant reduction (P=0.02 and P=0.04) in MDA concentrations and H2O2 generation, respectively compared with the IR group. Histopathological examination revealed erosions and stunting of the villi tips in the duodenum and ileum, with severe mononuclear infiltration at the mucosal surface in the IR group. No visible lesions were observed in the intestine of the control group, with no significant alterations in the intestinal epithelium of the OG-treated rats.

Conclusion: The results suggest that OG may provide some protection against intestinal mucosal injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion, through its anti-oxidative effects.


Open Access Original Research Article

High-Throughput Screening to Identify Plant Derived Human LDH-A Inhibitors

S. Deiab, E. Mazzio, S. Messeha, N. Mack, K. F. A. Soliman

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 603-615
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2013/5995

Aims: Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-A is highly expressed in diverse human malignant tumors, parallel to aggressive metastatic disease, resistance to radiation /chemotherapy and clinically poor outcome. Although this enzyme constitutes a plausible target in treatment of advanced cancer, there are few known LDH-A inhibitors.

Study Design: In this work, we utilized a high-throughput enzyme micro-array format to screen and evaluate > 900 commonly used medicinal plant extracts (0.00001-.5 mg/ml) for capacity to inhibit activity of recombinant full length human LDHA; EC .

Methodology: The protein sequence of purified enzyme was confirmed using 1D gel electrophoresis- MALDI-TOF-MS/MS, enzyme activity was validated by oxidation of NADH (500µM) and kinetic inhibition established in the presence of a known inhibitor (Oxalic Acid).

Results: Of the natural extracts tested, the lowest IC50s [<0.001 mg/ml] were obtained by: Chinese Gallnut (Melaphis chinensis gallnut), Bladderwrack (Fucus vesiculosus), Kelp (Laminaria Japonica) and Babul (Acacia Arabica). Forty-six additional herbs contained significant LDH-A inhibitory properties with IC50s [<0.07 mg/ml], some of which have common names of Arjun, Pipsissewa, Cinnamon, Pink Rose Buds/ Petals, Wintergreen, Cat’s Claw, Witch Hazel Root and Rhodiola Root.

Conclusion: These findings reflect relative potency by rank of commonly used herbs and plants that contain human LDH-A inhibitory properties. Future research will be required to isolate chemical constituents within these plants responsible for LDH-A inhibition and investigate potential therapeutic application.


Open Access Original Research Article

Phenolic Compounds in Four Astragalus Species

Ilina N. Krasteva

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 616-623
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2013/4976

Aim: To investigate the phenolic compounds in four Astragalus species (A. hamosus, A. ponticus, A. corniculatus and A. cicer) distributed in Bulgarian flora.

Study Design: Using LC-MS, HPLC, UV, NMR and HRESIMS for identification of the compounds.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Sofia, Bulgaria, between May 2009 and December 2012.

Methodology: LC/MS/MS analysis was performed using Agilent 1100 and API 365 tripe-quadrupole mass spectrometer. HPLC was carried on a Shimadzu LC–10 Advp chromatographic system included UV-VIS detector SPD. The structure of the flavonoid isolated from A. hamosus was determined by acid hydrolysis, UV, MS and NMR.

Results: Seven phenolic compounds were identified in A. ponticus, four in A. corniculatus and three in A. cicer by LC/MS/MS and HPLC. The structure of one flavonoid was established on the basis of UV, NMR and HRMS data as rhamnocitrin-3-O-neohesperidoside.

All identified compounds are new for the species and rhamnocitrin-3-O-neohesperidoside – for the genus Astragalus.