Open Access Short communication

Screening of Antimicrobial and Antioxidative Potential of Selected Eastern Himalayan Mosses

Subhra Talai Mukhopadhyay, Souvik Mitra, Anashuya Biswas, Nilansu Das, Mousumi Poddar-Sarkar

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 422-428
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2013/3164

The present study was aimed to determine the antibacterial activity of some mosses [Octoblepharum albidum, Hyophila involuta, H. perannulata, Campylopus introflexus, Syrrhopodon subconfertus, Erythrodontium julaceum and Sematophyllum subhumile] collected from different altitudes of Eastern Himalaya on Gm+ and Gm- bacteria. The antioxidative potential of these genera against 2, 2-Diphenyle-1-pycril-hydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) was also measured to assess their pharmacological importance. Antimicrobial assay was carried out by considering the zone of Inhibition (ZOI) through agar well diffusion method after extraction with two solvent systems (aquous and hydro-ethanol). Bacillus subtilis (B), Staphylococcus aureus (S), Escherichia coli (E) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K) were used for experimentation. The percent inhibition of methanolic DPPH by plant extracts was measured spectrophotometrically. The free radical scavenging activities were examined and expressed in comparison with Vitamin C. Among seven genera studied, S. subconfertus showed antimicrobial activity both on Gm+ and Gm- bacteria although their percentage of DPPH reduction was quite less in all the tested concentrations. In contrast, E. julaceum exhibited dose-dependent-antimicrobial activity on Gm+ and E. coli bacteria and also had appreciable antioxidant property. Therefore, it can be concluded that the antimicrobial potential is not indicative of the antioxidative potential of the respective genera. However, the presence of an important species-specific active compound or ensemble of many active compounds or their relative concentrations might be responsible for their efficacy against bacteria. Thus, survey on Himalayan bryoflora was the primary effort on the way to understand their therapeutic application and for formulation of nutraceuticals.


Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of North African Medicinal Plant Extracts for Cytotoxic Activity Against Tumor Cell Lines

Lamiae Belayachi, Clara Aceves-Luquero, Nawel Merghoub, Youssef Bakri, Silvia Fernández de Mattos, Saaïd Amzazi, Priam Villalonga

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 310-332
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2013/3403

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity and cellular effects of organic extracts and fractions of four plants; Inula viscosa, Ormenis eiriolepis (Asteraceae), Retama monosperma (Fabaceae) and Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae), all of them used in Moroccan traditional medicine.

Methodology: The four plants were extracted using organic solvents and screened on a panel of human cancer cell lines including cell types from both solid and haematological cancer origin as well as non-transformed murine fibroblasts. Cell viability assays were performed with sixteen plant extracts. Sensitive cell lines were then exposed to increasing concentrations of the most efficient extracts in order to calculate IC50 values. Microscopy, flow cytometry and caspase activity assays were then performed in LN229, SW620 and PC-3 cell lines upon treatment to investigate the cell morphology, cell cycle distribution and cell death.

Results: cell viability assays reveals that at least one extract from each plant was able to exert cytotoxic activity against the majority of cell lines tested, the IC50 values of the active extracts were in most cases ≤ 30 µg/ml. the study of the cellular effects of the most active extracts on LN229, SW620 and PC-3 cell lines shows their ability to promote cell cycle arrest and cell death. The data obtained herein support strongly the use of these plants by traditional healers for the treatment of cancer patients and could have some scientific support indicating the presence of bioactive compounds.

Conclusion: The reported biological activity of these four medicinal plants used in traditional Moroccan medicine provides a starting point for forthcoming studies to determine the molecular basis of their activity and to identify the chemical compounds within the most active extracts responsible for their antitumoral effects.


Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening, Anthelmintic and Antiemetic Activities of Polygonum lapathifolium Flower Extract

Latifa Bulbul, Md. Jahir Uddin, Somen Mojumder Sushanta, Jhani Roy

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 333-344
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2013/3163

Aims: The crude methanolic flower extract of Polygonum lapathifolium (s.l.) (family: Polygonaceae) was to evaluate for its possible phytochemical constituents and selected pharmacological activities (anthelmintic and anti-emetic activity) growing in Bangladesh.

Study Design: In vitro anthelmintic and in vivo antiemetic activities were evaluated by Pheretima posthuma model and chick emesis model respectively.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacy, Noakhali Science & Technology University, Noakhali, September, 2012 to December, 2012.

Methodology: Phytochemical screening was done by characteristic color changes using standard procedures. In anthelmintic activity test, the parameters like: time of paralysis (vermifuge) was noted when no movement of any sort could be observed except when the worms were shaken vigorously. Time of death (vermicide) was determined by observing no movement when the worms were shaken vigorously or dipped in warm water (50ºC). The methanol extract was used at the concentration of 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg/ml. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml) was used as standard reference. In anti-emetic test, sample extract was administered at a dose of 150 mg/kg orally and emesis was induced by copper sulphate (50 mg/kg orally). Metoclopramide (50 mg/kg .b.w intraperitoneally) was used as a standard drug. The antiemetic activity was determined by calculating the mean decrease in number of retching in contrast with those of control disorders.

Results: The phytochemical investigation indicated the presence of alkaloids, phytosterols, diterpins, amino acids and proteins, flavonoids and phenolic compounds. The flower extract exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at a concentration of 40 mg/ml compared with standard reference. The flower extract also showed statistically significant antiemetic effect (85.42% inhibition) compared with reference drug which showed 81.25% antiemetic activity.

Conclusion: So, the flower extract exhibited potential anthelmintic and anti-emetic properties, thus provide scientific basis for its use in folk medicine for the management of GI disorders. The plant may further be explored for its various pharmacological activities.


Open Access Original Research Article

Safety and Efficacy of Prunus africana and Warburgia ugandensis Against Induced Asthma in BALB/c Mice

L. W. Karani, F. M. Tolo, S. M. Karanja, C. W. Khayeka

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 345-368
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2013/3669

Aim: In-Vitro and In-Vivo safety and anti-asthmatic activity of stem bark extracts of Prunus africana and Warburgia ugandensis against induced asthma in BALB/c mice.

Methodology: Cytotoxicity on Vero E6 cells were investigated using MTT assay. Acute toxicity was determined by administering single oral gavages of extracts to five groups of BALB/c at 500, 889.56, 1581.64, 2812.15 and 5000mg/kg body weight doses. Efficacy against induced asthma was determined by assaying heart blood serum for ovalbumin specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies and quantification of eosinophil proportion in Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Eight sensitized groups were used, 2 were controls, 3 were treated with P. africana extract and 3 with W. ugandensis; each treatment group received one dose concentration of 125, 250 or 500mg/kg body weight of either plant extracts.

Results: P. africana CC50 was 104.08µg/ml while W. ugandensis had CC50 > 250 µg/ml. In acute toxicity, mortality and signs of toxicity were recorded within 24 hours and the mice monitored for 14 days. There was 20%, 60% and 100% mortality within 24 hours for mice that received P. africana extracts at 1581.64, 2812.15 and 5000mg/kg body weight respectively. Lethal dose (LD50) for P. africana was 2201.207mg/kg body weight. W. ugandensis extracts had no mortality recorded and the LD50 was >5000mg/kg body weight. Treatment with P. africana extracts at 500mg/kg body weight reduced the IgE and BALF Eosinophil to 0.100±0.0001 and 2.80±0.20 respectively which were significantly different from positive controls P<0.05. W. ugandensis extracts at the same concentration reduced the IgE and BALF eosinophils to 0.134±0.00016 and 3.80±0.20 respectively and were significantly different from positive controls P<0.05.

Conclusion: The results attested that P. africana and W. ugandensis stem bark extracts have anti-asthmatic property though there is need for further validation of anti-asthmatic chemical compounds to augment the findings.


Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Phytochemical Screening, Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Celosia isertii

Anthony E. ojieh, Ese C. Adegor, Ewhre O. Lawrence

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 369-380
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2013/3257

Celosia isertii, a small genus of edible and ornamental plants in the amaranth family, Amaranthaceae, has been investigated for a number of properties, such as anti-diabetic activity, hepatoprotective property, anti-diarrheal property and lots more.

Aims: This study investigates the phytochemical compostion, analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of the plant.

Methodology: Aqueous and ethanol extract of Celosia isertii was prepared and used for the experiment

Results: Phytochemical studies carried out on aqueous and ethanol extract of Celosia isertii leaves showed the presence of alkaloid, saponin, phenol, tannin, flavonoid, cardiac glycoside, steroid, phytosterol, triterpenoid and phlobatannin. The anti-inflammatory study carried out on the albino rats that had their paw injected with carrageenan injection to induce edema, showed that at 250 mg/kg plant extract, the anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanol extract was slightly less compared to diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg), a known anti-inflammatory drug. While the analgesic study done on mice in which acetic acid was injected to induce pain, showed that at 250mg/kg of plant extract, the analgesic effect of diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg), was greater than the aqueous extract, but less than the ethanol extract.

Conclusion: The results obtained in this study suggest that Celosia isertii has potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, and therefore can be useful in painful inflammatory conditions.


Open Access Original Research Article

Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity After in vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion of Infusions of Mentha Species

Pedro C. Dinis, Pedro L. Falé, Paulo J. Amorim Madeira, M. Helena Florêncio, Maria L. Serralheiro

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 381-393
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2013/3430

Aims: To study the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of Mentha infusions before and after the gastrointestinal digestion and to correlate this activity with the chemical compounds present in these infusions.

Place and Duration of Study: Fresh Mentha x piperita, M. spicata, M. pulegium were bought in a local supermarket. These plants were composed of leaves, stems and flowers for the identification, which was carried out in Plant Biotechnology Centre, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon. The chemical identification of the infusions and the enzymatic tests were carried out in the Center of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Faculty of Science University of Lisbon from September 2010 till June 2011.

Methodology: The compounds present in the infusions were identified by LC-MS. The enzyme activity assay was carried out using a spectrophotometric method. The digestive simulation was accomplished using enzymatic juices prepared in the laboratory and Caco-2 cells lines simulating the intestine barrier.

Results: All the Mentha infusions contained rosmarinic acid. M. spicata infusion contained also eriocitrin and eriodictyol. The IC50 values for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of the infusions, before digestion, stayed between 0.72 and 1.9 mg/mL. These activities are statistically different at p<.05. These activities can be explained by the presence of the phenolic compounds mentioned. Rosmarinic acid has an IC50 equal to 0.439 mg/mL (1.22 mM), eriocitrin and eriodictyol have IC50 equal to 0.439 mg/mL (0.29 mM) and 0.256 mg/mL (0.89 mM) respectively. The presence of these two flavonoids, eriocitrin and eriodictyol, can account for the higher activity detected for M. spicata. The gastric juice or the pancreatic juices used to simulate the gastrointestinal digestion did not originate any difference in the chemical composition of the infusions (analysed by HPLC-DAD). This was also corroborated by the enzymatic tests. The Caco-2 cells did not originate any modification in the enzymatic activity of the infusions. The analysis of the cell homogenate revealed the presence of rosmarinic acid and the phenolic compounds, although in minor amount.

Conclusion: Mentha infusions have the capacity to inhibit acetylcholinesterase, due to the presence of rosmarinic acid, eriocitrin and eriodictyol The composition of the Mentha herbal teas was not modified by the gastro-intestinal juices, or by the intestinal cell line.


Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Investigations and Antibacterial Activity of Selected Medicinal Plants from Jordan

Sawsan Abuhamdah, Rushdie Abuhamdah, Suleiman Al-Olimat, Paul. Chazot

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 394-404
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2013/3540

Aims: To determine the antibacterial effect of crude methanolic extracts  of six selected medicinal  plants grown in Jordan  (Paronychia argentea Lam., Inula viscosa L., Arbutus andrachne L., Asphodelus microcarpus Salzm et Vivi, Peganum harmala L. and Aloysia citriodora Palau) against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and  Escherichia coli.

Study Design: In vitro assessment antibacterial study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan. Between (December 2012 and January 2013).

Methodology: In-vitro Laboratory experimental tests; preparation of plant extracts, phytochemical screening; susceptibility tests (zones of inhibition) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination.

Results: While the crude methanolic extract of P. argentea, A. andrachne, A. microcarpus had no antibacterial activity, crude extract of P. harmala showed good antibacterial activities against all the tested bacterial strains. MIC values for the seed and root extract of against S. aureus were 0.375 mg/ml and 1.5 mg/ml respectively while MIC values for seed and root extracts against B. subtilis were 0.375 and 6.25 mg/ml, respectively and  also showed week   activity against Gram negative bacteria. The crude methanolic extract of I. viscosa and A. citriodora was also active against bacterial strains S. aureus and B. subtilis and inactive against E. coli. MIC value for I. viscosa extract against S.aureus were 6.25 mg/ml and against B. subtilis 0.375 mg/ml. Meanwhile, MIC value for A. citriodora against S. aureus were 12.5 mg/ml and against B. subtilis 1.5 mg/ml.

Conclusion: Results indicate the potential antibacterial activity of I. viscosa and A. citriodora towards Gram positive bacteria such as B. subtilis and S. aureus. The extracts phytochemical screening revealed the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids and phenolics. These preliminary results would be a guide in the selection of potential candidates for further pharmacological study and in search of new drug candidate for treatment of infections caused by Gram positive bacteria.


Open Access Original Research Article

Cardioprotective and Antilipidemic Effect of Gemmotherapeutically Treated Glycyrrhiza glabra against Isoproterenol Induced Myocardial Injury

Mohsina Hamid, Khalil- ur-Rehman, Nazish Jahan

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 405-421
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2013/2226

Aims: To evaluate preventive (pre- treated) and curative (post treated) potential of gemmomodified and native extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra for alleviating harmful changes in lipid profile (HDL, LDL, TG, TC) and cardiac enzymes (CK-MB, LDH, SGOT, SGPT) against isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial injury in rabbits. 

Study Design: In vivo study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, between February 2011 and April 2011.

Methodology: Thirty six rabbits weighing 1.25 ± 0.2 Kg were allocated into six groups (Control, Ischemia, Gemmo curative, Native curative, Gemmo preventive and Native preventive) having six animals each. Rabbits were fed normal diet for 20 days. Gemmo preventive and Native preventive groups were also given gemmo modified and native extract (100 mg kg-1). On 20th day and 21st day rabbits were given ISO (50 mg kg-1). Five days after the ischemia the Gemmo curative and Native curative groups were given gemmo and native extracts (100 mg kg-1). Serum activities of lipid profile and cardiac enzymes were determined.

Results: ISO administration significantly lowered (P=.05) HDL level and increased (P=.05) LDL, TG and TC as compared with control rabbits. ISO injury significantly increased (P=.05) the levels of cardiac enzymes CK-MB. LDH, SGOT and SGPT as compared with control rabbits. Curative treatment with gemmo and native extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra significantly increased (P=.05) level of HDL and lowered (P=.05) the level of LDL, TG, TC and cardiac enzymes as compared with ischemic rabbits. Pre treatment with gemmo and native extracts prevented the reduction (P=.05) in HDL level and resisted the rise (P=.05) in other lipid parameters and cardiac enzymes as after ISO induced myocardial injury. Pretreatment with extracts was significantly better (P=.05) than curative treatment. Gemmo extract was significantly better (P=.05) than native extract in preventive and curative treatment in normalizing serum levels of lipid parameters and cardiac enzymes in ISO injured rabbits.

Conclusion: The results provide evidence for the first time that gemmo extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra prevents myocardial injury induced by ISO in rabbits.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidants from Medicinal Plants Used in the Treatment of Obesity

Anderson Assaid Simão, Fabíola F. Lage, Pricila M. B. Chagas, Rodrigo M. Fraguas, Juliana M. Freire, Tamara R. Marques, Angelita D. Corrêa

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 429-443
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2013/3095

Aims: The objective of this work was to quantify phenolic compounds, flavonoids, vitamin C, total carotenoids, β-carotene and lycopene and to measure the antioxidant activity in the medicinal plants Aloe vera (L.) Burm. (aloe), Simaba ferruginea St. Hil. (calunga), Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC (carqueja), Garcinia cambogia Desr., and Tournefortia paniculata Cham. (marmelinho) and of the phytotherapic made ​​with the combination of these plants.

Place and Duration of Study: Chemistry Department of Federal University of Lavras – UFLA, Brazil between June 2011 and September 2012.

Methodology: Phenolic compounds, flavonoid, vitamin C, total carotenoids and β-carotene and lycopene contents were quantified by UV-Vis spectrophotometer and antioxidant activity by ABTS and β-carotene/linoleic acid methods.

Results: High contents of phenolic compounds were found in marmelinho (36.19g 100g-1 dry matter – DM), followed by carqueja (4.03g 100g-1DM) and calunga (1.62g 100g-1DM); of flavonoids in marmelinho (480.30mg 100g-1DM) and carqueja (173.68mg 100g-1DM); of vitamin C in marmelinho (652.80mg 100g-1DM) and G. cambogia (127.63mg 100g-1DM); and of carotenoids in marmelinho (23.16 mg 100 g-1). The antioxidant activity, in µmol trolox g-1, by the ABTS method, was considered moderate in the aqueous (728.80) and ethanolic (731.06) marmelinho extracts, and weak for the other plants. However, by the β-carotene/linoleic acid method, the aqueous and ethanolic marmelinho extracts show great antioxidant potential at all tested concentrations (above 80% inhibition), and those of carqueja, calunga and the ethanolic of the phytotherapic, at the concentrations of 40,000 and 20,000mg L-1, also showed good antioxidant potencies (over 60% inhibition).

Conclusion: Those five species of plants showed antioxidant activity with potential for use in pharmaceutical and food preparations, with possible health benefits.


Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate Based Comparative Assessment of Five Medicinal Plants to Meet the Challenges of Malnutrition

Javid Hussain, Najeeb Ur Rehman, Abdul Latif Khan, Liaqat Ali, Ahmed Al-Harrasi, Zabta Khan Shinwari, Hidayat Hussain, Tania Shamim Rizvi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 444-453
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2013/3401

Aims: The present study aimed to assess the nutritional significance of some of the economically important medicinal plants species collected from Pakistan.

Study Design: The study was designed in randomized block design and each analysis was performed with three replicates.

Place and Duration of Study: Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat and duration of the study was ten months.

Methodology: Present study was conducted to determine the nutritional importance of medicinal plants viz. Achyranthes aspera, Xanthium strumarium, Albizzia lebbeck, Amaranthus cruentus and Calotropis procera. Proximate compositions of these plant species (moisture, ash, fats, fiber, alcohol soluble extractive (ASE), proteins, carbohydrates and energy value) were carried out using standard methods of food analysis.

Results: The mean moisture content ranged from 0.334% for X. strumarium to 8.18% for A. cruentus. X. strumarium was found highest in fats, fibers and ASE. Highest percentage of moisture (8.2%) and ash (15.9%) was found in A. cruentus. C. procera was identified as a good source of carbohydrates (67.3%) and energy value (301.9 kcal/100g). The ICP-OES analysis of the medicinal plants showed that A. lebbeck had significant concentrations of calcium while A. cruentus had highest concentration of iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese and phosphorous as compared to other medicinal plants. The heavy metals contents were either absent or negligible.

Conclusion: The present finding suggests that the selected medicinal plants have a promising potential to not only cure ailments but to maintain a healthy life.


Open Access Original Research Article

In vivo Efficacy and Toxicity Studies on Erythrina senegalensis and Khaya ivorensis Used as Herbal Remedies for Malaria Prevention in Cameroon

Roselyne Nzangue Tepongning, Serge Rakiswende Yerbanga, Geme Urge Dori, Leonardo Lucantoni, Giulio Lupidi, Annette Habluetzel

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 454-464
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2013/3928

Aim: The study aimed at assessing the in vivo anti-plasmodial activity of aqueous extracts from Erythrina senegalensis and Khaya ivorensis, two plants used traditionally as bark decoctions in Cameroon to prevent and cure malaria.

Methodology: The antiplasmodial activity of aqueous extracts of E. senegalensis and K. ivorensis was investigated using a murine malaria model (Plasmodium berghei / Anopheles stephensi / BALB/c mice), applying a protocol for assessing the prophylactic potential of the remedy. Treatments were administered orally to BALB/c mice for 9 days at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day. Mice were challenged on day 3 of treatment by exposure to P. berghei infected mosquitoes. The impact on parasitaemia was assessed on thin blood smears prepared on day 7 after exposure to infective bites.       

The acute toxicity of the plant extracts was tested according to the guidelines of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD guidelines 423).

Results: The plant extracts showed antiplasmodial activity, reducing parasitaemia by 40.4% to 56.3%, according to the extract. In particular, a combination of the two extracts at the dose of 100 mg/kg each provided a reduction of parasitaemia in treated mice by more than 50%, as compared to controls. The extract of E. senegalensis when used alone at 200 mg/kg/day reduced the parasitaemia by 40.3% +/- 7.2%, doubling the dosage increased parasite suppression to 56.3% +/- 5.1%.

Toxicity studies yielded comforting results: up to a dosage of 2000 mg/kg no mortality occurred in treated mice. Also, animals treated during the antiplasmodial experiments did not reveal signs of toxicity and remained in good conditions up to the end of the experiments.

Conclusion: The results suggest that the combination of E. senegalensis and K. ivorensis could be a valid plant combination for the preparation of a standardized, effective and affordable remedy against malaria, in particular for Cameroonian communities with limited access to modern drugs.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Selected Plant Leaves

B. O. T. Ifesan, J. F. Fashakin, F. Ebosele, A. S. Oyerinde

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 465-473
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2013/3383

Aims: To determine the antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of some readily available plant leaves in order to source for alternate antioxidants and antibiotics.

Study Design: Randomized complete block design.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology Akure Nigeria between Feb 2010 and Jan 2011.

Methodology: Ethanol, hexane and water extracts from leaves of Anacardium occidentale (cashew), Cocos nucifera (coconut), Citrus sinesis (sweet orange), Citrus limon (lemon) and Carica papaya (pawpaw) were prepared and screened for their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The total phenolic content (TPC) was determined by folin-Ciocalteu assay. Antioxidant property of the plant extracts were evaluated using inhibition of free radical 2, 2- diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH). The antimicrobial activity of the extract against microorganisms (Acinetobacter spp., Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus) was determined using modified agar-well diffusion method.

Results: Total phenol content (TPC) of leaf extracts based on tannic acid equivalent revealed that the TPC of cashew leaf ranged from 2.21 to 7.49 mg TAE/g, coconut leaf extract (0.59-2.22 mg TAE/g), lemon leaf extract (0.97-3.9 mg TAE/g), sweet orange (0.54-0.69 mg TAE/g) and pawpaw leaf extract (0.22- 0.36mgTAE/g). At 0.2mg/ml concentration, the highest antioxidant activity was observed from hexane extracts (45.03%-76.05%) followed by water extracts (45.82% -71.7%) and ethanol extracts (32.75%-56.79%). Ethanol extract (0.2mg/ml) from A. occidentale and C. papaya showed antimicrobial activity against all the eight microorganisms tested with inhibition zones ranging from 2-12 mm. The highest inhibition zone of 12mm was observed in A. occidentale leaf against Shigella dysenteriae while C. limon leaf had the lowest inhibition zone of 2 mm against B. cereus.

Conclusion: We may conclude that A. occidentale and C. papaya leaves demonstrated broad spectrum activities. The results provided evidence that the plant leaves investigated in this study might indeed be potential sources of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents if further investigated.


Open Access Original Research Article

Screening and Characterization of Antimalarial Heme Polymerase Inhibitors from Garlic Cloves

S. Manu, Rohitas Deshmukh, K. M. N. Prasad, Vishal Trivedi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 474-484
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2013/4644

Aim: Garlic (Allium sativum L) aqueous extract was investigated to identify antimalarial compounds inhibiting heme polymerization.

Methods: Solvent fraction of aqueous garlic extract was tested in heme polymerization assay and antimalarial assay to identify active factor. Mass spectroscopy, TLC and optical spectroscopy was used to characterize the active factor and mechanism of inhibiton.

Results: Solvent fractionation and silica chromatography of aqueous garlic extract yields partially purified active constituent. The crude garlic extract has a high level of heme polymerization inhibition activity. Mass spectroscopy analysis of the high activity fraction indicates quercetin as a promising hit with an acceptable limit of error. Pure quercetin was found to inhibit heme polymerization and inhibit parasite growth in a dose dependent manner with an activity comparable to the activity present in the purified garlic aqueous fractions. Quercetin forms two distinct complexes with hemin as evident by TLC Chromatogram of hemin and quercetin mixture. ESI-MS analysis of quercetin-hemin reaction mixture gives two prominent peaks; 1st peak with m/z 929 (Hemin+Q+Li+3H) and 2nd peak with m/z 1244.7 (H+2Q+Na) with a clear indication of the formation of quercetin: hemin (1:1) and 2:1 complexes. The dissociation constant (Kd) of quercetin-hemin is 9.35 µM.

Conclusions: In summary, aqueous garlic extract has heme polymerization inhibitor with high antimalarial activity. Quercetin is the main active constitution responsible for the activity and it inhibits heme polymerization by chelating free available hemin for polymerization.