Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidative Action of Citrus limonum Essential Oil on Skin

G. Bertuzzi, B. Tirillini, P. Angelini, R. Venanzoni

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2013/1987

Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate the action of Citrus limonum essential oil to control free radical-induced lipid peroxidation and preventing tissue damage in skin.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Internal Medicine (University of Roma “Tor Vergata) and A.R.P.A (Aging Research, Prevention and Therapy Association,, between January 2010 and June 2011.
Methodology: The essential oil was subjected to GC-MS analysis. The superoxide anion scavenging activity of essential oil was evaluated by the enzymatic hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase system. The same oil diluted in DMSO or grape-seed oil was spread on the face of human volunteers after UV exposition. A sample of skin lipids was collected and the presence of peroxyl radicals was detected based on the measurement of light emitted (chemiluminescence) when the excited carbonyl and singlet oxygen decay to ground state.
Results: Our data demonstrate that the lemon essential oil is more active than «-tocopherol against *O2- and peroxide free radical inhibition at 1:100 dilution. A protocol for controlling free radical-induced lipid peroxidation in human skin was thus proposed.
Conclusion: The scavenging action of lemon essential oil could have a practical application for treating human skin against oxidative damage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ethnobotanical Survey of Medicinal Plants of Tswapong North, in Eastern Botswana: A Case of Plants from Mosweu and Seolwane Villages

D. M. T. Motlhanka, G. P. Nthoiwa

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 10-24
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2013/1871

Ethnobotanical study to investigate the ethnomedicinal uses of plants by the Batswapong tribe, Eastern Botswana was done. This revealed a wealth of traditional knowledge on uses of medicinal plants. Thirty six plants distributed across twenty two families were recorded to treat sixty ailments. Most of these plants were trees (61%) with roots (82%) being the most frequently used parts for preparation of remedies across the twenty two families. For each species, its botanical family and vernacular name, medicinal uses, parts used and mode of preparation were documented. This study has revealed that knowledge on uses of medicinal plants is shrinking because of restrictions from religions, migration to urban areas, lack of interest by younger generations on uses of medicinal plants. The study concludes by advocating for the implementation of government policies that will significantly contribute towards the preservation of biodiversity and indigenous traditional knowledge of medicinal flora.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Risk Perceptions of Traditional Jamu Medicine among Urban Consumers

Maria Costanza Torri

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 25-39
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2013/1813

Aims: Although the increasing importance of traditional medicinal system (jamu) in Indonesia, there are no studies regarding the perceptions of the clients with respect to the risk of consuming jamu products. The paper addresses this gap by examining the perceptions of jamu and risk of consuming traditional medicine among the consumers of the city of Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
Methodology: Sixty interviews took place in the city of Yogyakarta between June and July 2010. Thirty people interviewed were clients of jamu sellers who have been selected in the streets and in the local markets where jamu products are sold. The sample has been chosen on the basis of parameters such as age, gender and socio-economic background. The software QSR NUDIST was employed to analyze the data.
Results: This study shows two thirds of local jamu consumers in Yogyakarta have a good understanding about the therapeutic uses of jamu. Results indicated that treatment is sought by all ages and across different levels of education and socio-economic background. Although the interviewees are aware of some possible risks involved in the consumption of jamu, data show that the attitudes and perceptions on jamu of the participants are generally positive among all age groups and social groups.
Conclusion: Considering the increasing popularity of traditional medicine in Indonesia, an improved understanding of the perceptions and attitudes towards jamu and its consumption is important.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Acalypha wilkesiana

Muyideen T. Haruna, Chinedu P. Anokwuru, Abosede A. Akeredolu, Adenike A. Akinsemolu, Okunola A. Alabi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 52-64
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2013/2220

The antimicrobial activity of the leave of Acalypha wilkesiana methanolic extract and its four derivative fractions were determined on human pathogenic bacteria namely strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli and fungi; Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. carbonerium, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Candida albicans. Methanolic extract (200 mg/ml) and its fractions were tested on the bacteria and fungi using the disc diffusion method. In vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity were screened by using Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA) and Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration for the bacteria and fungi were also determined. Results showed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against the Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria but same cannot be said about its activity against the fungi. The ethyl acetate fraction inhibited the growth of more bacteria and fungi compared to the other fractions; however, the aqueous extract was more effective on the bacteria isolates as it showed the lowest MIC for more bacteria compared to the other fractions. The extract and its fractions were active against bacteria which some standard antibiotics were not able to inhibit. Methanolic extract of A. wilkesiana leaves and its fractions showed a better antibacterial activity than antifungal activity. The fact that the plant was active against both clinical and laboratory isolates is an indication that it can be a source of very potent antibiotic substances that can be used against drug resistant microorganisms. The search for new drugs to counter the challenges posed by resistant strains of bacteria and some fungi might have started yielding results as the investigation of this plant has demonstrated enormous therapeutic potential.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activity of Cell Suspension Cultures of Castor (Ricinus communis L. cv. Roktima)

M. A. Rahman, M. A. Bari

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 65-77
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2013/1722

Aims: The study was conducted to develop the protocol for callus culture, cell suspension culture and to determine antibacterial activity of Ricinus communis L. cv. Roktima in cell extract.

Study Design: Hypocotyl segments used as explants in callus culture and agar disk diffusion method used for antibacterial activity test.

Place and Duration of Study: Institute of Biological Sciences, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi, Bangladesh during the period of 2010-2012.

Methodology: MS medium supplemented with different growth regulators were used for callus induction and cell culture and paper disc diffusion method was used for the determination of antibacterial activities. Growth inhibition was determined against five gram positive bacteria viz., Sarcina lutea, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtillus, Bacillus halodurans, six gram negative bacteria viz., Shigella sonnei, Klebsiella species, Proteus species, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi by using disc diffusion and micro broth dilution techniques.

Results: Auxins NAA, 2,4-D and IAA played a great role in callus induction but 2.0 mg/L BAP + 0.5 mg/L NAA and 2.0 mg/L BAP + 0.8 mg/L NAA concentrations proved to be most suitable combinations for induction of callus in R. communis Roktima. Cells were cultured on the MS medium having 2.0 mg/L BAP + 0.2 mg/L NAA in which the rate of cell growth found highest and the cell continued to grow until 14 days. The peak period of cell growth was observed from 4th d to 6th d. Antimicrobial test with eleven bacteria demonstrated that the extracts of cell suspension culture of R. communis L .cv. Roktima holds the merit of antimicrobial activity and it was considered to be the potent source of antibacterial compounds and a possible source for obtaining the toxin ricin.

Conclusion: In summary, the results obtained in the present investigation demonstrated that the extracts of cell suspension culture of R. communis L. cv. Roktima had the antibacterial activity and considered to be the potent source of antibacterial compounds.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Larvicidal, Antiplasmodial and Cytotoxicity Properties of Cassia arereh Del. Stem Bark

Hager Imam, Abd El Wahab H. Abd Alla, Sakina M. Yagi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 78-87
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2013/2105

Aims: The present study was carried on the stem bark of Cassia arereh Del. Different extracts were prepared and were assessed for their in vitro larvicidal, antiplasmodial and cytotoxicity properties.

Methodology: Larvicidal activity of the methanol extract was evaluated against 3rd instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus using method recommended by World Health Organization. The antimalarial activity of chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous extracts was assessed on the chloroquine-resistant strain W2 strain of Plasmodium falciparum by flow cytometry. Cytoxicity effect was assessed on two human cell lines K562S (by flow cytometry) and HepG2 (by MTT assay). 

Results: The larvicidal activities of different concentrations of C. arereh stem bark methanolic extract after 24 h of incubation revealed that the 1.0 g/L concentration gave the highest mortality (40.2%). lethal concentrations that killed 25% (LC25), 50% (LC50), 90% (LC90) and 95% (LC95) of larvae in 24 h were 4235, 8230, 16007, 29325 and 40680 ppm. The best antimalarial activities were detected in the chloroform extract with IC50 > 12.5 µg/ mL and cytotoxicity effect with IC50 > 12.5 µg/ mL on both K562S and HepG2 cell lines indicative of promising security index. Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of anthraquinones, flavanoids, terpenes, steroles and tannins.   

Conclusion: This result indicates that C. arereh stem bark could be a good source of bioactive ingredients.


Open Access Original Research Article

Cytoprotective Potential of Royal Jelly on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells against Nicotine Toxicity via Catalase

Roongtawan Supabphol, Athikom Supabphol

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 88-98
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2013/1386

Aims: To examine the cytoprotective effects and mechanisms of a royal jelly extract in protecting the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) from nicotine toxicity.

Study Design: Laboratory experimental tests.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Physiology and Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok 10110, Thailand, between June 2011 and February 2012.

Methodology: Cytotoxic assay of royal jelly to HUVECs was performed by using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol,2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reagent. The cytoprotective effect was then investigated by examining the presence of vacuole-like structures in HUVECs exposed to nicotine 5 or 7.5 mM with and without royal jelly. Cells were stained with crystal violet and photographed under phase contrast microscope. mRNA levels of genes involved in intracellular antioxidant system, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GSR) were confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Catalase activity was also determined by examining peroxidative function.

Results: Vacuole-like structures were found in the cytoplasm of HUVECs exposed to 5 mM nicotine and higher.  Royal jelly alone at the concentrations lower than 2 mg/ml did not affect the structure or the survival rate of HUVECs after 1, 4, and 7 days of treatment.  For cytoprotective effect, royal jelly 1-4 mg/ml mixed with 5 mM nicotine could obviously decrease the numbers of cells containing vacuole-like structures in the cytoplasm of HUVECs with the dose- and time-dependent fashion. The catalase mRNA levels and catalase activity in HUVECs exposed to 5 mM nicotine decreased significantly, but recovered when the cells were treated with royal jelly.

Conclusion: Royal jelly can be safety applied to endothelial cells even at high doses.  Royal jelly is able to attenuate the abnormal vacuole-like structures induced in endothelial cell cytoplasm when exposed to nicotine. Further investigation of antioxidant gene expression showed that the mechanism possibly involves a reduction of oxidative stress via an up-regulation of catalase. Besides the supplementary food, royal jelly could be useful for endothelial cell protection from nicotine toxicity found in smoking or nicotine addiction.


Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Anti-Inflammatory Evaluation of Crude Bombax ceiba Extracts

K. Anandarajagopal, J. Anbu Jeba Sunilson, T. V. Ajaykumar, R. Ananth, S. Kamal

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 99-104
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2013/2113

Aims: The present work was decided to evaluate the in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity of crude extracts of Bombax ceiba in order to characterize the role of this extract in affecting the inflammatory process.

Study Design: Extraction of B. ceiba bark, phytochemical screening, and evaluation of in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity.

Methodology: Petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous extracts of B. ceiba barks were prepared by maceration technique and subjected to preliminary phytochemical tests.  The in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity of all extracts (1000 mcg/ml) was assessed by HRBC membrane stabilization method.

Results: Ethanol extract showed significant (p<0.001) response followed by aqueous extract (p<0.01) when compared with standard, diclofenac potassium (50 mcg/ml).

Conclusion: The study suggests that the extracts possess enough potential to reduce inflammation by in-vitro and directs the importance of further research and development of novel anti-inflammatory agents.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antipyretic Potential of Pseudocedrela kotschyi Schweint. Harms (Meliaceae)

G. C. Akuodor, A. D. Essien, G. A. Essiet, Essien David-Oku, J. L. Akpan, F. V. Udoh

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 105-113
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2013/1097

Pseudocedrela kotschyi is used in ethnomedicinal practice for the treatment of fever, pains and inflammation. The ethanol leaf extract of the plant was investigated for antipyretic potency in rats. Yeast and amphetamine induced hyperpyrexia were used to determine the antipyretic activity. The leaf extract (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg i.p.), exhibited significant (P<0.05) dose dependent effect on the tested experimental animal models of pyrexia. The LD50 was established to be 775 mg/kg, i.p. in mice. The results obtained suggest that the ethanol leaf extract may be a promising agent for the treatment of pyrexia.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antinociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Activity of the Bark Extract of Plumeria rubra on Laboratory Animals

Banibrata Das, Tarana Ferdous, Qazi Asif Mahmood, J. M.A. Hannan, Rajib Bhattacharjee, Biplab Kumar Das

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 114-126
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2013/1026

Aims: To evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanolic bark extract of Plumeria rubra on experimental animal models.

Study Design:  Assessment of antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacy, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh, between January 2011 and June 2011.

Methodology: The analgesic activity was evaluated by hot plate, acetic acid induced writhing and formalin induced writhing method in Swiss Albino mice divided into 4 different groups (control, standard diclofenac sodium and extract at two different doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg BW). The extract was also investigated for the anti-inflammatory effect on Long Evans rats using carrageenan induced rat paw edema method. For anti-inflammatory study, 24 rats were divided into 4 different groups each receiving either distilled water, standard drug or the extract at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg BW.

Results: Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids. The extract elicited a highly significant (p<0.001) analgesic activity in a dose dependent manner on hot plate method, acetic acid induced writhing test and also on both the early and late phases of formalin test at the doses employed. In the hot plate method, the extract increased the reaction time of heat sensation to 60.81% and 66.52% at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg BW respectively while that of the standard drug was 57.40% at the 3rd hour of study. In acetic acid induced writhing test, the percent inhibition of writhing response by the extract was 62.87% and 70.66% at 250 and 500 mg/kg doses respectively (p<0.001) which were even better than the standard drug diclofenac sodium (50.30%). The extract also significantly inhibited the licking response at the dose of 500 mg/kg in both the early phase (55.11%, p<0.01) and the late phase (66.43%, p<0.01) of formalin test while the standard drug inhibited by 52.27% and 72.03%, respectively. The oral administration of the extract significantly (p<0.001) inhibited inflammatory response induced by carrageenan in a dose dependent fashion. The most prominent inhibition of 61.68% (250 mg/kg) and 73.65% (500 mg/kg) were observed at the 4th hour of study.

Conclusion: The central and peripheral analgesic as well as anti-inflammatory effect of the ethanolic bark extract of P. rubra may be due to the presence of various chemical constituents specially flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids or terpenoids. These experimental findings would further establish the scientific basis of the traditional uses of the plant in the management and/or control of pain as well as inflammatory conditions.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antihemolytic Activity of Clerodendrum viscosum Vent. is Mediated by its Antioxidant Effect

Mijanur Rahman, Asiqur Rahaman, Mafroz Ahmed Basunia, Nusrat Fatima, Shahdat Hossain

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 127-134
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2013/2403

Aims: The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of polar extract of Clerodendrum viscosum vent. against in vitro hemolysis of human erythrocytes and its association with the antioxidant activity of C. viscosum.

Study Design: Extraction of C. viscosum dried root, in vitro antihemolytic activity assay, lipid peroxidation assay, phytochemical analysis, estimation of polyphenols and flavonoids.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh, between January 2011 and May 2011.

Methodology: C. viscosum polar extract-pretreated erythrocytes were hemolysed by hypotonia and oxidizing agent, H2O2. The liberated hemoglobin was determined as a measure of hemolysis. Total reducing power and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-free radical scavenging activity of extract were compared with those of vitamin C. Anti-lipid peroxidation activity of C. viscosum polar extract also was determined by exposing rat brain cortex tissue to Fenton's reagent (H2O2+FeSO4)- induced oxidative stress. Then C. viscosum extract was subjected to estimation of total polyphenols and total flavonoids following qualitative phytochemical analysis.

Results: C. viscosum polar extract significantly inhibited in vitro hemolysis. Total reducing power and DPPH-radical scavenging activity were higher than those of vitamin C. In cortical tissue homogenate, C. viscosum polar extract significantly reduced (~38%) the levels of lipid peroxides (LPO). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of substantial amount of polyphenols, flavonoids and other antioxidant chemicals in the extract.

Conclusion: Present investigation demonstrates that antihemolytic activity of C. viscosum polar extract is mediated by its antioxidant effect.


Open Access Original Research Article

An Overview of the Roselle Plant with Particular Reference to Its Cultivation, Diseases and Usages

Mehdi Ansari, Touba Eslaminejad, Zarrin Sarhadynejad, Tahereh Eslaminejad

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 135-145
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2013/1889

Aims: This paper is a review of the applications, production and uses of Roselle plants, and points out that Roselle is a promising crop for medicinal uses, which is an aspect that has not been widely studied to date.

Study Design and Methodology: A review of the literature from the pioneering study of 1929 until 2012.

Place and Duration of Study: School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Penang, Malaysia, between June 2008 and July 2010.

Results: Our review of the studies mentioned in the literature was performed on the effects on Cultivation, Diseases and Usages of (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Roselle.

Conclusion: Roselle has been used as an herbal medicine in phytotherapy and nutritional plant in many years. According to the medical potential of this plant, need further work to validate reliability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation on Central and Peripheral Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Punarnavasava, an Ayurvedic Preparation

Mehdi Bin Samad, Ninadh Malrina D’Costa, Ashraf-ul Kabir, J. M. A. Hannan

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 146-162
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2013/2322

Aims: Punarnavasava (PNR) is an Ayurvedic formulation approved by the “National formulary of Ayurvedic Medicine 2011”, of Bangladesh. It is traditionally used in arthritic pain, lumbago and sciatia. Sparse scientific evidence is available to support the efficacy of this preparation. Hence, we planned to document scientific evidences of the pharmacological activity of this preparation.

Study Design: Our present study aims to elucidate the probable anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of PNR.

Place and Duration of the Study: The experiments were performed at the pharmacology lab of North South University during the period of October 2010 to July 2011.

Methodology: Two thermal anti-nociceptive models were used, the hot-plate test and tail immersion test, to find out the possible role of the central nervous system in its action. Three in-vivo analgesic and anti-inflammatory models, carrageenan induced paw edema, acetic-acid writhing, and formalin induced paw lick tests, were carried out to test its potential anti-inflammatory and peripheral analgesic properties.

Results: The dose dependent study of PNR (10mL/kg, 20mL/kg, and 40mL/kg) showed potential involvement of the CNS in anti-nociceptive activity of PNR. Carrageenan induced paw edema and acetic acid writhing tests both gave significant results (P=.05), indicating possible peripheral analgesic and anti-inflammatory action. Formalin induced paw-licking test (with and without naloxone co-administration), a differentiator of nurogenic pain (CNS modulated) and inflammatory pain (peripheral nociception), showed that PNR had significant effect in suppressing inflammatory pain (P=.05) but not neurogenic pain.

Conclusion: Compiling the results of the experiments, it can be reported that Punarnavasava has both central and peripheral analgesic and anti-inflammatory action.