Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antibacterial Activity of n-Hexane Fraction of Methanolic Extract of Alstonia scholaris L. R.Br. Stem Bark against Some Multidrug Resistant Human Pathogenic Bacteria

Souryadeep Mukherjee, Abhijit Dey, Trisha Das

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2012/794

Plants are a source of wide range of bioactive molecules. Alstonia scholaris, a tree species of Apocynaceae family is being reported as a well known herbal remedy of various diseases. In the present investigation, n-hexane fraction of crude methanolic extract of Alstonia scholaris Linn. R.Br. stem bark was evaluated for antibacterial activity using four human pathogenic multi-drug resistance bacterial strains Enterobacteriaceae bacterium IK1_01, Shigella dysentery, Enterobacter cloacae and Serratia marcescens. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were also performed to evaluate the multi-drug resistance patterns of these strains. All the strains showed multi-drug resistance against several commercially available antibiotics. The n-hexane fraction showed significant inhibitory activities against all the strains by agar-diffusion assay. The n-hexane fraction of crude methanolic extract of stem of A. scholaris showed MICs of 5.5 mg/ml, 5 mg/ml, <5.5 mg/ml and 8 mg/ml, and induced a maximum of 85.7%, 95.6%, 89.3% and 94.4% growth inhibition against E. bacterium IK1_01, S. dysentery, E. cloacae and S. marcescens, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sodium Benzoate Mediated Hepatorenal Toxicity in Wistar Rat: Modulatory Effects of Azadirachta indica (Neem) Leaf

Oluwole I. Oyewole, Folake A. Dere, Oluwaseyi E. Okoro

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 11-18
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2012/619

Aims: Morbidity and mortality from kidney and liver diseases is rapidly increasing worldwide due to exposure of these organs to many kinds of xenobiotics. Medicinal herbs have been used widely to treat these disorders as there is no specific treatment in modern medicine to counter the menace. The study was carried out to investigate the protective role of Azadirachita indica (neem) leaf on kidney and liver damage caused by subchronic administration of sodium benzoate in rat.
Study Design: Experimental animal study
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeria between January and June 2011.
Methodology: 200mg/kg bw of sodium benzoate was administered to rats in test groups (B, C and D) every 4 days while control group (A) received distilled water. Group C and D were treated with daily administration of 200mg/kg bw and 500mg/kg bw methanolic leaf extract of Azadirachta indica respectively for 14 days while group B were not treated.
Results: Sodium benzoate caused growth depression in rats as well as alteration in hepatic and renal functions revealed by significant elevation in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), urea, uric acid and creatinine. Administration of Azadirachta indica leaf extract tend to ameliorate the adverse effect of sodium benzoate toxicity in rat tissue as it bring the affected biochemical parameters close to normal in a dose dependent manner.
Conclusion: These results suggest that Azadirachta indica leaf has modulatory effect on sodium benzoate induced toxicity in rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sub-Chronic Hepatotoxicity in Adult Wistar Rats Following Administration of Ocimum gratissimum Aqueous Extract

A.J. Ajibade, P.B. Fakunle, L.O. Ehigie, A.O. Akinrinmade

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 19-30
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2012/690

Background & Aims: Ocimurn gratissimum is an herbaceous plant commonly found in tropical Asia and in the coastal areas of Nigeria, where it is used for the treatment of ailments such as diarrhoea, urinary infections, fever and dysentery. However, information concerning the toxic effect of continuous administration of aqueous preparation of Ocimum gratissimum on some important organs of the body such as the liver is lacking. The study was designed to evaluate the effects of oral administration of the aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum at varying doses on the liver of adult male wistar rats.
Materials and Methods: The rats (n=30) of average weight of 185g were randomly assigned into four treatment groups A, B, C, D (n=6) and control group E (n=6). Aqueous extract of leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (OG) at doses of 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2 g/kg body weight were administered orally to the four treatment groups A, B, C and D respectively for twenty one days. The control rats received quantities of distilled water equivalent to those in the treatment groups. The rats were sacrificed on the twenty second day of the experiment. The abdomen of the rats were carefully dissected and some blood was carefully collected by cardio-puncture into lithium heparinized sterile bottles for biochemical enzyme assay, also the liver was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formol saline for routine histological study using haematoxylin and eosin method. Decrease in body weights of the treated, rats at the end of the study were statistically significant (p < 0.05) in the treatment groups B, C and D.
Results: The histological findings after H&E method indicated that the treated sections of the liver showed evidence of dilations of the central veins, which contained lysed red blood cells and cyto-architectural distortions of the hepatocytes, cytoplasmic hemorrhage, atrophic and degenerative changes. The biochemical results showed finding in line with the histopathological analysis. Quantitative analysis of serum liver enzymes in the treated' groups A, B, C and D showed significant increase (P < 0.05) in the serum levels of Alanine aminotransaminase, aspartate aminotransaminase and alkaline phosphatase as compared to the control (untreated) groups.
Conclusion: These findings indicate that high doses of aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum may have some adverse effects on the liver of adult wistar rats which may ultimately impair hepatic functions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Activity of the Aqueous and Ethyl Acetate Sub-Fractions of Alchornea cordifolia Leaf

G. O. Adeshina, O. F. Kunle, J. A. Onaolapo, J. O. Ehinmidu, L. E. Odama

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 31-41
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2012/917

Aims: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of ethyl acetate and residual aqueous fractions of the methanol extract of Alchornea cordifolia leaf against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12600, Escherichia coli ATCC 11775 and Candida albicans ATCC 18804 in comparison to standard antibiotics.
Study design: Extraction of Alchornea cordifolia leaf, partitioning of the extract, susceptibility tests (Zones of inhibition) and Minimum Inhibitory and Bactericidal Concentrations determination.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Medicinal Plant Research and Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Idu – Abuja, Nigeria and Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria, July and October.
Methodology: The leaves of Alchornea cordifolia (Schum. & Thonn.) Muell. Arg. were collected, dried at room temperature and extracted with methanol using a soxhlet extractor. The methanol extract was partitioned between ethyl acetate and distilled water to obtain an ethyl acetate sub-fraction (EAF) and an aqueous residual fraction (AF). Agar well diffusion and agar dilution methods according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) were used to test the antimicrobial activity of the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions of Alchornea cordifolia against the above mentioned microbial species.
Results: Both fractions; ethyl acetate and residual aqueous fractions of the methanol extract showed antimicrobial activity against the standard organisms viz: Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12600, Escherichia coli ATCC 11775 and Candida albicans ATCC 18804. The highest activity was observed for the ethyl acetate fraction against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12600 with zone of inhibition of 27 mm, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (M.I.C) of 1.25 mg/ml and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (M. B. C) of 2.5mg/ml.
Conclusion: Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12600, Escherichia coli ATCC 11775 and Candida albicans ATCC 18804 were susceptible to the ethyl acetate sub-fraction and residual aqueous fractions of the methanol extract of Alchornea cordifolia leaf.

Open Access Original Research Article

Xanthine Oxidase Inhibition and Antioxidant Effects of Peaganum harmala Seed Extracts

A. Baghiani, M. Djarmouni, S. Boumerfeg, H. Trabsa, N. Charef, S. Khennouf, L. Arrar

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 42-56
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2012/898

In the present study, seeds of Peaganum harmala were extracted with solvent of varying polarity allowed their separation into four subfractions. Total polyphenols and flavonoids contents of Peaganum harmala seeds extracts (PHSE) were determined as gallic acid equivalent and Quercetin equivalent and were in the following order: chloroform extract (CHE)>ethyl acetate extract (EAE)>crude extract (CE). The superoxide radical scavenging properties of PHSE were determined by either production of uric acid and reduction of Cytochrom c (Cyt c). The inhibition ratios of the Xanthine Oxidase (XO) by CHE and EAE were effective followed by CE. Results for the Cyt c assay were in the same order. The antioxidant potential was confirmed with the non enzymatic methods. The highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed with CE followed by EAE and CHE. The β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay revealed that PHSE have a very important antioxidant activity. Results showed that EAE has the highest antioxidant activity (94.21%), followed by CE and CHE respectively. Ferrous ion chelating capacity assay showed that CE, EAE and CE are very active with IC50 of 0.088, 2.256 and 5.286 mg/ml, respectively. Peaganum harmala extracts have strong free radicals scavenging and antioxidant activities and may prove to be of potential health benefit. In addition, the ability of PHSE to inhibit XO can be of great use in some diseases where XO is incriminated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spectral Analysis and Chemical Studies of the Sweet Constituent, Rebaudioside A

Venkata Sai Prakash Chaturvedula, Indra Prakash

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 57-65
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2012/1009

Aim: To study NMR spectral analysis and hydrolysis products of Rebaudioside A (1) that has been isolated from Stevia rebaudiana.
Study Design: Acquiring NMR and high resolution mass spectral (HRMS) data of Rebaudioside A for structural characterization, and identification of hydrolysis products.
Place of Study: Organic Chemistry Department of The Coca-Cola Company, Atlanta, GA 30313, USA.
Methodology: The 1D (1H &13C) and 2D (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) NMR spectral data of was acquired using Varian Unity Plus 600 MHz instrument using standard pulse sequences.Hydrolysis studies were performed on Rebaudioside A using acid, base and enzymatic studies to identify partial degradation products, aglycone and sugar residues.
Results: The proton and carbon values of Rebaudioside A were assigned based on NMR and HRMS data as well as chemical studies. The aglycone was identified as steviol on the basis of enzymatic hydrolysis, sugar was identified as D-glucose from acid hydrolysis and the partial hydrolyzed product was identified as Rebaudioside B from alkaline hydrolysis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-hyperglycemic Effect of Khaya senegalensis Stem Bark Aqueous Extract in Wistar Rats

O. T. Kolawole, S. O. Kolawole, A. A. Ayankunle, O. I. Olaniran

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 66-73
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2012/934

Aim: To investigate anti-hyperglycemic effect of aqueous extract of Khaya senegalensis stem bark (KSE) in alloxan-diabetic Wistar rats.
Methodology: Thirty rats were randomly divided into six groups of 5 animals each. Group I (non-diabetic control) was given distilled water orally. Animals in the remaining five groups were treated with a single dose of alloxan (120mg/kg body weight, i.p) to induce diabetes mellitus. This resulted in significant increase in the fasting blood glucose level of the rats. Group I (non-diabetic control) and group II (hyperglycemic control) then received distilled water orally for 14 days. Group III, IV and V were treated orally with daily doses of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight of KSE respectively for 14 days. Group VI was given glibenclamide (5mg/kg, p.o) for the same period. Fasting blood glucose was determined by oxidative method in all the groups on day 0 (before treatment), day 7 and day 14. Oral glucose tolerance test and erythrocyte malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration were estimated after the two week treatment. Body weights of the animals were also measured on day 0, day 7 and day 14.
Results: Treatment with KSE and glibenclamide caused significant (p<0.05) and dose-dependent changes compared to the untreated animals with respect to body weight, blood glucose level and erythrocyte malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. The anti-hyperglycemic effect of KSE was comparable to that of the standard drug, glibenclamide.
Conclusion: The study showed that aqueous extract of Khaya senegalensis stem bark possesses anti-hyperglycemic activity.