Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial and Antiinflammatory Potential of the Swedish Herbs Extract

R. Gomez-Flores, R. González-Meléndez, A. Ceballos-Salobreña, P. Tamez-Guerra, R. Tamez-Guerra, C. Rodríguez-Padilla, E. Monreal-Cuevas, M. A. De La Garza-Ramos

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 107-117
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2011/481

Oral conditions that produce the greatest damage on individuals are cavities and periodontal disease, hence non-expensive and effective solutions are immediately required, particularly for communities with no access to dental services. The antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory potential of the Swedish bitter herbal extract was evaluated, using pure microbial cultures and clinical samples of 29 patients. It was observed that the extract caused significant (p<0.05) in vitro growth inhibition of up to 29%, 17%, 15%, and 50% against Prevotella intermedia, Bacteroides forsythus, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus intermedius, respectively. In addition, the extract significantly (p<0.05) inhibited oral flora growth in patient samples showing MICs of < 7.8 µg/ml in 21% of the patients, 15.6 µg/ml in 17% of the patients, 31.2 µg/ml in 10% of the patients, 62.5µg/ml in 17% of the patients, 125 µg/ml in 3% of the patients, and 250 µg/ml in 7% of the patients, and induced a maximum of 75% growth inhibition, as measured by the MTT reduction assay. The extract was also observed to significantly suppress production of the inflammatory marker nitric oxide by LPS-treated murine peritoneal macrophages. The Swedish herbal extract may be considered in the clinics to prevent or treat bacterial oral infections and at the same time reducing inflammation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response Pattern of Antioxidants to Lipid Peroxide Concentration in Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepato-Toxicity Is Tightly Logistic in Rabbits

C. S. Alisi, O. A. Ojiako, C. G. Osuagwu, G. O. C. Onyeze

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 118-129
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2011/410

Logistic response of antioxidants to lipid peroxide concentration in carbon tetrachloride toxicity in rabbit liver was evaluated. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), ethanol extracts of Chromolaena odorata (ETECO), sylimarin (a known hepatoprotective agent) and water, were used to induce variations in the oxidant/antioxidant balance in the test and control animals. This was used as a model to study the delicate balance between the activities and/or the intracellular concentrations of these antioxidants and lipid peroxide. Concentrations of lipid peroxidation product (malondialdehyde) were estimated to access the degree of oxidation of the polyunsaturated fatty acids in the liver tissue. Glutathione (GSH) concentration was estimated to capture the non-enzymatic antioxidant concentration, while glutathione-s-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities were assayed in the liver to assess the enzymatic antioxidant activities. Results obtained from this study showed that the concentrations of lipid peroxidation product (malondialdehyde) varied in a logistic fashion with the non-enzymatic antioxidant (glutathione) and the enzymatic antioxidants (glutathione-s-transferase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase). The concentration of the peroxidation product and the concentration/activity of the antioxidants were inversely related, maintaining a highly logistic relationship (R2 = 0.99). The non-enzymatic antioxidant (GSH) concentration and the enzymatic antioxidant (GST, SOD, and CAT) activities were found to be directly related in a sigmoidal manner (R2 = 0.98). These observations indicated that oxidant/antioxidant concentrations and activities in a rabbit liver tissue is tightly related and mathematically associated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Partial Purification and Characterization of Lectin from the Seeds of Cissus poplunea

O. A. Awoyinka, O. O. Dada

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 130-139
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2011/401

Lectin is a glycoprotein substance, usually of plant origin, of non-immunoglobulin nature and capable of binding to carbohydrate moieties of complex glycoconjugates. This underlies its clinical significance. Hence, purification steps comprising of centrifugation, salting-out, ultra filtration, dialysis and anion exchange affinity chromatography were used to purify the protein from the seed of Cissus populnea. The purified lectin agglutinated non-specifically red blood cells of human type A, B and O. The hemagglutinating activity of the lectin towards human erythrocytes was inhibited by D-fructose, D-glucose and CuSO4. However the lectin activity was enhanced by D-galactose and MgCl2. Stability studies showed the purified protein to be stable at a spectrum of 20-40°C and at pH range of 6-8 and 10-11. The kinetic study on the purified protein indicated 26271HU and 278.2 L for Vmax and Km, respectively. However, result from paper chromatography on the carbohydrate isolate during purification indicated presence of a ketone sugar having same appearance with fructose standard, a sugar clinically established as the major source of energy during spermatogenesis. It was observed that heamagglutinating activity of the lectin from Cissus populnea towards human erythrocytes was non-selective to type of blood groups. It could be stated that Cissus populnea consumption may pose no threat to patient with challenge in metabolising glucose, since its main carbohydrate content is fructose.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Haematinic Activity and Subchronic Toxicity of Sphenocentrum jollyanum (Menispermaceae) Seed Oil

G. O. Mbaka, M. A. Owolabi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 140-152
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2011/333

Aim: The haematinic activity and subchronic toxicity of Sphenocentrum jollyanum (Menispermaceae) seed oil was evaluated and compared with the control.
Materials and Methods: In acute toxicity study the animals tolerated up to 16 g/kg body weight (bw) of the extract in 2 % Tween 80 solution administered orally after 24 hrs fast. Another set of mice (6 per group) fasted for 24 hrs were administered with the extract intra-peritoneal (IP) at different doses (250, 500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg bw) until 100% mortality was achieved. In subchronic toxicity study, 300, 600 and 1200 mg/kg bw of the extract in 2 % Tween 80 were administered on the animals for 120 days.
Results: In acute toxicity study, the extract was found to be non toxic when it was administered orally for up to 16 g/kg bw within 24 hrs. Subchronic toxicity test showed no mortality after 120 days of oral administration. The animals showed appreciable increase in feeding habit and water intake. Increase in body and vital organs weights occurred while tissue histology showed no abnormal features. The liver function profile showed no significant difference (p ≥ 0.05) compared to the control except for the albumin that increased markedly. The extract led to significant increase (p < 0.05) in RBC. The packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin count (Hb) increased with increase in dose. On the other hand, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and white blood cells (WBC), did not vary markedly. Similarly, WBC differentials did not record appreciable difference compared to the control.
Conclusion: The result showed that SJ seed oil possessed haematinic and hepato-protective property thereby justifying its therapeutic use in traditional medicine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anthelminthic and Bactericidal Activity of Extracts from Flaveria trinervia Spring C. Mohr.

H. Joy Hoskeri, V. Krishna

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 153-161
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2011/494

Objective: To determine the anthelminthic and bactericidal activity of Flaveria trinervia.
Study design: Assessment of Anthelminthic and bactericidal activity.
Place and Duration of Study: Anthelminthic and bactericidal activity of extracts from Flaveria trinervia Spring C. Mohr. between August 2010 and May 2011.
Methodology: The methanol and aqueous extracts of Flaveria trinervia were screened for antibacterial activity against 20 clinical strains belonging to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Echerichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from different infectious sources. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay of both the extracts was carried out against clinical isolates using two fold agar dilution method. Ciprofloxacin and piperazine citrate were used as the standard reference for bactericidal and anthelminthic activity respectively.
Results: Evaluation of anti-bacterial activity revealed that both the extracts showed effective activity against all the six bacterial pathogens. Specifically, aqueous extract was more efficient than methanol extract but less potent than standard drug ciprofloxacin. Among the various concentrations of aqueous extract tested, 250 mg/ml showed efficient anthelminthic activity and among all the concentrations methanol extract tested 250 mg/ml gave significant results. This investigation revealed that methanol extract of F. trinervia showed significant anthelminthic activity against Pheretima posthuma when compared to the aqueous extract.
Conclusion: From the results of this investigation we can conclude that F. trinervia is a potent antibacterial and anthelminthic plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatoprotective Activity of Turmeric and Garlic against 7-12, Dimethylbenzanthracene Induced Liver Damage in Wistar Albino Rats

Harmeet Singh, P. S. Bedi, B. Singh

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 162-170
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2011/587

Aim: In present study the antioxidant activity of turmeric was studied in Wistar albino rats.
Study design: The experimental animals were divided in to five groups each containing six animals. Group I served as normal control. All the other four groups, viz. II, III, IV and V were first challenged with7-12 Dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA). Thereafter, group III, IV and V received Indole-3-Carbinol, turmeric and turmeric with garlic respectively for four weeks. Group II have Received no intervention other than DMBA.
Methodology: At the end of the study all the animals were sacrificed and the effects of DMBA, Indole-3-Carbinol, Turmeric and Turmeric with garlic were monitored by growth rate during study period and also by assaying the levels of lipid peroxidation (MDA), superoxidedismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) in liver and kidney homogenates. In addition serum alanine transferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phoshatase (ALP), urea and Creatinine levels were also studied.
Results: The results showed that the difference in total body weight gain was not significant among all the groups. Body weight in group II was found to be reduced than the body weight on zero day. There was significant decrease in SOD and CAT, but significant increase in MDA in both the tissue homogenates. The levels of AST, ALT, ALP, Creatinine and Urea were significantly increased in group II. Reversal effects of DMBA were shown by group IV and V but they were lower than group III. Cyst formation in liver was observed in group II rats only. Enlargement and paleness of liver was maximum in group II as compared to other treated groups.
Conclusion: In present study the turmeric have shown the reversal effects of DMBA induced carcinogenicity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Methanolic Extract of Citrullus lanatus Seed on Experimentally Induced Prostatic Hyperplasia

Adesanya A. Olamide, Olaseinde O. Olayemi, Oguntayo O. Demetrius, Otulana J. Olatoye, Adefule A. Kehinde

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 171-179
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2011/588

Aims: To investigate the effects of methanolic extract of Citrullus lanatus seed (MECLS) on experimentally induced benign prostate hyperplasia.
Study design: Animal model of experimentally induced prostatic hyperplasia.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Ikenne Campus, Ikenne, Ogun State, Nigeria, between May 2010 and August 2010.
Methodology: Twenty adult male Wistar rats weighing about 135-180g were randomly divided into four groups of five animals each. Group I, Normal control (NC) was given corn oil as placebo 1g/Kg BW; Group II, Hormone treated control (HTC), Groups III, and IV hormone and extract treated (HTEC), received continuous dosage of 300µg and 80µg of testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) respectively on alternate days for three weeks subcutaneously in the inguinal region while the extract treated received an additional 2g/Kg BW (low dose) and 4g/Kg BW (high dose) of extract orally for 4 weeks after the successful induction of prostate enlargement. Immediately after induction some animals were randomly selected and sacrificed for gross inspection of prostate enlargement and sperm count evaluation, these procedures were repeated again after four weeks of extract treatment. Portion of the prostate were taken and processed routinely for paraffin embedding and stained with H&E.
Results: Hormone treatment did not affect the body weight of the animals; however it caused a significant decrease in the weight of the testes and rendered all the rats azoospermia. In addition, treatment with extracts caused a significant decrease in the enlarged prostate, seminal vesicle and testes sizes in a dose related manner (P<0.05) compared to the hormone treated control. Histological examination of prostate revealed that the methanolic extract caused significant changes in its histo-architecture. There was an increase in the fibromuscular layer, decrease in prostatic acini size, shrinkage of epithelium, and no infolding of the epithelium into the lumen, rather, it appeared flat compared to the very distinct columnar epithelium of the hormone treated control and conspicuousness of the acini. The extracts further caused a dose dependent reduction in the prostates weight. PSA level was significantly lowered in both HTEC at low and high doses (P<0.05) in dose dependent manner.
Conclusion: Administration of MECLS for one month reduced the prostate size significantly (P< 0.05), both at high and low dose, but could not restore the initial size of shrunken testes and severe oligospermia caused by the hormones. The histological studies clearly establish MECLS as a potential candidate in management of androgen dependent conditions like benign prostate hyperplasia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Analysis and Hypolipidemic Properties of Jatropha tanjorensis Leaf Extract

Oluwole I. Oyewole, Peter F. Akingbala

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 180-185
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2011/497

Aims: This study investigated the phytochemical composition of Jatropha tanjorensis leaf and the effect of its methanolic extract on serum lipid profile of albino rats.
Study design: Experimental Animal Model.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Osun State University, Osogbo Nigeria, between January and February 2011.
Methodology: Twenty four (24) albino rats divided into four groups and weighing between 130 and 150g were used for the study. Group 1 served as the control, Groups 2, 3 and 4 were administered varying concentrations of methanolic leaf extract of Jatropha tanjorensis daily for 14 days.
Results: Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of terpenoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids and tannins. Measurement of serum lipid profile in rats administered the extract indicate a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the mean values of total lipids, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol while triglycerides and HDL cholesterol levels were not significantly different from the control.
Conclusion: This study suggests that leaf extract of Jatropha tanjorensis posses phytochemical ingredients capable of lowering blood cholesterol level and might be useful in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases caused by hyperlipidemia.