Open Access Original Research Article

Sustainable Utilization of Medicinal Plants by Local Community of Uttarkashi District of Garhwal, Himalaya, India

Vardan Singh Rawat, Jeewan Singh Jalal

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 18-25
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2011/141

A study was conducted in the Uttarkashi district of Garhwal, Himalaya, India to document the medicinal plants used by the local communities. 56 plant species distributed in 46 families were documented. Of the total plant species 52% were herbs, 25% trees, 20% shrubs and 3% climbers. 17 different plant parts were used by local communities for different ailments. Some of the plants viz. Aconitum hterophyllum, Angelica glauca, Commiphora mukul, Dactylorhiza hatagirea, Picrorhiza kurroa and Saussurea costus are very rare in the wild. Zanthoxylum armatum, Rumex nepalensis, Cinnamomum tamala, Zingiber officinale, Allium sativum and Angelica glauca were the preferred medicinalplant species. The main indications for plants use were against common colds, asthma, skin and liver diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Phytochemical, Antibacterial and Antifungal Properties of Alafia barteri Stem Grown in Nigeria

A. A. Hamid, O. O. Aiyelaagbe

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 26-32
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2011/122

The preliminary phytochemical studies of Alafia barteri stem extracts revealed the presence of reducing sugar, steroids, glycosides, flavonoids and anthraquinones. Hexane, ethylacetate and methanol successive extracts of A. barteri stem showed inhibition on the six test bacteria. Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were sensitive to methanol extract at concentrations ranging from 25 to 200mg/ml using agar disk diffusion procedure, while hexane and ethylacetate extracts of the plant inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at concentrations between 50 and 200mg/ml. Hexane and ethylacetate extracts showed lower inhibition on Staphyloccocus aureus and Bacillus subtilis (gram positive), and Klebsiellae pneumonae (gram negative). Meanwhile, methanol extract exhibited antibacterial properties on Staphyloccocus aureus at concentrations between 50 and 200mg/ml, and Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiellae pneumonae and Salmonellae typhii at concentrations between 100 and 200mg/ml. The three extracts exhibited higher antifungal properties on Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolon, Penicillum notatum, Tricophyton rubrum and Epidermophyton floccosum with activity comparable to that of the reference drug tioconazole trosyd.

Open Access Original Research Article

Total Phenolic Contents and Lipid Peroxidation Potentials of Some Tropical Antimalarial Plants

H. O. T. Iyawe, M. C. Azih

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 33-39
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2011/171

In this investigation extracts of leaves and barks from five tropical antimalarial plants namely; Magnifera indica, Anacardium occidentale, Azachiractha indica, Carica papaya Linn and Cymbopogm citrates were studied in vitro for their total phenolics, total flavonoids and inhibition of lipid peroxidation abilities. Crude extracts from each plant material were obtained by maceration in ethanol and water respectively. The FolinCiocalteu procedure was used to assess the total phenolic concentrations of the extracts and results expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). Total flavonoid contents in extracts were determined by the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay and expressed as quercetin equivalents (QAE). The percentage inhibition of lipid peroxidation was assayed by estimating the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). The phenolic contents in water extracts of Anacardium occidentale leaves was 452.57 ± 8.08mg/gGAE and that of bark was recorded as 267.15 ± 6.06mg/gGAE. The ethanolic and water extracts of Azachiractha indica bark were found to be 310.71 ± 7.07mg/gGAE and 390.64 ± 6.97mg/gGAE respectively. The extracts of Magnifera indica leaves had the highest flavonoid content of 139.08 ± 0.77mg/100gQAE in ethanol and 69.55 ± 0.39 mg/100gQAE in water. The least values observed were 21.19 ± 0.64 mg/100gQAE for water extract of Anacardium occidentale leaves and 30.73 ± 0.26 mg/100gQAE for ethanolic extract of Anacardium occidentale bark. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney were observed as 15.92 ± 3.01% and 17.10 ± 3.48% in ethanolic extracts of Anacardium occidentale bark and leaves respectively while it was 30.67 ± 0.47% for Carica papaya Linn. The water extract of Azachiractha indica bark inhibited liver lipid peroxidation by 8.70 ± 0.32% while that of Anacardium occidentale bark inhibited kidney lipid peroxidation by 11.78 ± 1.08%. These results suggest a need for further examination of the water extract of Anacardium occidentale bark as this part of the plant appears to be critical in the phytotherapy of malaria infection.