European Journal of Medicinal Plants <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>European Journal of Medicinal Plants (ISSN: 2231-0894)</strong> is dedicated to publish&nbsp;high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/EJMP/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>)&nbsp;in all areas of medicinal plants research including plant growth and development, agronomic management, plant nutrition, plant physiology, cell biology, molecular biology, biotechnology, medicinal properties, phytochemical constituents, fitoterapia, pharmacognosy, essential oils, ehnopharmacology and phytomedicine. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US European Journal of Medicinal Plants 2231-0894 The Effects of Curcuma longa in Insulin Resistance <p><strong>Background:</strong> Curcumin is seen as an anti-hyperglycemic agent that acts by improving the expression of glucose transporters. It is also related to the reduction of glycosylated hemoglobin, improvement of insulin sensitivity, plasma lipids, and blood pressure.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The purpose of this article is to review the effects of<em> Curcuma longa</em> in insulin resistance.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> PUBMED and EMBASE databases were searched, and PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis) guidelines were followed to build the review.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Nineteen Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) met the inclusion criteria and were described according to PICO (Population, Intervention, Comparison, and Outcomes).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Curcumin could be considered in the therapeutic approach of patients with Insulin Resistance, once it is related to the reduction of oxidative stress, inflammation, serum fasting blood glucose, HOMA-IR, blood pressure, serum lipids, and liver transaminases. However, the results depend on the dose, intervention time, and formulation of the compound.<em>Insulin resistance</em></p> Laís Maria Pescinini Salzedas Giullia Trevisan Covre Simão Batista Sandra Maria Barbalho ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-15 2020-07-15 86 98 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1030286 Phytotherapy in Dentistry: A Literature Review Based on Clinical Data <p><strong>Aims: </strong>Looking for scientific support with an updated review about herbal medicines usage in dentistry for clinical application, reinforcing the potential of phytotherapics to treat oral disorders and the need for new studies on the topic.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> The literature search was performed combining “phytotherapy” and “dentistry” in the PubMed, MEDLINE, BBO, LILACS and SciELO databases, covering the period from January 2017 to March 2020. The data extracted were: Alteration/oral disease, gender, age, number of participants, herbal medicine used, drug function and results.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> were selected 24 papers that employed different plants, such as Tulsi, <em>Aloe vera</em>, citronella, turmeric, propolis and cloves. The results found are promising and show the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antibacterial, antioxidant, antifungal, antiviral and tranquilizer action of herbal drugs, and their use for treating burning mouth syndrome, oral submucous fibrosis, xerostomia and halitosis.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> despite the therapeutic activities of herbal medicines, additional studies with larger sample size and scientific rigor are necessary to prove their benefits for treating oral diseases.</p> Thaylla Núñez Amin Dick Letícia Côgo Marques Amanda de Almeida Lima Lopes Monique Santana Candreva Lílian Rocha Santos Bruna Lavinas Sayed Picciani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-29 2020-06-29 1 13 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1030276 Phenological Study of a Medicinally Important Plant Leonotis nepetifolia in Jharia Coal Field <p><em>Leonotis nepetifolia </em>(L.) R. Br. is a herbaceous plant belonging to the family Lamiaceae and grows across India by the roadsides or on the barren land field. This plant is medicinally very important. Various parts of the plant are used as depurative, febrifuge, antihelminthic, in relieving cough, in skin problems etc. But the ecology of this plant is also quite interesting. It can even survive the harsh conditions of Jharia coal field where the atmospheric conditions and edaphic factors are not favourable for the growth of various plants. But the plant, <em>Leonotis nepetifolia</em> grows luxuriantly in those stressful conditions as well. Keeping in view this ecological adaptability of this plant the present study was conducted with an objective to study the phenology of this particular plant in various conditions of Jharia coal field of Dhanbad district of Jharkhand so as to know how germination and flowering time of <em>Leonotis nepetifolia </em>changes with adversity so as to understand the ecological aspects quite better. For this, three stressful conditions were chosen where this plant was growing and their phenology was compared with that of the plant growing in controlled conditions. The phenology of this annual plant was found to be quite distinct in different places especially their germination time and death/dormancy.</p> Subir Kumar Khawas P. K. Mishra ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-29 2020-06-29 14 19 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1030277 Cardioprotective Activities of Pterocarpus mildbraedii Leaves on Isoproterenol-induced Myocardial Infarction in Rats <p>The study evaluated the effects of <em>Pterocarpus mildbraedii</em> leaf extracts on myocardial infarction induced by isoproterenol (ISO) in Wistar albino rats with a view to ascertain the value of its use in the management of heart-related diseases. Fresh plant leaves were collected, identified, extracted, fractionated and the aqueous layer partitioned with ethyl acetate. GC-MS was carried out on the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and unknown compounds were identified by comparing measured mass spectral data with those in NIST 14 Mass Spectral Library. Twenty-five adult rats were divided into five groups of 5 rats each. Groups I &amp;II were the control groups. Rats in groups III-V were pretreated with 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg of EAF and 1.8 mg/kg of propranolol respectively for 21 days. Myocardial infarction was then induced in all the rats (except those in Group I) with the intraperitoneal injection of ISO (85 mg/kg) for 2 days. Afterwards, the rats were sacrificed and blood samples, heart homogenate and samples for histological studies were aseptically collected. Activities of cardiac biomarkers, lipid profile, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were evaluated using standard methods. GC-MS analysis showed that the most abundant components of the plant are propionic acid, 2,3-dimethylphenyl ester, catechol, octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, phenol and n-Hexadecanoic acid. Administration of ISO caused significant elevation of the activities of cardiac biomarkers (troponin-T concentrations, creatine kinase-MB and lactate dehydrogenase) while rats pretreated with EAF had significantly lower levels of the biomarkers. Moreover, alterations in lipid profile, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants brought about by the administration of ISO were ameliorated. Histological examinations revealed lesser degree of myocardial injury in pre-treated rats.</p> A. O. Fajobi B. O. Emma- Okon O. O. Oyedapo C. A. Dare A. O. Akinlalu I. J. Komolafe M. Ogunsusi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-02 2020-07-02 20 37 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1030278 The Effect of Ginger on the Invasion and Migration of Glioma Cells <p><strong>Background:</strong> This work studies the effect of different concentrations of soaked ginger on the ability of the U87 glioma cells to invade collagen in a three dimension (3 D) invasion model and compare it with its effect on the ability of the same cell line to migrate in two-dimension (2 D) scratch assay.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The hanging drop spheroids in 3D invasion assay were used to investigate the in invasion of the U87 cells. The 2D scratch assay was used to investigate the migration of the same cell line.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Gradual effect of the soaked ginger was noticed on the inhibition of the invasion of U87 in collagen and on the inhibition of the migration of the same cell line in scratch assay.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results in this article are promising and encourage further studies to investigate the effect of ginger active ingredients on tumour progression.</p> Manar Zraikat Munir Gharaibeh Tasneem Alshelleh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-03 2020-07-03 38 43 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1030279 Larvicidal and Adulticidal Activities of Neem Oil against Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (Tephritidae) <p>In the laboratory, a neem oil-based formulation was evaluated for its insecticidal potential against the South American fruit fly <em>Anastrepha fraterculus</em> (Wied.), as efficient alternative for growers harvest fruits more harmless for the human consumption. The commercial product was evaluated against eggs <em>in vitro</em>, guavas infested with eggs and young larvae, and adults. The application of 0.8% neem oil significantly reduced the larval hatching of <em>A. fraterculus</em>. Neem oil at 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8% significantly reduced the number of pupae and adults per fruit infested with eggs. Guava infested with <em>A. fraterculus</em> eggs and treated with neem oil at 0.8% exhibited a reduction of 90.0% and 92.6% of pupae and adults per fruit, respectively. The same dosage to guava infested by larvae achieved a 44.6 and 51.4% reduction of pupae and larvae, respectively. At 360 minutes after treatment, 0.8% of neem oil provided 67.9% of corrected adult mortality. This double insecticidal effect of neem oil and lack of phytotoxicity in ripe guavas at the tested concentrations demonstrate its potential in biorational management.</p> Adalton Raga Sara Braga e Silva Léo Rodrigo Ferreira Louzeiro Ester Marques de Sousa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-03 2020-07-03 44 51 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1030280 Vigor and Viability of Cagaita (Eugenia dysenterica DC.) Seeds Subjected to Different Substrates <p>Cagaita originates from the Brazilian Cerrado and belongs to the Myrtaceae family. It is a fruit tree and widely disseminated in the Brazilian Cerrado, and can reach up to 10 meters high. To obtain quality seedlings it is necessary to use substrates that have physical and chemical properties suitable for plant development. Also, the quality of the substrate is directly related to the proportions and the material that makes up the mixture. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Federal Institute of Education (IFTO), Science and Technology of Tocantins, Gurupi/TO city, from November 1, 2017, to February 26, 2018. Cagaita (<em>Eugenia dysenterica</em> DC.) seeds taken directly from the fruit were used to perform the experiment, which was collected in the urban region of Peixe - To in October 2017. Six types of substrates were used for the installation of the experiment, which was: Washed Sand; Washed Sand + Coconut Shell + Black Soil + Poultry Manure; Black Soil; Pine Bark + Poultry Manure + 25% Commercial Substrate Plantmax<sup>®</sup>; Earthworm Humus + Black Soil + 25% Commercial Substrate Plantmax<sup>®</sup>; 25% Commercial Substrate Plantmax<sup>®</sup> + Poultry Manure + Black soil + washed sand. The substrates of earthworm humus + Black Soil + 25% commercial substrate Plantmax<sup>®</sup> and 25% Commercial Substrate Plantmax<sup>®</sup> + Poultry Manure + Black Soil + Washed Sand provided the highest values of viability and vigor in Cagaita seeds.</p> Helber Véras Nunes Daniella Inácio Barros João Pedro Pereira dos Santos Kaio Rodrigues dos Santos de Oliveira Bruna Azevedo Barbosa Bruno Henrique di Napoli Nunes Rayane Ferreira Noleto Ghustavo Higor Alves Costa Charles Pires Miranda Kaio Cesar Lima Vale Liomar Borges de Oliveira ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-07 2020-07-07 52 56 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1030281 Propagation Studies in Passion Fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims.) Using Cuttings <p>Passion fruit is a high value export oriented crop, which is gaining popularity among farmers. One of the constraints in expansion of this crop is availability of quality planting material. Passion fruit is propagated through seed, cutting and grafting. Among these methods, cuttings encourage the production and multiplication of true to type planting material. Therefore, a study was conducted at the Fruits Crops Research Station, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara, Thrissur, during August 2019 - November 2019 to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of NAA and number of nodes on the rooting of cuttings and survival percentage. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized design with twenty treatments and two replications. Experiment consisted of two factors, <em>viz</em>. NAA concentration (200 ppm, 400 ppm, 600 ppm, 800 ppm and control) and number of nodes (one node, two node, three node and four node), following quick dip method. The study revealed that there was significant variation among the treatments. When the effect of number of nodes alone was considered, four noded cutting had the maximum survival percentage, and higher root and shoot parameters. Improved survival percentage, and enhanced root and shoot characteristics were noticed with the increasing NAA concentration. From the present study, it was concluded that combined effect of more number of nodes and higher NAA concentration had profound effect on survival percentage, shoot length, root length, number of leaves and leaf area and four noded cuttings dipped in 800 ppm NAA, for 3-5 seconds was found to be the best successful propagule for passion fruit.</p> Annjoe V. Joseph A. Sobhana ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-10 2020-07-10 57 63 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1030282 Phytochemical Analysis and Antioxidant Potential of Costus speciosus L. <p><em>Costus speciosus</em> L. is a tuberous plant commonly available in wetlands and near water bodies throughout Odisha state and used as food and medicinal purposes. The tribal communities of the state used the rhizome to cure joint pain, skin infections and consume as nutraceutical. The above claims are supportive of the fact that the rhizome might have antioxidant potentials and might be rich with diverse secondary metabolites. Keeping this in view an attempt has been made to evaluate the bioactive compounds present in the plant parts and antioxidant potentials in order to validate the tribal claims. Results revealed that the plant parts are rich with phenolic compounds and have antioxidant potential.</p> Archita Behera Rajkumari Supriya Devi Srimay Pradhan Somali Biswal Padan Kumar Jena Susanta K. Biswal Sanjeet Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-15 2020-07-15 64 72 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1030284 Anti-biofilm Activity of Extracts of Caryota no in Drosophila melanogaster Infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> To investigate the anti-biofilm activity of the n-hexane and methanol extracts of <em>Caryota no</em> (CN) seeds against <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> (PA) infection in <em>D. melanogaster</em>.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>Experimental design.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration: </strong>Sample: African Centre of Excellence for Phytomedicine Research and Development, University of Jos, Jos Plateau State Nigeria between June 2018 and February 2019. <strong>Methods:</strong> 20 flies (1-3 days old) were pricked in the dorsolateral aspect of the abdomen with a modified fly needle dipped in biofilm forming strain of <em>P. aeruginosa</em> inoculum and left to recover and then transferred into the appropriately labeled vials which include different doses of the extracts or those in various control conditions. This process was done in 2 batches of flies treated with extracts prior to infection and flies treated with extracts after infection. The flies were monitored for survival for 72 hours. Mortality records were taken 6 hourly during this period, and the percentage of death determined in each group. The statistical difference among test groups was presumed at <em>P </em>&lt; .05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The result of n-hexane <em>Caryota no</em> extract showed significantly (<em>P</em> &lt; .05) improved survival (or decreased mortality) when used prophylactically and in curative assays compared to the control. The 400 mg of the n-hexane extract seemed to be the optimal concentration in both prophylactic and curative assays since it showed the least percentage deaths (50% and 43%) respectively. The methanolic extract exhibited a nonsignificant (<em>P</em> &gt; .05) decrease in percentage death prophylactically but direct significant (<em>P </em>&lt; .05) dose-dependent reduction in percentage deaths than the control in the curative studies with the 400 mg dose also showing the least deaths (47%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results suggest that both methanolic and n-hexane extracts of <em>Caryota no </em>have potentials as antibiofilm agents.</p> Chinonye A. Maduagwuna Simeon Omale Steven S. Gyang ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-15 2020-07-15 73 85 10.9734/ejmp/2020/v31i1030285