In vitro and in vivo Activities of Psidium guajava and Azadirachta indica Leaf Extracts and solvent Fractions against Salmonella Typhi
European Journal of Medicinal Plants,
Typhoidal salmonella infections remain a challenge in the health care system in sub-Saharan Africa. Carrier status and advent of multi-drug resistant S. Typhi strains have necessitated the search for new drug leads. Hence, this study aims at investigating P. guajava and A. indica leaves for anti-salmonella activities. Guava and neem leaves were extracted by maceration in methanol and fractionated by solvent partitioning. In vitro activities were assessed by agar well diffusion and broth micro-dilution methods. Sixty male rats were randomized to 10 groups of 6 animals each for the in vivo experiments. Groups of rats except, normal control, were induced with 0.5McFarland of S. Typhi suspension orally. Treatment groups received 200 mg/kg body weight of extracts and fractions, and the control groups were treated with 14.29mg/kg body weight of ciprofloxacin and 1%v/v DMSO for 7 days post-infection. Biochemical parameters were determined spectrophotometrically. Hematological parameters were analyzed with automated hematology diagnostic machine. All fractions of P. guajava and three of A. indica inhibited S. Typhi growth with Zone of Inhibition (ZI) ranging from 11-15 mm. Active fractions inhibited 48.60-62.45% of S. Typhi biofilm formation at 25 mg/mL with Minimum Bactericidal Inhibitory Concentration (MBIC) of 0.39-12.5 mg/mL. All fractions improved body weight of treated rats and inhibited bacteremia at 44.75 and 95.94%. Hematological parameters improved in all fractions-treated rats. MDA was not significantly (p<0.05) altered in all groups. One fraction of P. guajava (ePg) lowered the elevated level in concentration of Nitric oxide (NO) while all fractions enhanced the lowered activity of SOD. Elevated (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin (BIL) were lowered by all fractions to various extents in treated rats. Fractions of P. guajava, and A. indica could be further considered for identification of active anti-salmonella principle(s).
- P. guajava
- A. indica
- S. Typhi
How to Cite
WHO. World Health Organization. Immunizations, Vaccines and Biologicals; 2019.
Availablehttps://www.who.int/immunization/diseases/typhoid/en/ accessed on 21/05/2020
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