Qualitative and Quantitative Phytochemical Screening of Bitter and Neem Leaves and their Potential as Antimicrobial Growth Promoter in Poultry Feed
European Journal of Medicinal Plants,
Gastrointestinal health challenges without in-feed antibiotics are a crucial concern to poultry farmers. Although, quite a few substitutes for antibiotics have emerged, phytogenics and antibiotic properties of medicinal plants cannot be overlooked with regard to control, good health and minimizing sub – clinical bacteria-induced infections by zoonotic enteropathogenic bacteria in poultry birds. Vernonia amygdalina (Bitter leaf) and Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves were collected early in the morning and oven dried to 15% moisture content. The non-essential oil was obtained by cold maceration method using methanol. Appropriate methods were used for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of phytochemicals in the respective oils. Qualitative analysis of phytochemicals showed that, saponins and terpenoids were highly detected (+++) in V. amygdalina. Saponins and terpenoids were slightly detected (+) in A. indica. Phenolic compounds were highly detected (+++) in both plants. Flavonoids were also identified (++) in both plants, but tannins were highly detected (+++) in A. indica. Quantitative analysis revealed a rather high concentration of complete phenolic content and overall flavonoid content in V. amygdalina. Total phenolic content of 44.76 mg Gallic acid equivalent / g of extract and 57.21 mg Rutin equivalent / g of extract (total flavonoid content) was recorded in V. amygdalina and 25.77 mg Gallic acid equivalent / g of extract (total phenolic content) and 24.45 mg Rutin equivalent /g of extract (total flavonoid content) in A. indica.
In conclusion, both plant extracts exhibited possibility as suitable substitutes to proprietary antibiotics that can be beneficial to gastrointestinal health and overall performance in animal nutrition.
- Azadirachta indica
- gastrointestinal health
- animal nutrition
- Vernonia amygdalina
How to Cite
Vinus Dalal R, Sheoran N, Maan NS, Tewatia BS. Potential benefits of herbal supplements in poultry feed: A review. The Pharma Innovation Journal. 2018;7(6):651-656.
Hernandez F, Madrid J, Garcia V, Orengo J, Megias MD. Influence of tow plant extracts on broiler performance, digestibility, and digestive organ size. Poult. Sci. 2004;83:169-174.
Olukosi OA, Dono ND. Modification of digesta pH and intestinal morphology with the use of benzoic acid or phytobiotics and the effects on broiler chicken growth performance and energy and nutrient utilization. J. Anim. Sci. 2014; 92:3945–3953.
Siddhuraju P, Becker K. Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts of total phenolic constituents from three different agroclimatic origins of drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves. J of Agri. and Food Chem. 2003;51(8):2144-2155.
Teixeira EMB, Carvalho MRB, Neves VA, Silva MA, Arantes-Pereira L. Chemical characteristics and fractionation of proteins from Moringa oleifera Lam Leaves. Food Chem. 2014; 147:51-54.
Demir E, Sarica S, Ozcan MA, Swemez M. The use of natural feed additives as alternatives for an antibiotic growth promoter in broiler diets. Br. Poult. Sci. 2003;44:44-45.
Al-Amin ZM, Thomson M, Al-Qattan KK, Peltonen Shalaby R, Ali M. Anti-diabetic and hypolipidemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Br. J. Nutr. 2006; 96:660-666.
Zige VD, Ofongo RTS. In-vitro Antibiotic activity of dry ginger root extract against potential enteropathogenic Bacteria isolated from two Weeks old Broiler Chickens. International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology. 2019;4(1):229–232.
Hanieh H, Narabara K, Piao M, Gerile C, Abe A, Kondo Y. Modulatory effects of two levels of dietary Alliums on immune responses. Anim. Sci. J. 2010;81: 673-680.
Ofongo RTS, Ohimain EI. Effect of enzyme supplementation and plant extracts on villus height and microbial counts in broilers. Nigeria Journal of Animal Production. 2019;46(2):137–149.
Nodu MB, Okpeku M, Akpoveta ZA, Iroegbu DO. Evaluation of Azadirachta indica leaf extract on hematology and biochemical profiles, organ weight and growth parameters of broiler chickens. Journal of New Sciences. 2016;32 (5):1879–1884.
Trease GE, Evans WC. Pharmacognosy. 13th edn. Bailliere Tindall, London. 1989;176-180.
Sofowora A. Medicinal plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa. Spectrum Books, Ibadan; 1998.
Singleton VL, Rossi JA. Colorimetry of Total Phenolics with Phosphomolybdic-Phosphotungstic Acid Reagent. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture. 1965; 16:144-158. Avaliable:http://www.ajevonline.org/content/16/3/144.full.pdf+html
Anugom YO, Ofongo RTS. Impact of aqueous Ocimum gratissimum (Lyn) leaf extract on growth performance, gut ph and bacterial counts in broiler chickens. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 2019; 18:309-316.
Salunkhe DK, Jadhav SJ, Kadam SS, Chavan JK. Chemical, biochemical, and biological significance of polyphenols in cereals and legumes. Crit. Rev Food Sci Nutr. 1982;17(3):277-305.
Wang Y, McAllister TA, Xu Z, Cheng KJ. The effects of pro-anthocyanidins, de-husking and de-pericarping on the digestion of barley grain by ruminants. J Sci Food Agri. 1999; 79:929-938.
Terrill TH, Rowan AM, Douglas GB, Barry TN. Determination of extractable and bound condensed tannin concentrations in forage plants, protein concentrate meals and cereal grains. J Sci Food Agri. 1992;58(3):321-329.
Van Soest PJ. Nutritional ecology of the ruminant, Cornell University. 1982;44(11):2552-2561.
Frutos P, Hervas G, Giraldez FJ, Mantecon AR. Review. Tannins and ruminant nutrition. J. Biol Chem. 2004;2(2):20882-20888.
Amsler CD, Fairhead VA. Defensive and sensory chemical ecology of brown algae. Adv Bot Res. 2006; 43:1-91.
Berard NC, Wang Y, Wittenberg KM, Krause DO, Coulman BE, McAllister TA, et al. Condensed tannin concentrations found in vegetative and mature forage legumes grown in western Canada. Can J Plant Sci. 2011;91:669-675.
Li Y, Iwaasaa D, Wang Y, Jin L, Han G, Zhao M. Condensed tannins concentration of selected prairie legume forages as affected by phenological stages during two consecutive growth seasons in western Canada. Can J Plant Sci. 2014; 94:817-826.
Huang QQ, Hu TM, Xu Z, Jin L, McAllister TA, Acharyaa S, et al. Structural composition and protein precipitation capacity of condensed tannins from purple prairie clover (Dalea purpurea Vent.). In: ASAS-CSAS joint annual meeting. [Baltimore, ML, US]; 2017.
Redondo LM, Chacana PA, Dominguez JE, Fernandez Miyakawa ME. Perspectives in the use of tannins as alternative to antimicrobial growth promoter factors in poultry. Front Microbiology. 2014; 5:118.
Schiavone A, Guo K, Tassone S, Gasco L, Hernandez E, Denti R, et al. Effects of a natural extract of chestnut wood on digestibility, performance traits, and nitrogen balance of broiler chicks. Poult. Sci. 2008;87(3):521- 527.
Zotte AD, Cossu ME. Dietary inclusion of tannin extract from red quebracho trees (Schinopsis spp.) in the rabbit meat production. Ital J Anim Sci. 2009;8(2):784-786.
Biagia G, Cipollini I, Paulicks BR, Roth FX. Effect of tannins on growth performance and intestinal ecosystem in weaned piglets. Arch Anim Nutr. 2010;64(2):121.
Starcevic K, Krstulovic L, Brozic D, Mauric M, Stojevic Z, Mikulec Z, et al. Production performance, meat composition and oxidative susceptibility in broiler chicken fed with different phenolic compounds. J Sci Food Agri. 2015;95(6):1172-1180.
Viveros A, Chamorro S, Pizarro M, Arija I, Centeno C, Brenes A. Effects of dietary polyphenol-rich grape products on intestinal microflora and gut morphology in broiler chicks. Poult Sci. 2011;90(3):566-578.
Tosi G, Massi P, Antongiovanni M, Buccioni A, Minieri S, Marenchino L, Mele M. Efficacy test of a hydrolysable tannin extract against necrotic enteritis in challenged broiler chickens. Ital J Anim Sci. 2013; 12:123-132.
Westendarp H. Saponins in nutrition of swine, poultry and ruminants. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2005;112(2):65–70.
Chakarborty A, Choudhary BK, Bhattacharya P. Clausenol and Clausenine - Two carbazole alkaloids from Clausena anisata. Phytochem. 1995;40:295-298.
Boyce PW, Christy LP. Applied pharmacology for the veterinary technicians. 2nd ed. St. Luis, USA: WB Saunders Co. 2004;126-127.
Wina E, Pasaribu T, Rakhmani SIW, Tangendjaja B. The role of saponins as feed additive in sustainable poultry production. Wartazoa. 2017;27(3):117-124. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v27i3.1588
Das TK, Banerjee D, Chakraborty D, Pakhira MC, Shrivastava B, Kuhad RC. Saponin: Role in Animal system, Vet. World. 2012;5(4):248-254. DOI: 10.5455/vetworld.2012.248-254.
Brodowska KM. Natural flavonoids: Classification, potential role, and application of flavonoid analogues. European Journal of Biological Research. 2017;7(2):108–123.
Kamboh AA, Leghari RA, Khan MA, Kaka U. Flavonoid’s supplementation - An ideal approach to improve quality of poultry products. World Poultry Science Journal. 2019;75(1):115-126.
Gessner DK, Ringseis R, Eder K. Potential of plant polyphenols to combat oxidative stress and inflammatory processes in farm animals. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition. 2017; 101:605-628.
Attia G, El-Eraky W, Hassanein E, El-Gamal M, Farahat M, Hernandez-Santana. Effect of Dietary Inclusion of a Plant Extract Blend on Broiler Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Caecal Microflora and Intestinal Histomorphology. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 2017;16(9):344-353.
Abstract View: 444 times
PDF Download: 188 times