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The present investigation deals with the extraction, separation, isolation, identification, characterization and biological evaluation of the stigmasterol from methanolic extract on leaves of C. alata Kunth using bio-guided fractionation and spectral analytical methods. The biological activities investigated were antimicrobial and cytotoxicity. Leaf crude extract of C. alata obtained from 80% methanol was successively extracted with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. Ethyl acetate fraction afforded a bioactive compound by bioassay-guided fractionation. The characterization of isolates was done by biochemical and spectral methods. The active fraction obtained and isolated compound were tested for their antimicrobial activities. The cytotoxicity of the isolated compound on Hela cell line, estimated with the MTT assay. The ethyl acetate fraction has exhibited highest effective antimicrobial activities and the fraction afforded a compound stigmasterol. The compound isolated stigmasterol from leaf of C. alata showed strongest antimicrobial effect against all microbial strains were tested with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 1.95 to 125 μg/mL. The cytotoxicity studies indicated that the isolated stigmasterol possesses much potential against Hela (mammalian cancer) cell line. Overall, the stigmasterol compound was the most dynamic as far as the antibacterial and antifungal potential of the leaves of C. alata confirm the conventional utilization of this plant in treating different respiratory sufferings and its related manifestations. The properties of the bioactive phytochemical compound stigmasteol recommend that the powerful and wide range of antimicrobial and anticancer operators and may fill in as the lead compound in the advancement of novel restorative medications.
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