Main Article Content
Aims: The cultivation of medicinal plants in intercropping with other species of agricultural use has been an alternative to make production sustainable in family farming. The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth, biomass production, and chemical composition of the essential oil of mint (Mentha x gracilis Sole) in intercropping with fruit species in an agroforestry system.
Study Design: The experimental design was randomized blocks with four treatments, mint interplanted with citrus (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), bananas (Musa spp.), blackberries (Morus nigra), or Barbados cherries (Malpighia glabra).
Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted in the agroforestry located in the sector of Olericultura of the Federal University of Technology – Paraná (UTFPR), Brazil, in the period between November 2015 to February 2017.
Methodology: We analyzed light intensity, relative chlorophyll index, height, leaf area, biomass accumulation, essential oil content, oil production and chemical composition of mint grown in agroforestry.
Results: The highest production of biomass and essential oil were obtained in the intercropping of mint with citrus and Barbados cherries, possibly due to the edaphic climatic conditions, such as greater light intensity, that favored the growth, production, and chemical composition of the mint essential oil. Bananas and blackberries intercropped with mint were not beneficial for the growth and production of essential oils.
Conclusion: The intercropping of mint with citrus and Barbados cherries resulted in higher growth, biomass accumulation, and essential oil content and production. The major components of the essential oils were linalool and carvone, with higher percentages in the intercropping of mint with citrus and Barbados cherries. The cultivation of mint by intercropping with fruit species such as citrus and Barbados cherries is an option to diversify the production of medicinal plants, making it sustainable.
Armengot L, Barbieri P, Andres C, Milz J, Schneider M. Cacao agroforestry systems have higher return on labor compared to full–sun monocultures. Agronomy Sustainable Dev. 2016;36:70.
Sartório ML, Trindade C, Resende PL, Machado JR. Cultivo orgânico de plantas medicinais. 2th Ed. Viçosa: Aprenda Fácil; 2017. (Portuguese).
Caetano LCS, Ferreira JM, Araújo ML. Productivity carrot and lettuce in intercropping system. Hortic Bras. 1999; 17(2):143–146.
Mota JH, Vieira MC, Lima CA. Lettuce and jateikaá in single and intercropping cultivation: Production and antioxidant activity. Cienc Agrot. 2010;34(3):551–557.
Poovaiah CR, Weller SC, Jenks MA. Adventitious shoot regeneration of scotch spearmint (Mentha x gracilis Sole) in vitro. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant. 2006;42:354– 358.
Harley RM, Brighton CA. Chromosome numbers in the genus Mentha L. Bot J Linn Soc. 1977;74:71–96.
Rosa M SS, Mendonça RRF, Bizzo HR, Rodrigues IA, Soares RMA, Padrón TS, Alviano CS, Lopes AHCS. Antileishmanial Activity of a Linalool–Rich Essential Oil from Croton cajucara. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47(6):1895–1901.
National Institute of Meteorology. Weather station A843; 2017.
[acessed 2017 july 15]
Embrapa – Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation. Brazilian system of soil classification. 5th Ed. Brasília: Embrapa; 2018.
Teixeira PC, Donagemma GK, Fontana A, Teixeira WG. Manual of soil analysis methods. 2th ed. Rio de Janeiro: CNPS; 2017.
Gebiomet. Agrometeorological Bulletin – Dois Vizinhos: Federal University of Technology – Paraná; 2016. Available:http://www.gebiomet.com.br/boletins.php//
[Accessed 2016 July 18]
Guenther E. The essential oils. New York: D. Van Nostrand Company; 1961.
Santos AS, Alves SM, Baker D, Rocha Neto O. Description of the system and methods of extraction of essential oils and determination of biomass moisture in the laboratory. Belém: Embrapa Amazônia Oriental; 2004.
Mazutti M, Beledelli B, Mossi AJ, Cansian RL, Dariva C, Oliveira JV, Paroul N. Chemical characterization of extracts of Ocimum basilicum L. obtained by extraction with CO2 at high pressures. Quim Nova. 2006;29:1198–1202.
Adams RP. Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. 4th Ed. USA: Allured Publishing Corporation, Carol Stream; 2007
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); 2017.
[Accessed 2017 December 10]
Statistical Analysis System. [SAS Studio]; 2016. Available:http://www.sas.com/en_us/software/university–edition.html//
[Accessed 2016 February 15]
Duriyaprapan S, Britten E, Basford K. The effect of temperature on growth, oil yield and oil quality of japanese mint. Ann Bot. 1986;58:729–736.
Kramer PJ, Kozlowski T. Tree Physiology: Environmental Factors Affecting Growth. Lisboa: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian. 1960;559–637.
Dias Filho MB. Physiological response of Solanum crinitum Lam. to contrasting light environments. Pesqui Agropecu Bras. 1997;32:789–796.
Willey RW, Reddy MS. A Field Technique for Separating above and below Ground Interaction in Inter–cropping: An Experiment with Pearl Millet/Groundnut. Exp Agric.1981;17:257–264.
Salla L, Rodrigues JC, Marenco RA. Chlorophyll content in tropical trees determined with the SPAD–502. Rev Bras Biocienc. 2007;5:159–161.
Taiz L, Zeiger E. Plant Physiology. 3 th ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed; 2016.
Harder WC, Heredia Zárate NA, Vieira MC. Production and gross income of arugula (Eruca sativa Mill.) cultivated and of almeirão (Cichorium intybus L.) yellow in single and intercropping. Ciênc and Agrotec. 2005;29(4):775–85.
Gonzalez MCS, Toan TLE, Moreno J, Kergoat L, Rubio E. Seasonal variations of leaf area index of agricultural fields retrieved from Landsat data. Remote Sensing of Environment. 2008;112:810–824.
Costa LCB, Pinto JEBP, Castro EM, Alves E, Rosal LF, Bertolucci SKV, Alves PB. Yield and composition of the essential oil of Ocimum selloi Benth. Cultivated under colored netting. Journal of Essential Oil Research. 2010;22:34–39.
Morais LAS. Influence of abiotic factors on the chemical composition of essential oils. Hortic Bras. 2009;27:50–63.
Garlet TMB, Santos OS, Medeiros SLP, Manfron PA, Garcia DC, Borcioni E, Fleig V. Production and quality of mint essential oil in hydroponics with doses of potassium. Cienc Rural. 2007;37(4):956–962.
Costa AG, Chagas JH, Pinto JEBP, Bertolucci SKV. Vegetative growth and production of essential oil of peppermint cultivated under meshes. Pesqui Agropecu Bras. 2012;47(4):534–540.
Farooqi AHA, Sangwan NS, Sangwan RS. Effect of different photoperiodic regimes on growth, flowering and essential oil in Mentha species. Plant Growth Regul. 1999;29:181–187.
Meira MR, Martins ER, Manganotti SA. Growth, biomass production and essential oil content lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L) under different shade levels. J Med Plant. 2012;14(2):352–357.
Innis DQ. Intercropping and the scientific basis of the traditional agriculture. London: Intermediate. 1997;179.
Telci I, Sahbaz NI, Yilmaz G, Tugay ME. Agronomical and chemical characterization of spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) originating in Turkey. Econ Bot. 2004; 58(4):721–728.
Letizia CS, Cocchiara J, Lalko J, Api AM. Fragrance material review on linalool. Food Chem Toxicol. 2003;41(7):943–964.
Carvalho CCR, Fonseca MMR. Carvone: why and how should one bother to produce this terpene. Food Chem. 2006;95:413–422.
Brazilian Pharmacopoeia. 5th ed. Brasília: Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária; 2017. Portuguese.
Yadav RP, Bisht JK, Bhatt JC. Biomass, carbon stock under different production systems in the mid hills of Indian Himalaya. Trop Ecol. 2017;58(1):15–21.