In vitro Antisalmonellal and Antioxidant Activities of Leaves Extracts of Tectona grandis L. F. (Verbenaceae)

Main Article Content

Gabriel Tchuente Kamsu
Richard Simo Tagne
Siméon P. C. Fodouop
Louis-Claire Ndel Famen
Norbert Kodjio
Steve Endeguele Ekom
Donatien Gatsing

Abstract

Aim: Study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antisalmonellal and antioxidant properties of Tectona grandis, a medicinal plant commonly used in traditional Cameroonian medicine for the treatment of typhoid fever.

Study Design: In vitro Antimicrobial and antioxidant analyses of plant extract using established protocols.

Place and Duration of Study: Plant materiel collection at Loum (Moungo Division, Littoral region of Cameroon), identification at the National Herbarium of Cameroon, extraction of plant and all analyses at the Research Unit of Microbiology and Antimicrobial Substances, Department of Biochemistry, University of Dschang-Cameroon, between August 2018 and April 2019.

Methodology: In vitro antisalmonellal activity of Tectona grandis extracts was evaluated by the liquid microdilution method as well as their antioxidant activity using by standard methods of H2O2 trapping, FRAP, DPPH radical trapping and OH radical trapping. Quantification test of total phenols and flavonoids and phytochemical screening of extract were also done.

Results: The results showed that most of the Tectona grandis extracts had minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 64 to 1024 μg/mL. Ethanolic extract, 70% ethanol extract and aqueous decoction are the most effective compared to aqueous extracts with activities between 64 and 128 μg/mL on the bacteria tested. Antioxidant tests showed that all extracts except macerated and aqueous infused extracts exhibited high DPPH trapping activities. The antioxidant activities of the extracts are proportionally linked in most cases to their flavonoid and total phenol contents at a concentration of 200 µg/mL. Aqueous decoction showed better H2O2 trapping activity at concentrations less than or equal to 25 µg/mL.

Conclusion: These results show that the ethanolic extract and decocted aqueous of Tectona grandis leaves can be used as an alternative to treat salmonellosis.

Keywords:
Tectona grandis extract, antisalmonellal and antioxidant activities

Article Details

How to Cite
Kamsu, G. T., Simo Tagne, R., P. C. Fodouop, S., Ndel Famen, L.-C., Kodjio, N., Endeguele Ekom, S., & Gatsing, D. (2019). In vitro Antisalmonellal and Antioxidant Activities of Leaves Extracts of Tectona grandis L. F. (Verbenaceae). European Journal of Medicinal Plants, 29(4), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.9734/ejmp/2019/v29i430164
Section
Original Research Article

References

Evangelopoulou G, Kritas S, Christodoulopoulos G, Burriel AR. The commercial impact of pig Salmonella spp. infections in border-free markets during an economic recession. Veterinary World. 2015;8(3):257-272.

Sokoudjou JB, Njateng GSS, Fodouop CPS, Kodjio N, Atsafack SS, Fowa AB, Djimeli MN, Gatsing D. In vitro antisalmonellal and antioxidant activities of Canarium schweinfurthii stem bark extracts. Academia Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2018;6(10):331-41.

WHO (World Health Organization). Typhoid. Last updated; 2018.

Available:https://www.who.int/immunization/diseases/typhoid/en/2018

OMS (Organisation Mondiale de la Sante). Relevé épidémiologique mensuel, N° 16/02, bureau de la représentation du Cameroun, Yaoundé-Cameroun, Juillet; 2016.

Gatsing D, Mbah JA, Garba IH, Tane P, Djemgou P, Nji-Nkah BF. An antisalmonellal agent from the leaves of Glossocalyx brevipes Benth (Monimiaceae). Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 2006;9:84-87.

Ali MZ, Sultana S. Avian salmonellosis, newcastle disease and aspergillosis. Technical Report; 2012.

Madigan M, Martinko J. Diagnostic microbiologique et immunologique. In Brock Biologie des Microorganismes (11ème édn). Pearson Education: Paris, France; 2007.

Gardès-Albert M, Jore D. Aspects physicochimiques des radicaux libres centrés sur l’oxygène. In : Delattre JB, Bonnefont-Rousselot D, eds. Radicaux libres et stress oxydant. Aspects biologiques et pathologiques. Paris: Lavoisier. 2005;1–23.

Shukla P, Bansode WF, Singh KR. Chloramphenicol toxicity: A Review. Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences. 2011;2:1313-1316.

Valnet B, Roger GF, Duffy SW. Se Soigner, Par les Légumes, les Fruits et les Céréales Thérapeutique journalière par les légumes et les fruits 9e éd, », Librairie générale française, Le Livre de poche » série « Pratique » no 7888, Paris; 2008.

Asif M. In Vivo analgesic and antiinflammatory effects of Tectona grandis Linn. Stem bark extracts. Malaysian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science. 2012; 9(1):1-11.

Khera N, Bhargava S. Phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation of Tectona grandis.Linn. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2013; 5(3):923-927.

Duke JA. Le pouvoir des plantes. Encyclopédie des Plantes Médicinales du Département de Phytothérapie de Bobigny, France; 2000.

Mativandlela SPN, Lall N, Meyer JJM. Antimicrobial, antifungal, antitubercular activity of Pelargonium reniforme (CURT) and Pelargonium sidoides (DC) (Geraniaceae) root extracts. South Africa Journal of Botanic. 2006;72:232-237.

Ruch RJ, Cheng SJ, Klaunig JE. Prevention of cytotoxicity and inhibition of intercellular communication by antioxidant catechins isolated from Chinese green tea. Carcinogenesis. 1989;10:1003‐1008.

Mensor LL, Menezes FS, Leitao GG, Reis ASO, Dos Santos TC, Coube CS, Leitao SG. Screening of Brazilian plant extracts for antioxidant activity by the used DPPH free radical method. Phytotherapy Research. 2001;15:127-130.

Padmaja M, Sravanthi M, Hemalatha KPJ. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of two Indian medicinal plants. Journal of Phytology. 2011;3(3):86-91.

Mohammed AI, Neil AK, Shahidul IM. In vitro anti-oxidative activities and gc-ms analysis of various solvent extracts of cassia singueana parts. Drug Research. 2013;70(4):709-719.

Selvakumar K, Madhan R, Srinivasan G, Baskar V. Antioxidant Assays in Pharmacological Research. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Technology. 2011; 1(4):99-103.

Ramde-Tiendrebeogo A, Tibiri A, Hilou A, Lompo M, Millogo-Kone H, Nacoulma OG, Guissou IP. Antioxidative and antibacterial activities of phenolic compounds from Ficus sue Forssk. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences. 2012; 6(1):328-336.

Harbone JB. Phytochemical Methods: A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis, Chapman and Hall Ltd, London, UK; 1973.

Tamokou JD, Mbaveng TA, Kuete V. Antimicrobial activities of African medicinal spices and vegetable. In: « médicinale spices and vegetable from Africa: Therapeutic potential against metabolic, inflammatory, infectious and systemic diseases », 1st édition, Elsevier; 2018.

Udaya Prakash NK, Bhuvaneswari S, Divyasri D, Kurien AN, Uma P, Arokiyaraj S. Studies on the phytochemistry and bioactivity of leaves of few common trees in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2013;5(3):88-91.

Lanka S, Parimala. Antimicrobial activities of Tectona grandis leaf and bark extracts. European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research. 2017;4(12):245- 248.

Gatsing D, Adoga GI. Antisalmonellal activity and phytochemical screening of the various parts of Cassia petersiana Bolle (Caesalpiniaceae). Research Journal of Microbiology. 2007; 2(11):876-80.

Bandyopadhyay U, Das D, Banerjee RK. Reactive oxygen species: Oxidative damage and pathogenesis. Current Science. 1999;77(5):658-666.

Alam MN, Bristi NJ, Rafiquzzaman M. Review on in vivo and in vitro methods evaluation of antioxidant activity. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. 2013;21: 143-152.

Lee MC, Shoji H, Miyazaki H, Yoshino F, Hori N, Toyoda M, Ikeda Y, Anzai K, Ikota N, Ozawa T. Assessment of oxidative stress in the spontaneously hypertensive rat brain using electron spin resonance (ESR) imaging and in vivo L‐Band ESR. Hypertens Res. 2004;27:485‐492.

Yadav S, Gupta VK, Gopalakrishnan A, Verma R. Antioxidant activity analysis of Ficus racemosa leaf extract. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies. 2019; 7(1):1443-1446.

Ghaisas MM, Navghare VV, Takawale AR, Zope VS, Deshpande AD. In-vitro antioxidant activity of Tectona grandis Linn. Pharmacologyonline. 2008;3:296-305.

Pooja KC, Samanta SL, Khokra P, Sharma V, Sharma V. Free radical scavenging activity of Tectona grandis roots. IJPSR. 2010;1(12):159-163.

Cheng A, Chen X, Jin Q, Wenliang W, John S, Yaobo L. Comparison of phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of red and yellow onions. Czech Journal of Food Science. 2013;31(5):501-508.

Souri E, Amin G, Farsam H, Barazandeh TM. Screening of antioxidant activity and phenolic content of 24 medicinal plants. J Pharm Sci. 2008;16(2):83- 87.

Kushwah AS, Parminder K, Singh R. In-Vitro Antioxidant Potential and Phytochemical Screening of Tectona grandis Linn. Leaves. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Research. 2013;1(1):33-38.

Kodjio N, Atsafack SS, Fodouop SPC, Kuiate JR, Gatsing D. In vitro antisalmonellal and antioxidant activities of extracts and fractions of Curcuma longa L. Rhizomes (Zingiberaceae). Int. J. Biochem Res. 2016;11(3):1-14.

Djoueudam FG, Fowa AB, Fodouop CSP, Kodjio N, Gatsing D. Solanum torvum Sw. (Solanaceae): Phytochemical screening, antisalmonellal and antioxidant properties of leaves extracts. Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies. 2019;7(1):05-12.