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Aims: This study was carry out to determine the dose effect of aqueous and hydro-ethanol C. colocynthis fruit extracts on some properties and serum biochemical parameters in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.
Study Design: Random trial.
Place and Duration of Study: University of Douala-Cameroon. Faculty of Science. Laboratory of Biochemistry, between April 2017 and June 2017.
Methodology: Forty two albino male rats (Rattus norvegicus var. albinus), aged 2 to 3 months and weighing 150- 200 g were used in this study. Animals were randomly distributed into 7 experimental groups of six rats each. One group was used as healthy control and diabetes was induced in the 6 others groups by intraperitoneal injection with alloxan monohydrate into tail veins. Five diabetic groups received oral glibenclamide (3mg/kg), 50 and 100 mg/kg bw of aqueous or hydro-ethanol fruit extract of Citrullus colocynthis respectively The remaining group was assigned as diabetic control rats. Body weight and serum biochemical parameters (glucose, lipids, transaminases and creatinine) were recorded weekly during 3 weeks.
Results: Diabetes induction of with alloxan significantly (p = .05) increases blood glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, transaminases (AST, ALT) and creatinine blood level. Treatment of rats with hydro-ethanol extract (100 mg/kg.bw) steadily reduces (80.44%) glycemia but cause a significant increase of the liver relative mass, AST (138.38 IU/l) and ALT (152.35 IU/l) blood levels (p = .05). Administration of 50 mg/kg bw hydro-ethanol and aqueous extracts significantly reduce the glucose (22-46.44%), triglycerides, total cholesterol, transaminases and creatinine blood levels (72 to 85 %) (p = .05).
Conclusion: The administration of glibenclamide (3mg/kg), 50 and 100 mg/kg bw aqueous extracts and 50 mg/kg bw hydro ethanol extracts significantly reversed the damage associated with Alloxan induced diabetes close to the normal. The dose of 100 mg/kg bw hydro ethanol extracts should be avoided because of it toxic effects.