Ethnobotanical Survey on Awareness of Medicinal Plants Used for Treatment of Urinary Tract Infection in Biharamulo District: Tanzania

Frenk B. Paschal *

Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Biotechnology, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P. O. Box 3019, Morogoro, Tanzania.

Elisa D. Mwega

Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Biotechnology, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P. O. Box 3019, Morogoro, Tanzania.

Gaymary G. Bakari

Department of Veterinary Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P. O. Box 3017, Morogoro, Tanzania.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Introduction: In struggles to overcome a catastrophic disaster of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), many researchers are interested with safe and active medicinal plants. Kagera region is famous for uses of traditional medicines (TMs).

Aim: This study aimed to identify medicinal plants used for treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI) in Biharamulo district, Tanzania.

Methodology: To assess awareness of communities on UTI and its TMs, semi-structured questionnaires were administered to 400 respondents during ethnobotanical survey conducted in Biharamulo district at Kagera region. UTI medicinal plants were identified and collected. Data were analysed by using Chi-square test in SPSS version 16. Awareness of participants were justified at the statistical significance difference of p-values < 0.05.

Results: The present study revealed that participants had awareness on UTI and its medicinal plants, because they identified clinical signs (85.2%), mode of transmissions and aetiologies (41%), UTI medicinal plants (99.5%) and used herbs to treat UTI (92.8%). Out of 42 medicinal plants identified for treating UTI, 29 (69%) of them had complementary ethno-medical claims or constituted active antimicrobial phytochemicals or pharmacologically proven for treating UTI and related microbial infections in literatures. The 29 medicinal plants belonged in 20 families where by the dominant were Myrtaceae, Leguminosae and Lamiaceae. Therapeutically, S. guineense, S. cordatum, C. citrinus, T. mollis, T. sercea, X. caffra, A. muricata, P. granatum, and J. mimosifolia were documented by the present study to be medicinal plants which elicit strong antimicrobial activities against UTI microbes.

Conclusion: Findings from this study concurred with the previous ones for Biharamulo societies to have awareness on UTI and its phytomedicines. Research’s outcomes accentuate antimicrobial efficacies of the selected medicinal plants for treating UTI as claimed by traditional healers, significantly supported their uses and provided directions for further discovery of new UTI drugs.

Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey, awareness, medicinal plants, urinary tract infection, Biharamulo

How to Cite

Paschal , F. B., Mwega, E. D., & Bakari, G. G. (2023). Ethnobotanical Survey on Awareness of Medicinal Plants Used for Treatment of Urinary Tract Infection in Biharamulo District: Tanzania. European Journal of Medicinal Plants, 34(8), 21–40.


Download data is not yet available.


Oreagba IA, Oshikoya KA, Amachree M. Herbal medicine use among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria. BioMed Central Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2011;11(1): 1-8.

De Zoysa MH, Rathnayake H, Hewawasam RP, Wijayaratne WM. Determination of In vitro antimicrobial activity of five Sri Lankan medicinal plants against selected human pathogenic bacteria. International Journal of Microbiology. 2019;743-1439.

Ibrahim YK, Tytler BA, Ogunsola YK. Phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of crude extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) of Terminalia mollis linn (combretaceae) root. Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2006;5(1):109- 115.

Bartolome AP, Villaseñor IM, Yang WC. Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae): Botanical properties, traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2013;1- 51

Ajaib M, Shafi F, Zahid MT, Siddiqui MF. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant screening of Flueggea. Bioscience Research. 2021;17(4):2791-2798.

Debalke D, Birhan M, Kinubeh A, Yayeh M. Assessments of antibacterial effects of aqueous-ethanolic extracts of Sida rhombifolia’s aerial part. The Scientific World Journal. 2018 Dec 18;2018.

Ozioma EO, Chinwe OA. Herbal medicines in African traditional medicine. Herbal medicine. 2019;10:191-214.

Cock I, Mavuso N, Van Vuuren S. A review of plant-based therapies for the treatment of urinary tract infections in traditional Southern African Medicine. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2021;2021:1-20.

H Alamshani W, Al-Sarraj F, A Algamdi M. The inhibitory effect of Punica granatum on Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia Extended spectrum β-lactamase strains. Novel Research in Microbiology Journal. 2023;7(1):1836-1856.

Lagha R, Ben Abdallah F, Al-Sarhan BO, Al-Sodany Y. Antibacterial and biofilm inhibitory activity of medicinal plant essential oils against Escherichia coli isolated from UTI patients. Molecules. 2019;24(6):1161.

Elamary RB, Albarakaty FM, Salem WM. Efficacy of Acacia nilotica aqueous extract in treating biofilm-forming and multidrug resistant uropathogens isolated from patients with UTI syndrome. Scientific Reports. 2020;10(1):11125.

Masinde A, Gumodoka B, Kilonzo A, Mshana SE. Prevalence of urinary tract infection among pregnant women at Bugando medical centre, Mwanza, Tanzania. Tanzania Journal of Health Research. 2009;11(3):154-159.

Shaheen G, Akram M, Jabeen F, Ali Shah SM, Munir N, Daniyal M, Riaz M, Tahir IM, Ghauri AO, Sultana S, Zainab R. Therapeutic potential of medicinal plants for the management of urinary tract infection: A systematic review. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology. 2019;46(7):613-624.

Chen YC, Chang CC, Chiu TH, Lin MN, Lin CL. The risk of urinary tract infection in vegetarians and non-vegetarians: A prospective study. Scientific Reports. 2020;10(1):1-9.

Das S. Natural therapeutics for urinary tract infections—A review. Future Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020;6:1-3.

Moshi MJ, Otieno DF, Mbabazi PK, Weisheit A. Ethnomedicine of the Kagera Region, north western Tanzania. Part 2: The medicinal plants used in Katoro Ward, Bukoba district. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 2010;6(1):1-5.

Mbunde MV, Innocent E, Mabiki F, Andersson PG. Ethnobotanical survey and toxicity evaluation of medicinal plants used for fungal remedy in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology. 2017; 6(1):84-96.

Israel GD. Determining sample size 1 the level of precision. Biometrics. 1992;42.

Harahap D, Niaci S, Mardina V, Zaura B, Qanita I, Purnama A, Puspita K, Rizki DR, Iqhrammullah M. Antibacterial activities of seven ethnomedicinal plants from family Annonaceae. Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology and Research. 2022;13(3):148 -153.

Aguilar-hern G, Brandon AL, Alejandro P, Ruvalcaba-g M, Castellanos-huerta I, Tellez-isaias G. Antibacterial activity of crude extract and purified acetogenins from Annona muricata seeds. Applied Sciences. 2023;13(1):558.

Arsene MM, Viktorovna PI, Sergei GV, Hajjar F, Vyacheslavovna YN, Vladimirovna ZA, Aleksandrovna VE, Nikolayevich SA, Sachivkina N. Phytochemical analysis, antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of Aloe vera aqueous extract against selected resistant gram-negative bacteria involved in urinary tract infections. Fermentation. 2022;8(11):626.

Parveen G, Ali M. Extraction, isolation and phytochemical screening of leaves and stems of Bidens Pilosa and evaluation of antifungal potential of extracts. IOSR J Pharm Biol Sci e-ISSN [Internet]. 2019; 14(4):73-76.


Mishra MP, Rath S, Swain SS, Ghosh G, Das D, Padhy RN. In vitro antibacterial activity of crude extracts of 9 selected medicinal plants against UTI causing MDR bacteria. Journal of King Saud University-Science. 2017;29(1):84-95.

Singh G, Passsari AK, Singh P, Leo VV, Subbarayan S, Kumar B, Singh BP, Lalhlenmawia H, Kumar NS. Pharmacological potential of Bidens pilosa L. and determination of bioactive compounds using UHPLC-QqQ LIT-MS/MS and GC/MS. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2017;17(1):1-6.

Son NH, Tuan NT, Tran TM. Investigation of chemical composition and evaluation of antioxidant , antibacterial and antifungal activities of ethanol extract from Bidens pilosa L . 2022;2061:1–8.

Mabhiza D, Chitemerere T, Mukanganyama S. Antibacterial properties of alkaloid extracts from Callistemon citrinus and Vernonia adoensis against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. International Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2016;2016:1-7.

Oyedeji OO, Lawal OA, Shode FO, Oyedeji AO. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oils of Callistemon citrinus and Callistemon viminalis from South Africa. Molecules. 2009;14(6):1990–1998.

Chitemerere TA, Mukanganyama S. In vitro antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants from Zimbabwe. The African Journal of Plant Science and Biotechnology. 2011;5(1):1-7.

El-Kelany A, El-Swaify Z, Nour M, Elsaied ED. Phytochemical and biological studies on some medicinal plants. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020;62.

Akpoka OA, Okwu MU, Imade OS, Nwangwu SCO, Omonegho EG, Uti C. A comparative study of the antibacterial effect of three ethnomedical plants (Ocimum gratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina and Cymbopogon citratus) on certain clinical isolates. Herbal Medicines Journal. 2019;4(2):65–75.

Guerrini A, Tacchini M, Chiocchio I, Grandini A, Radice M, Maresca I, Paganetto G, Sacchetti G. A comparative study on chemical compositions and biological activities of four Amazonian Ecuador essential oils: Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae), Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf, (Poaceae), Ocimum campechianum Mill. (Lamiaceae) and Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). Antibiotics. 2023;12(1):177.

Obakiro SB, Kiprop A, Kigondu E, K’Owino I, Odero MP, Manyim S, Omara T, Namukobe J, Owor RO, Gavamukulya Y, Bunalema L. Traditional medicinal uses, phytoconstituents, bioactivities, and toxicities of Erythrina abyssinica Lam. ex DC.(Fabaceae): A systematic review. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2021;2021:1-43.

Machumi F, Bojase-Moleta G, Mapitse R, Masesane I, Majinda RR. Radical scavenging-flavonoids from Erythrina abyssinica. Natural Product Communications. 2006;1(4):2-7.

Kouangbe MA, Tchumou M, Monon KO, Ouattara K, N’guessan JD. Assessment of antibacterial activity of some extracts of Securinega virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Baill on pathogens bacteria. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics. 2023;13(1):116-122.

Amenu JD, Neglo D, Abaye DA. Comparative study of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of compounds isolated from solvent extracts of the roots of Securinega virosa. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines. 2019;7(08): 27–41.

Chawla R, Kumar S, Sharma A. The genus Clematis (Ranunculaceae): Chemical and pharmacological perspectives. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2012;143(1):116-150.

Srivastava D, Shukla K. Ipomoea cairica: A medicinal weed with promising health benefits. International Journal of Information Research and Review. 2015; 2(5):687-694.

Dhale DA. Antifungal activity of Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet (Convolvulaceae) against plant pathogenic fungi. Dogo Rungsang Research Journal. 2022; 12(10):157-160.

Sidjui LS, Toghueo RMK, Menkem Zeu E, Mbouna CDJ, Leddet VM, Herbette G. Antibacterial activity of the crude extracts, fractions and compounds from the stem barks of Jacaranda mimosifolia and Kigelia africana (Bignoniaceae). Pharmacologia. 2016;7(1):22–31.

Naz R, Roberts TH, Bano A, Nosheen A, Yasmin H, Hassan MN, Keyani R, Ullah S, Khan W, Anwar Z. GC-MS analysis, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antilipoxygenase and cytotoxic activities of Jacaranda mimosifolia methanol leaf extracts and fractions. PLoS One. 2020;15(7): e0236319.

Dada EO, Ekundayo FO, Makanjuola OO. Antibacterial activities of Jatropha curcas (LINN) on coliforms isolated from surface waters in Akure, Nigeria. International Journal of Biomedical Science: IJBS. 2014;10(1):25-30.

Omoregie EH, Folashade KO. Broad spectrum antimicrobial activity of extracts of Jatropha curcas. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. 2013;3(4):83-87.

Jesus JA, Lago JH, Laurenti MD, Yamamoto ES, Passero LF. Antimicrobial activity of oleanolic and ursolic acids: An update. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2015;2015:1-14.

Sewawa K. Phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts of Kleinia longiflora. Dissertation for Award of MSc Degree at University of Botswana International University of Science and Technology, Botswana. 2021;1–51.

Joshi B, Lekhak S, Sharma A. Antibacterial property of different medicinal plants: Ocimum sanctum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Xanthoxylum armatum and Origanum majorana. Kathmandu University Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology. 2009;5(1):143-150.

Naz R, Bano A. Phytochemical screening, antioxidants and antimicrobial potential of Lantana camara in different solvents. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease. 2013;3(6):480-486.

Sharma A, Verma R, Ramteke P. Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants used by tribals against UTI causing pathogens. World Applied Sciences Journal. 2009;7(3):332-339.

Mazimba O. Leonotis leonurus: A herbal medicine review. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2015;3(6):74-82.

Ratsoma MF. Antidiabetic and phytochemical properties of four selected medicinal plants. Dissertation for Award of MSc Degree at University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, 2019;118.

Delelegn A, Sahile S, Husen A. Water purification and antibacterial efficacy of Moringa oleifera Lam. Agriculture and Food Security. 2018;7(1):1-10.

Garba J, Oba A, Ofili A, John B, Isah H, John KV, Musa JA. Phytochemical screening, proximate composition and mineral element analysis of Neocarya macrophylla (gingerbread) plum and its effects on microorganisms. Journal of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2022;10(1):76-81.

Yusuf AJ, Abdullahi MI, Haruna AK, Musa AM, Abdullahi MS, Ibrahim ZY, Halilu M, Odiba O. Phytochemical and antimicrobial evaluations of the methanol stem bark extract of Neocarya macropylla. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research. 2015;7(1):477-481.

Chanthaboury M, Choonharuangdej S, Shrestha B, Srithavaj T. Antimicrobial properties of Ocimum species: An In vitro study. Journal of International Society of Preventive and Community Dentistry. 2022;12(6):596-602.

Dalhat AD, Taura DW, Musa DA, Ayuba SS, Shu’aibu M, Muhammad AU. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum and Prosopis juliflora against some selected bacteria. Asian J Pharm Pharmacol. 2020;6(3):217–23.

Kumar A, Tantry BA, Rahiman S, Kumar S. Antibacterial evaluation and phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum against some common microbial pathogens. Aus J Bas Appl Sci; 2011.

Muñoz P, Parra F, Simirgiotis MJ, Sepúlveda Chavera GF, Parra C. Chemical characterization, nutritional and bioactive properties of Physalis peruviana fruit from high areas of the Atacama desert. Foods. 2021;10(11):2699.

Kathare JM. Antimicrobial, cytotoxicity, acute oral toxicity effects and phytochemical composition of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Physalis peruviana, Bridellia micrantha, and Croton megalocarpus. Dissertation for Award of MSc Degree at University of Nairobi, Kenya. 2021;1-68.

Zam W, Khaddour A. Anti-virulence effects of aqueous pomegranate peel extract on E. coli urinary tract infection. Progr. Nutr. 2017;19:98-104.

Odongo EA, Mutai PC, Amugune BK, Mungai NN, Akinyi MO, Kimondo J. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of selected Kenyan medicinal plant extract combinations against clinically important bacteria. BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies. 2023;23(1):100.

Nas FS, Oyeyi TI, Ali M. Antibacterial efficacy and phytochemical screening of Senna siamea leaves extracts on some pathogenic bacteria. Journal of Microbiology and Experimentation. 2018; 6(3):159-63.

Maliehe TS, Shandu JS, Basson AK, Simelane MB, Lazarus G, Singh M. Pharmacodynamic and cytotoxicity effects of Syzygium cordatum {S Ncik, 48 (UZ)} fruit-pulp extract in gastrointestinal tract infections. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2017;16(6): 1349-55.

Cimanga Kanyanga R, Kikweta Munduku C, Tshodi Ehata M, Nsaka Lumpu S, Mbamu Maya B, Manienga K, et al. Antibacterial and antifungal screening of extracts from six medicinal plants collected in Kinshasa-Democratic Republic of Congo against clinical isolate pathogens. J Pharmacogn Phyther. 2014;6(3):24–32.

Maregesi SM, Pieters L, Ngassapa OD, Apers S, Vingerhoets R, Cos P, Berghe DA, Vlietinck AJ. Screening of some Tanzanian medicinal plants from Bunda district for antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2008;119(1):58-66.

Moshi MJ, Mbwambo ZH, Kapingu MC, Mhozya VH, Marwa C. Antimicrobial and brine shrimp lethality of extracts of Terminalia mollis Laws. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. 2006;3(3):59-69.

Ravisankar P, Rao CVP, Qureshi NA, Alsubaie HA, Alharbi MK, Ali GIM. Trends in pharmaceutical research and development. Book Publisher International (A part of Sciencedomain International); 2020;1.

Mbowen HF. Antimicrobial, cytotoxic and preliminary phytochemical analysis of four medicinal plants and their formulation. Dissertation for award of MSc degree at University of Venda, South Africa; 131.

Anokwuru CP, Tankeu S, van Vuuren S, Viljoen A, Ramaite ID, Taglialatela-Scafati O, Combrinck S. Unravelling the antibacterial activity of Terminalia sericea root bark through a metabolomic approach. Molecules. 2020;25(16):3683.

Itumeleng TB, Idowu JA, Abdullahi AY, Sekelwa C. Antibacterial, antiquorum sensing, antibiofilm activities and chemical profiling of selected South African medicinal plants against multi-drug resistant bacteria. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2022;16(2):52–65.

Panda SK, Gazim ZC, Swain SS, Bento MC, Sena JD, Mukazayire MJ, Van Puyvelde L, Luyten W. Ethnomedicinal, phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd (Lamiaceae). Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2022;13:896078.

Njau E., Alcom J, Buza J, Trejo M. Antimicrobial activity of Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Lamiaceae, amedicinal plant from Tanzania. European Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2014;4(12):1462–1478.

Munodawafa T, Moyo S, Chipurura B, Chagonda L. Brine shrimp lethality bioassay of some selected Zimbabwean traditional medicinal plants. International Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2016;7.

Otieno JN, Hosea KM, Lyaruu HV, Mahunnah RL. Multi-plant or single-plant extracts, which is the most effective for local healing in Tanzania? African Journal of Traditional Medicine Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2008;5(2): 165-172.

Arsene MM, Viktorovna PI, Davares AK, Esther N, Nikolaevich SA. Urinary tract infections: Virulence factors, resistance to antibiotics, and management of uropathogenic bacteria with medicinal plants—A review. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. 2021;11(7):001-12.

Bruschi P, Sugni M, Moretti A, Signorini MA, Fico G. Children's versus adult's knowledge of medicinal plants: an ethnobotanical study in Tremezzina (Como, Lombardy, Italy). Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia. 2019;29:644-55.

Kigen G, Some F, Kibosia J, Rono H, Kiprop E, Wanjohi B, Kigen P, Kipkore W. Ethnomedicinal plants traditionally used by the Keiyo community in Elgeyo Marakwet County, Kenya. Journal of Biodiversity, Bioprospecting and Development. 2014; 1(3):11

Mounanga MB, Mewono L, Angone SA. Toxicity studies of medicinal plants used in sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2015;174:618-27.

Kidane L, Gebremedhin G, Beyene T. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Ganta Afeshum District, Eastern Zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2018;14(1):1-9.

Penido AB, De Morais SM, Ribeiro AB, Silva AZ. Estudo etnobotânico de plantas medicinais em imperatriz, estado do Maranhão, Nordeste do Brasil. Acta Amaz. 2016;46(4):345–354.

Moshi MJ, Otieno DF, Weisheit A. Ethnomedicine of the Kagera Region, north western Tanzania. Part 3: plants used in traditional medicine in Kikuku village, Muleba District. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 2012;8(1):1-1.

Chebii WK, Muthee JK, Kiemo K. The governance of traditional medicine and herbal remedies in the selected local markets of Western Kenya. Journal of ethnobiology and ethnomedicine. 2020; 16(1):1-24.

Thapa B, Singh A, Tuladhar R. In vitro antibacterial effect of medicinal plants against multidrug resistant gram negative bacteria. Tribhuvan University Journal of Microbiology. 2018;5:25–31.

Fabry W, Okemo PO, Ansorg R. Antibacterial activity of East African medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1998;60(1):79-84.

Kuete V, Efferth T. Cameroonian medicinal plants: pharmacology and derived natural products. Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2010;1: 1–19.

Leme DE, Rodrigues AB, Almeida-Apolonio AA, Dantas FG, Negri MF, Svidzinski TI, Mota JD, Cardoso CA, Oliveira KM. In vitro control of uropathogenic microorganisms with the ethanolic extract from the leaves of Cochlospermum regium (Schrank) Pilger. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2017;2017:4687154.

Gorlenko CL, Kiselev HY, Budanova EV, Zamyatnin Jr AA, Ikryannikova LN. Plant secondary metabolites in the battle of drugs and drug-resistant bacteria: New heroes or worse clones of antibiotics?. Antibiotics. 2020;9(4):170.

Khameneh B, Iranshahy M, Soheili V, Fazly Bazzaz BS. Review on plant antimicrobials: A mechanistic viewpoint. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control. 2019;8(1):1-28.

Gupta PD, Birdi TJ. Development of botanicals to combat antibiotic resistance. Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine. 2017;8(4):266-275.

Oyedeji O, Taiwo FO, Ajayi OS, Ayinde F, Oziegbe M, Oseghare CO. Biocidal and phytochemical analysis of leaf extracts of Annona muricata (Linn.). Int J Sci Basic Appl Res. 2015;24(7):76-87.

Khanal S. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening of Azadirachta indica Juss. Plant parts. Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol. 2021;9(2):122–127.

Han S, Yang L, Wang Y, Ran Y, Li S, Ding W. Preliminary studies on the antibacterial mechanism of a new plant-derived compound, 7-methoxycoumarin, against Ralstonia solanacearum. Frontiers in Microbiology. 2021;12:697911.

Reen FJ, Gutiérrez-Barranquero JA, Parages ML, O´ Gara F. Coumarin: A novel player in microbial quorum sensing and biofilm formation inhibition. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2018;102:2063-73.

Aung EE, Kristanti AN, Aminah NS, Takaya Y, Ramadhan R. Plant description, phytochemical constituents and bioactivities of Syzygium genus: A review. Open Chemistry. 2020;18(1):1256-1281.

Abera B, Adane L, Mamo F. Phytochemical investigation the root extract of Syzygium guineense and isolation of 2, 3, 23-trihydroxy methyl oleanate. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2018;7(2):3104-11.

Samie A, Obi CL, Bessong PO, Namrita L. Activity profiles of fourteen selected medicinal plants from Rural Venda communities in South Africa against fifteen clinical bacterial species. African J Biotechnol. 2005;4(12):1443–1451.

Larayetan RA, Okoh OO, Sadimenko A, Okoh AI. Terpene constituents of the aerial parts, phenolic content, antibacterial potential, free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of Callistemon citrinus (Curtis) Skeels (Myrtaceae) from Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. BMC Complement and Alternative Medicine. 2017;17(1):1-9.

Mokgoatsane SI, Unin BP. The isolation and characterization of antibacterial compound from Terminalia sambesiaca (Combretaceae). Dissertation for award of MSc degree at University of North-West University. 2011;96.

Ibrahim YKE, Tytler BA, Ogunsola YK. Phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of crude extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) of Terminalia mollis Linn (Combretaceae) root. Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2006;5(1):109–15.

Liu M, Katerere DR, Gray AI, Seidel V. Phytochemical and antifungal studies on Terminalia mollis and Terminalia brachystemma. Fitoterapia. 2009;80(6): 369–373.

Oosthuizen D, Goosen NJ, Stander MA, Ibrahim AD, Pedavoah MM, Usman GO, Aderinola T. Solvent extraction of polyphenolics from the indigenous african fruit ximenia caffra and characterization by LC-HRMS. Antioxidants. 2018;7(8):103.

Zhen J, Guo Y, Villani T, Carr S, Brendler T, Mumbengegwi DR, Kong AN, Simon JE, Wu Q. Phytochemical analysis and anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts of the African medicinal plant Ximenia caffra. Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry. 2015;2015.

Moghadamtousi SZ, Fadaeinasab M, Nikzad S, Mohan G, Ali HM, Kadir HA. Annona muricata (Annonaceae): A review of its traditional uses, isolated acetogenins and biological activities. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2015;16(7):15625-15658.

Deodata V. A review on the potential of underutilized Blackjack (Biden pilosa) naturally occurring in sub-Saharan Africa. Heliyon. 2022;8(2022):e09586.

Fernandez ACAM, Rosa MF, Fernandez CMM, C. Bortolucci W, Melo UZ, Siqueira VLD. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the extract and fractions of Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd (Lamiaceae) leaves from Brazil. Current Microbiology. 2017;74(12):1453–60.

Oladeji OS, Adelowo FE, Oluyori AP. The genus Senna (Fabaceae): A review on its traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology. South African Journal of Botany. 2021; 138:1-32.

González-Stuart AE, Dhan Prakash DP, Charu Gupta CG. Phytochemistry of plants used in traditional medicine.’, CABI Books. Nigeria: CABI International. 2014;1.

Alshehri MM, Quispe C, Herrera-Bravo J, Sharifi-Rad J, Tutuncu S, Aydar EF, Topkaya C, Mertdinc Z, Ozcelik B, Aital M, Kumar NV. A review of recent studies on the antioxidant and anti-infectious properties of Senna plants. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2022;2022:1-38.

Peng YL, Zeng N, Yao QY, Peng CY, Sheng WB, Li B, Wang W. A Review of the medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of genus Flueggea. Current Chinese Science. 2023;3(3):213-41.

Abdelgadir HA, Van Staden J. Ethnobotany, ethnopharmacology and toxicity of Jatropha curcas L.(Euphorbiaceae): A review. South African Journal of Botany. 2013;88:204-18.

Length F. Phytochemical compounds and antibacterial activity of Jatropha curcas Linn. extracts. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2011;5(16):3982-3990.

da Silva PM, da Silva BR, de Oliveira Silva JN, de Moura MC, Soares T, Feitosa AP, Brayner FA, Alves LC, Paiva PM, Damborg P, Ingmer H. Punica granatum sarcotesta lectin (PgTeL) has antibacterial activity and synergistic effects with antibiotics against β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2019;135:931-939.

Tan MA, Sharma N, An SS. Phyto-carbazole alkaloids from the rutaceae family as potential protective agents against neurodegenerative diseases. Antioxidants. 2022;11(3):493.

Kasali FM, Tusiimire J, Kadima JN, Tolo CU, Weisheit A, Agaba AG. Ethnotherapeutic uses and phytochemical composition of Physalis peruviana L.: An overview. The Scientific World Journal. 2021;2021.

El-Beltagi HS, Mohamed HI, Safwat G, Gamal M, Megahed BM. Chemical composition and biological activity of Physalis peruviana L. Gesunde Pflanzen. 2019;71(2):113-22.

Damasceno CSB, . HNTF, Dias JDFG, Miguel MD, Miguel OG. Chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils in the family Lauraceae: A systematic review of the literature. Planta Medica. 2014;85(13):1054–1072.

Mukarram M, Choudhary S, Khan MA, Poltronieri P, Khan MM, Ali J, Kurjak D, Shahid M. Lemongrass essential oil components with antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Antioxidants. 2021; 11(1):20.

John GN, Onwugbuta GC, Chima D. Phytochemical and proximate analysis of ipomoea cairica tuber. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. 2021; 27(1):11–16.

Srivastava D, Rauniyar N. Medicinal plants of genus Ipomoea: A glimpse of potential bioactive compounds of genus Ipomoea and its detail. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing; 2020;1-76

Kaur R, Nizard S, Pollack E, Rafferty B, Priano C, Fernández Romero JA, et al. Biology, Chemistry, and Pharmacological Activity of Kigelia africana (Bignoniaceae) and Garcinia kola (Clusiaceae) - A Review. Journal of Medicinally Active Plants. 2022; 11(1):1–21.

Mostafa NM, Eldahshan OA, Singab AN. The genus Jacaranda (Bignoniaceae): An updated review. Pharmacognosy Communications. 2014;4(3):31-39.

Fayisa Diriba T, Mirete Deresa E. Botanical description, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of genus Kniphofia and Aloe: A review. Vol. 15, Arabian Journal of Chemistry. Elsevier B.V. 2008;119(3):462-472.

Van Vuuren SF. Antimicrobial activity of South African medicinal plants. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2008;119(3):462-472.

Herrera-calderon O, Ejaz K, Wajid M, Shehzad M, Tinco-jayo JA, Enciso-roca E, et al. Azadirachta indica : Antibacterial activity of Neem against different strains of bacteria and their active constituents as preventive in various diseases. Pharmacognosy Journal. 2019;11(6): 1597–1604.

Baby AR, Freire TB, Marques GD, Rijo P, Lima FV, Carvalho JC, Rojas J, Magalhães WV, Velasco MV, Morocho-Jácome AL. Azadirachta indica (Neem) as a potential natural active for dermocosmetic and topical products: A narrative review. Cosmetics. 2022;9(3):1-17.

Oyedeji-Amusa MO, Sadgrove NJ, Van Wyk BE. The ethnobotany and chemistry of South African Meliaceae: A review. Plants. 2021;10(9):1796.

Ayalew AA. Chromatographic and spectroscopic determination of solvent-extracted Lantana camara leaf oil. Journal of International Medical Research. 2020;48(10):0300060520962344.

Patel J, Qureshi MS, Kumar G., Kumar DB, Kumar KA. Phytochemicals and pharmacological activities of Lantana camara Linn. Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics. 2010;2(6):418–422.

Azlan UK, Mediani A, Rohani ER, Tong X, Han R, Misnan NM, Jam FA, Bunawan H, Sarian MN, Hamezah HS. A comprehensive review with updated future perspectives on the ethnomedicinal and pharmacological aspects of Moringa oleifera. Molecules. 2022;27(18):5765.

Kashyap P, Kumar S, Riar CS, Jindal N, Baniwal P, Guiné RP, Correia PM, Mehra R, Kumar H. Recent advances in Drumstick (Moringa oleifera) leaves bioactive compounds: Composition, health benefits, bioaccessibility, and dietary applications. Antioxidants. 2022;11(2):402.

Jega Yusuf A, Ismail Abdullahi M, Alhaji Muhammad A, Ghandi Ibrahim K. Neocarya macrophylla (Sabine) Prance: Review on taxonomy, ethnobotany, phytochemistry and biological activities [Internet]; 2021.

Mao QQ, Xu XY, Cao SY, Gan RY, Corke H, Beta T, Li HB. Bioactive compounds and bioactivities of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). Foods. 2019;8(6):185.