Histomorphological Observations in Reproductive Organs of Wistar Rats Administered with Aqueous Leaf Extract of Momordica charantia
Issue: 2023 - Volume 34 [Issue 3]
Benard A. Solomon *
Histopathology Laboratory, Pathology Department, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.
Frederick O. Akinbo
Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Edo State, Nigeria.
*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Effort to explore the adverse effect of the plant, Momordica charantia on mammals has remained inadequate despite previous attempt by earlier investigators. More glaring is the paucity of information on the histomorphological effect of the plant’s aqueous leaf extract hence the need to determine possible alteration of tissue structures in reproductive organs of adult Wistar rats which may affect their functions.
This study aimed at determining the effect of Momordica charantia aqueous leaf extract (MCALE) on the reproductive organs of experimental adult Wistar rats.
Materials and Methods: Twenty five rats (male and female) weighing 180-200g were randomly divided into five (5) groups of five rats each. The experimental groups, A to D were fed on standard diet and administered with 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight /day of MCE orally using gavage for 30 days. Rats in the control groups were fed on standard diet and physiological saline orally. Organs were harvested, fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin (ovaries) and Bouin’s fluid (testes), embedded in molten paraffin wax, sectioned with a rotary microtome and stained with the haematoxylin and eosin technique. Stained slides were examined using the Olympus microscope.
Results: Sections of ovaries administered 100 mg/kg of the extract showed vesicular spaces in corpus luteum and enlarged blood vessels. Sections treated with 200 mg/kg revealed follicular cyst and mild vacuolation of zona granulosa. Sections of the ovaries administered 400 mg/kg revealed degenerative changes, follicular cyst, mild vacuolation and reduction of zona granulosa layer while those treated with 800 mg/kg showed severe vacuolation of the zona granulosa layer.
Conclusion: Momordica charantia caused histomorphological changes in ovaries of Wistar rats which could cause hormonal imbalance and infertility in females. No histomorphological changes were observed in male testes.
Keywords: Histopathology, Momordica charantia, ovaries, wistar rats
How to Cite
Ajani EO, Sabiu S, Bamisaye FA, Ibrahim S. and Salau BA. Evaluation of the Acute and Sub-acute Toxicity Effects of Ethanolic Leaves Extract of Lagenariabrevitolia (Bitter gourd) of Hepatic and Renal Function of Rats. European Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2015;5(2):210-219.
Adekunle FA, and Akinbo FO. Effect of Aqueous Garcinia Kola Seed Extract on The Histopathology of The Reproductive Organs of Wistar Rats. Journal of Basic and Applied Medical Sciences. 2020;1(2): 61-69.
Linus SC. Nigerian folklore medicinal plants with potential antifertility activity in males: A scientific appraisal. Research Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2016;10:201-227.
Grace IO, Olusola O, Adegboyega OA, Obasola EF, Neena V, Isaac O, et al. In vitro studies on the sensitivity pattern of Plasmodium falciparum to anti-malarial drugs and local herbal extracts. Malaria Journal. 2014;13:63.
Chikezie PC, Ojiako OA, Nwufo KC. Overview of Anti-Diabetic Medicinal Plants: The Nigerian Research Experience. Journal of Diabetes Metabolism. 2015;6: 546.
Shuo J, Mingyue S, Fan Z, Jianhua X. Recent Advances in Momordicacharantia: Functional Components and Biological Activities. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2017;18:2555.
Ahadina R, Shishir AS, Sabrina HS, Hosne J S, Pritesh RD. A comprehensive review of Momordica charantia L. (Karela). International Journal of Botany Studies. 2018;3(1):95-102.
Benard SA. Histopathological Effects of Consumption of Aqeous Extract of The Leaf of Momordica charantia ON The Reproductive Organs of Wistar Rats. An MSc Thesis presented to the department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Bening, Benin; 2021.
Ihesie GC. The medicinal values of Balsam pear.
Ataman JE & Idu M. Histopathologic Effects of Methanolic Extract of Momordica chranatia L. Leaves on the Liver of Wistar Rats. Trends in Medical Research. 2007; 2(4):176-184.
Nguyen PM. Extraction of polyphenol in bitter melon (Momordica charantia). International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research. 2014;1(4):115-125
Javed A, Saima A, Showkat RM. Momordica charantia Linn. (Cucurbitaceae): Review on Phytochemistry and Pharmacology. Research Journal of Phytochemistry. 2017; 11(2):53-65.
Rafaela DS, Marilia BC, Rafael JR, Luiz CA, Karina PR. Anatomical Study and Characterization of Metabolites in Leaves of Momordica charantia L. Pharmacognosy Journal. 2018;10(5):823-826.
Deepti K, and Vijendar SM. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profile of Momordica Charantia: A Review Biochemistry and Therapeutic Uses of Medicinal Plants. Biochemistry and Therapeutic Uses of Medicinal Plants. Discovery Publishing House Ltd. 2017; ISBN:979-93-5056-866-8
Panas T, Ravicha, P, Urai P, Wachiryah T. Reroductive toxicity of Momordica charantia ethanol seed extracts in male rats. Iran Journal of Reproductive Medicine. 2014;12(10):695-704.
Narendra SD. Safety assessment of McB-E60 (extract of a Momordica sp.): Subchronictoxicity study in rats. Toxicology Reports. 2016;3:481-489.
Osonuga OA, Osonuga IO, Osonuga A. Oral administration of leaf extracts of Momordica charantia affects reproductive hormones of adult female Wistar rats. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2014;4(1):5521-5524.
Osonuga OA, Osonuga OI, Osonuga A. Evaluation of Oral Administration of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Momordica charantia on Fertility Hormones of Adult Male Wistar Rats. Global Journal of Pharmacology. 2014b;8(2):150-153.
Avwioro OG. Histochemistry and tissue pathology. Claverianum Press; Ibadan, Nigeria. 1st Edition. 2002;154.
Umar IM. Effects of oral administration of Momordica charantia on haematological parameters of adult albino rats. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. 2017;10(2):52-56.
Catteau A, Bach-Ngohou K, Blin J, Barriere P, Freour T, Masson D. Abnormally elevated Follicle –Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Level in an Infertile Woman. Case Report in Endocrinology; 2019. Available:https://.doi:10.1155/2019/3071649.PMID
Emokpae MA, Ogboru E, Abubakrae RO. Relationship between Luteinizing hormone/ follicle stimulating hormone and body mass index in women with polycytic ovarian syndrome. Journal of Medical Laboratory Science. 2020;30(4):1-10.
Oke JA, Onyeaghala AA, Dada RA. Thesis and Antithesis of Infertility in Nigeria: A Review and Implications on Medical Laboratory Practice. Journal of Medical Laboratory Science. 2020;30(2): 18-37.
Composed nutrition. 12 possible causes of high estrogen; 2020. Available:https://www.composednutrition-com.cdn.ampproject.org
Medlineplus. Lab tests. Progesterone-test; 2021a.
Medlineplus. Lab tests. Prolactin levels. 2021b
Ann ED. The role of steroids in follicular growth. Reproductive biology and endocrinology. 2006;4(16):3-11.
Husna NR, Nuriham HN, Azizah AH, Aman FO. Acute Oral Toxicity Effects of Momordica Charantia In Sprague Dawley Rats. International Journal of Bioscience, Biochemistry and Bioinformatics. 2013;3 (4):408-410.
Sampath KP, Bhowmik D. Traditional medicinal uses and therapeutic benefits of Momordica charantia Linn. International Journal of Phamaceutical Sciences Review and Research. 2010;4(3): 23-28.
Msiska T, Mwakikunga A, Tembo D, Lampiao FA. A phytochemical analysis and in vivo effects of an herbal aphrodisiac, Nwotonia hildebrandtii on male wistar rat reproductive system. Pharmacological Research. 2020;12(3): 243-249.
Gordon JB, Peter D, Eddie J, Jody EJ, Oksana K, Kruse D, Brandon P, James AW, Womble M, Kelly AY. Anatomy and Physiology. OpenStax College, Rice University; 6100 Main Street, MS-300; Houston Texas. 2013;345.
Pauline C, Matan G, Ombeline H, Tatiana F, Patrice M. Pituitary Cell and Molecular. Encyclopedia of Reproduction (Second Edition). 2018;1:184-187.
Iipo H. Endocrine and local testicular regulation. Oxford Texbook of Endocrinology and Diabetes. Second edition; 2011. Available:https://doi:10.1093/med/9780199235292.003.9018
Jenny O. Male reproductive system. Guidelines to histopathological evaluation; 2008. Available:https://oecd.org/male_reproductive_system