A Comparative Study of the Response of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare, Mill) Plants from Egypt and China to Spraying with Benzyladenine (BA)
European Journal of Medicinal Plants,
Fennel plant (Foeniculum vulgare, Mill.) is one of most widely used plants in food and medicine. Our study aimed to show the response of fennel plants from Egypt and China planted in Egypt to foliar application of benzyladenine (BA) at various concentrations; control, 50, 100 and 150 ppm. The obtained results indicated that treated fennel plants with BA resulted in a significant increase in the vegetative growth, number of umbels/plant, fruit, yield and oil yield per plant and feddan as well as main components, total phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of essential oils compared to untreated plants. In general, the application of benzyladenine was more effective on Egyptian fennel plants than that of Chinese plants. Egyptian fennel plants gave higher values of growth, fruit yield, oil percentage and oil yield than Chinese plants. However, the major components, TPC and antioxidant activity (DPPH %) had higher values in Chinese essential oil than Egyptian essential oil. The highest values of all studied parameters were obtained by using BA at 100 ppm. GC–MS analysis of the volatile oils showed that the major components were trans-anethole followed by fenshone, α- pinene and D-limonene, respectively for both essential oils. 100 ppm of BA gave the highest values of trans-anethole content and radical scavenging activities of oils. Therefore, we concluded that spraying fennel plants with 100 ppm BA can be used for obtaining higher vegetative growth, fruit and quantity and quality of oil.
- Egyptian fennel
- Chinese fennel
- essential oil
- trans – anethole
- total phenolic content
How to Cite
Brender T, Gruenwald J, Jaenicke C. Herbal remedies. Phytopharm consulting institute for phytopharmaceuticals. Second ed. Schaper and Brummer GmbH and Co. Salzgitter, Berlin, Germany; 1997.
Damjanovic B, Lepojevic Z, Zivkovic V, Tolic A. Extraction of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) seeds with supercritical CO2: comparison with hydrodistillation. Food Chem. 2005;92:143–149.
Oktay M, Gülcin ˙I, Küfrevio˘glu ÖI. Determination of in vitro antioxidant activity of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seed extracts. LWT—Food Sci. Technol. 2003;36:263–271.
Piccaglia R, Marotti M. Characterization of some Italian types of wild fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). J. Agric. Food Chem. 2001;49:239–244.
Diaaz-Maroto MC, Pearez-Coello MS, Esteban J, Sanz J. Comparison of the volatile composition of wild fennel samples (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) from Central Spain. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2006;54:6814–6818.
Ahmed AF, Shi M, Liu C, Kang W. Comparative analysis of antioxidant activities of essential oils andextracts of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) seeds from Egypt and China. Food Sci. Hum. Wellness. 2019;8:67–72.
Yeh SY, Chen HW, Ng CY, Lin CY, Tseng TH, Li WH, Ku MS. Down–regulation of cytokinin oxidase 2 expression increases tiller number and improves rice yield. Rice. 2015;8:36.
Buban T. The use of benzyl adenine in orchard fruit growing: A mini review. Plant Growth Reg. 2000;32:381-390.
Van Staden J, Crouch R. Benzyladenine and derivatives – their significance and inter conversion in plants. Plant Growth Reg. 1996;19:153-175.
Talaat IM, Gamal El-Din KM. Physiological effect of indole acetic acid and kinetin on the growth, yield and chemical constituents of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) plants. Annals of Agricultural Science, Moshtohor. 1998;36:187–196.
Jabbar AF, Hamza IA. Effect of spraying with benzyl adenine, salicylic acid and phenylalanine on the yield of volatile oil of Fennel plant (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) and its content of some secondary compounds. Euphrates Journal of Agriculture Science. 2021;13:53-71.
Khaswa SL, Dubey RK, Singh S, Tiwari RC. Growth, productivity and quality of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) under different levels and sources of phosphorus and plant growth regulators in Subhumid Rajasthan. Afr. J. Agric. Res. 2014;9:1045–1051.
Ayad HS, Gamal El-Din KM. Effect of atonik and benzyladenine on growth and some biochemical constituents of lupine plant (Lupinus termis L.). American-Eurasian J. Agric and Environ Sci. 2011;10:519–524.
Hussein HAA. Biochemical and physiological studies on some alkaloids. PhD Thesis. Faculty of Agriculture Cairo University; 2005.
Prins CL, Vieira IJC, Freitas Braz SP. Growth regulators and essential oil production. Braz. J. Plant Physiol. 2010;22:91-102.
Hazzoumi Z, Moustakime Y, Joutei KA. Effect of gibberellic acid (GA), indole acetic acid (IAA) and benzylaminopurine (BAP) on the synthesis of essential oils and the isomerization of methyl chavicol and trans-anethole in Ocimum gratissimum L. Springer Plus. 2014;3:321–327.
Jackson ML. Soil chemical analysis. Prentic-Hall. Inc, Englewood, Cliffs, U.S.A; 1973.
Black CA, Evans DD, Nhite JI, Ensminger LE, Clark FE. Methods of soil analysis. American Society of Agronomy Inc. Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A. 1965;1-770.
Erich K. Handbook of laboratory distillation with an introduction to pilot plant distillation. Published in co-edition with VEB Deutmher Verlag der Wissenechaftan, Berlin; 1982.
Hourieh A. Determination of chemical composition, antioxidant activity, and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Damask Ocimum Basilicum L. J. Mater. Environ. Sci. 2021;12:919-928.
Jain PK, Agrawal RK. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties of developed mono and poly herbal formulations. Asian J Exp Sci. 2008;22:213-220.
Analytical software Statistix 8.1 for Windows analytical software. Tallahassee, Florida; 2005.
Duck MW, Gregg BM, Fernandez RT, Royal DH, Cardoso FF. Height control of Picea spp. and Chamaecyparis lawsoniana with uniconazole and 6-enzyladenine. J. Enviro Hort. 2004;22:165-169.
Taiz L, Zeiger E. Plant physiology. 4th ed. Sinauer Associates Inc. Publishers, Massachusetts. USA; 2006.
Abdel-Rahman SSA, Abdel-Kader AAS. Response of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare, Mill) plants to foliar application of moringa leaf extract and benzyladenine (BA). South African Journal of Botany. 2020;129:113-122.
Scravoni J, Vasconcellos MC, Valmorbida J, Ferri AF, Marques MOM, Ono EO, Rodrigues JD. Yield and chemical composition of essential oil of Mentha piperita L. Subjected to applications of gibberellin and cytokinin. Brazilian Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2006;8:40–43.
Reda F, Tarraf SH, Abd El Rahim EA, Afify AS, Ayad HH. The response of growth and some chemical constituents of chamomile plant to benzylaminopurine (BAP). The Journal of Agricultural Science, Mansoura University. 1999;24:2209–2222.
Srivastava LM. Plant growth and development. Academic Press, San Diego. 2002;303–379.
Wilkins MB. The physiology of plant growth and development. Mc Graw – Hill, London. 1979;695.
Al-Taey DKA, Majid ZZ. Study effect of kinetin, bio-fertilizers and organic matter application in lettuce under salt stress. Journal of Global Pharma Technology. 2018;10:148-164.
AL-Taey DKA, Saadoon AHS, ALAzawi SSM. Study of kinetin treatment on growth and activity of some antioxidant enzymes of Spinach under salt stress. Current Trends in Natural Sciences. 2021;10:457-465.
Al-Taey DKA, Mijwel AK Al-Azawy SS. Study efficiency of poultry litter and kinetin in reduced effects of saline water in Vicia faba. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2018;11:294-300.
Al-Hamdani KAS, Al-Jubouri MNH. Effect of Benzyladenine, Urea, Iron, Boron and Nu film-17 antitranspiration spraying on fruit set, dropping and some growth characteristics of vegetative in orange (Citrus seninsis) Tikrit University Journal of Agricultural Sciences - a special issue of the proceedings of the third specialized conference-plant production. 2014;28-35.
Borkowska B. Cytokininy. In: Jankiewicz L.S. (Ed.). Regulators of plant growth and development. Ed. Science. PWN, Warsaw. 1997;60-71.
Gershenzon J. Metabolic costs of terpenoid accumulation in higher plants. J Chem Ecol. 1994;20:1281-1328.
Erbelgin N, Krokene P, Christiansen E, Gazmend Z, Gershenzon J. Exogenous application of methyl jasmonate elicits defenses in Norway spruce (Picea abies) and reduces host colonization by the bark beetle Ips typographus. Oecologia. 2006;148:426-436.
Li Z, Wang X, Chen F, Kim HJ. Chemical changes and overexpressed genes in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) upon methyl jasmonate treatment. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:706–713.
Viuda-Martos M, Mohamady MA, Fernández-López J, Abd ElRazik KA, Omer EA, Pérez-Alvarez JA, Sendra E. In vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essentials oils obtained from Egyptian aromatic plants. Food Control. 2011;22:1715-1722.
Senatore F, Oliviero F, Scandolera E, Taglialatela-Scafati O, Roscigno G, Zaccardelli M, De Falco E. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of anethole rich oil from leaves of selected varieties of fennel [Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ssp. vulgare var. azoricum (Mill.) Thell]. Fitoterapia. 2013; 90:214–219.
Abstract View: 111 times
PDF Download: 53 times