Immunomodulatory Activity on Specific Immune Function in Albino Mice Exposed to Extract and Fractions of Zapoteca portoricensis (Jacq) HM. Hernández Roots

Main Article Content

Oghenesuvwe D. Warren
Bonaventure C. Obi
Uchenna C. Abonyi
Theophine C. Akunne


Zapoteca portoricensis (Jacq) HM. Hernández popularly called “Elugelu” belongs to the Fabaceae family. It is reportedly used in traditional medicine as anti-diarrhoea, anticonvulsant, antispasmodic and in management of autoimmune disorders. The immunomodulatory activity of methanol root extract and fractions of Zapoteca portoricensis was evaluated using three experimental models: neutrophil adhesion, haemagglutination antibody (HA) titre and delayed hypersensitivity (DTH) of an immune response in mice. Five (5) groups of mice (n=5) were used; group I was the normal control; group II was the standard control (levamisole, 2.5 mg/kg) while groups IIIA–C, IVA–C and VA–C received graded doses (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) of methanol extract (ME), ethyl acetate fraction (EF) and methanol fraction (MF), respectively. Sheep red blood cells (SRBCs; 0.1 ml) were injected subcutaneously to sensitize the animals. The study results showed that the methanol fraction (MF) exhibited the highest percentage (46.12%) in neutrophil adhesion followed by the ethyl acetate fraction (EF) (37.06%) at 100 mg/kg dose, respectively, compared with the normal control. The highest percentage increase in both primary and secondary antibody titre was found to be ME (85.19%, 43.20%), EF (91.53%, 102.67%) and MF (128.31%, 111.89%) at 50 mg/kg dose, respectively compared to the normal control. The EF at the doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg produced the highest percentage inhibition (56.57%, 58.33%) in DTH response, respectively, followed by MF (42.46%) at a dose of 25 mg/kg. Oral administration of Z. portoricensis exhibited immunomodulatory effects on specific components of the immune system in mice.

Zapoteca portoricensis, immune response, neutrophil, haemagglutination, hypersensitivity

Article Details

How to Cite
Warren, O. D., Obi, B. C., Abonyi, U. C., & Akunne, T. C. (2021). Immunomodulatory Activity on Specific Immune Function in Albino Mice Exposed to Extract and Fractions of Zapoteca portoricensis (Jacq) HM. Hernández Roots. European Journal of Medicinal Plants, 32(2), 41-50.
Original Research Article


Figueroa LA, Navarro LB, Vera MP, Petricevich VL. Preliminary Studies of the Immunomodulator effect of the Bougainvillea xbuttiana extract in a mouse model. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2015;9 .
Article ID: 479412

Mahamat O, Flora H, Tume C, Kamanyi A. Immunomodulatory activity of Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae) leaf diethyl ether and methanol extracts on Salmonella typhi-Infected mice and LPS-induced phagocytic activities of macrophages and neutrophils. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2020;11.
Article ID 5248346,

Gopal M, Shamanna M, Pabbithi SC, Das D. Immunomodulatory constituents from plant origins: A review of isolated biomolecules. Int J Pharm Sci Res. 2013;4:2459-2469.

Alamgir M, Uddin SJ. “Recent advances on the ethnomedicinal plants as immunomodulatory agents. In: Chattopadhyay D, editor. Ethnomedicine: A source of complementary therapeutics. Research Signpost, Kerala, India; 2010.

Falih, M. Y., Mohammed, A. A., & Sulaiman, G. M. The Ameliorative Effects of chrysin against Methandienone-Induced change in blood Parameters in Mice. Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. 2019;10(5):499-503.

Waheeb, H. M., Sulaiman, G. M., Jabir, M. S. Effect of hesperidin conjugated with golden nanoparticles on phagocytic activity: In vitro study. In AIP Conference Proceedings. AIP Publishing LLC. 2020;2213(1):020217

Falih, M. Y., Mohammed, A. A., & Sulaiman, G. M. Chrysin protects mice liver and kidney from methandienone-induced oxi-dative‎ stress, inflammation a multi-biomarker approach. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2019;10(2):1081-1088.

Birhanu BT, Kim J-Y, Hossain Md. A, Choi J-W, Lee S-P, Park S-C. An in vivo immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory study of fermented Dendropanax morbifera Léveille leaf extract. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2018;18:1-8.

Agbafor KN, Ogbanshi ME, Akubugwo EI. Phytochemical screening, hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of leaf extracts of Zapoteca portoricensis. Advances in Biological Chemistry. 2014;4;1.

Esimone CO, Onuh PU, Obitte NC, Egege MK, Ugoeze KC. In vitro evaluation of lozenges containing extracts of roots of Zapoteca portoricensis (FAM: Fabaceae). Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2009;4(3):132-137.

Ukwe CV, Ubaka CM, Adibe MO, Okonkwo CJ, Akah PA. Antiulcer activity of roots of Zapoteca Portoricensis (Fam. Fabaceae). Journal of Basic Clinical Pharmacology. 2010;1:183– 186.

Agbo MO, Okoye FBC, Nwodo JN. In vivo Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Zapoteca portoricensis (Jacq) HM Hernández. International Journal of Health Research. 2010;3(1):29-35.

Ikegbunam MN, Anagu LOnyeka, Nwakile DC, Afunwa RC, Esimone CO. Antimicrobial activity of selected medicinal plants of South-Eastern Nigeria on pseudomonas species expressing extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL). European Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2014;4:1367-1377.

Nwodo OFC, Joshua PE, Ugwuoke MC, Uroko RI. Anti-malarial and some biochemical indices of the ethanol extract of Zapoteca portoricensis root on malaria-infected mice. Asian J Biochem. 2015;10:281-289.

Joshua PE, Ezugwu CH, Chilaka FC, Nwodo OFC, Dasofunjo K, Ezugwu MU. Effect of ethanol extract of Zapoteca portoricensis stem on testosterone-induced Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) in adult male albino rats. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 2018;12:9-18.

Nwodo NJ, Okoye FBC, Lai D, Debbab A, Brun R, Proksch P. Two trypanocidal dipeptides from the roots of Zapoteca portoricensis (Fabaceae). Molecules. 2014;19:5470-5477.

Augustine BB, Dash S, Lahkar M, Amara VR, Samudrala PK, Thomas JM. Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of ethyl acetate extract of Leucas aspera in Swiss albino mice. Int J Green Pharm. 2014;8:84-89.

Shinde UA, Phadke AS, Nair AM, Mungantiwar AA, Dikshit VJ, Saraf MN. Preliminary studies on the immunomodulatory activity of Cedrus deodara wood oil. Fitoterapia. 1999;70:333– 339.

Fulzele SV, Satturwar PM, Joshi SB, Dorle AK. Study of the immune- modulatory activity of Haridradi ghrita in rats. Indian J. Pharmacol. 2003;35:51– 54.

Sharma ML, Rao CS, Duda PL. Immunostimulatory activity of Picrorhiza Kurnoa leaf extract. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1994;41:85–192.

Ignatius R, Mielke ME, Hahn H. BCG-induced immunomodulation of DTH to heterologous erythrocytes leads to Mac-1-independent myelomonocytic cell recruitment. Cell Immunol. 1994;156:262–266.

Li Y, Wang W, Yang F, Xu Y, Feng C, Zhao Y. The regulatory roles of neutrophils in adaptive immunity. Cell Communication and Signaling. 2019;17:1-11.

Smolen JE, Petersen TK, Koch C, O’Keefei SJ, Hanloni WA, Seo S, Pearson D, Fossett MC, Simon SI. L-Selectin signaling of neutrophil adhesion and degranulation involves p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2000;275:15876–15884

Srikumar R, Narayanaperumal JP, Rathisamy SD. Immunomodulatory activity of Triphala over neutrophil functions. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2005;28:1390–1403.

Arnaout MA. Biology and structure of leukocyte β integrins and their role in inflammation [version 1; peer review: 3 approved]. F1000 Research. 2016;5:2433:1-13.

Miller LE. Manual of laboratory immunology. Lea and Febiger, London. 1991;1–18.

Kumari R, Kumar S, Kumar A, Goel KK, Dubey RC. Antibacterial, antioxidant and Immunomodulatory properties in extracts of Barleria lupulina Lindl. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2017;17:1-11.

Schroeder Jr SW, Cavacini L. Structure and function of immunoglobulins. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;125:S41– S52.

Furr SR. Fundamentals of Immunology. In: Hugo WB, Russell AD, editors. Pharmaceutical Microbiology. 6th ed. Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford; 1998.

Solanki YB, Jain SM. Immunostimolatory activities of Vigna mungo L. extract in male Sprague–Dawley rats. Journal of Immunotoxicology. 2010;7:213- 218.

Mubashir K, Ganai BA, Ghazanfar K, Akbar S, Malik AH, Masood A. Evaluation of Artemisia amygdalina D. for Anti-Inflammatory and Immunomodulatory Potential. 2013; Article ID 483646, 5 pages.

Ghatak SB, Panchal SJ. Investigation of the immunomodulatory potential of oryzanol isolated from crude rice bran oil in experimental animal models. Phytotherapy Research. 2012;26:1701-1708.

Broere F, Apasov SG, Sitkovsky MV, Eden WV. T-Cell Subsets and T Cell Mediated Immunity. In: Nijkamp FP, Parnham MJ editors. Principles of Immunopharmacology. 3rd ed. Springer Basel AG; 2011.

Okoye TC, Akah PA, Ezike AC, Uzor PF, Odoh UE, Igboeme SO, Onwuka UB, Okafor SN. Immunomodulatory effects of Stachytarpheta cayennensis leaf extract and its synergistic effects with artesunate. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2014;14(1)376.

Rasne A, Sonwane V, Somani R, Kumthekar P. Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of protocatechuic acid. J Res Notes. 2018;1(1): 1007.

Achilonu M, Shale K, Arthur G, Naidoo K, Mbatha M. Phytochemical benefits of agroresidues as alternative nutritive dietary resource for pig and poultry farming. Journal of Chemistry. 2018;15.
Article ID: 1035071.

Shi D, Xu M, Ren M, Pan E, Luo C, Zhang W, Tang Q. Immunomodulatory effect of flavonoids of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) leaves via the NF-κB signal pathway in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Journal of Immunology Research. 2017;7.
Article ID: 5476903.

Hosseinzade A, Sadeghi O, Naghdipour Biregani A, Soukhtehzari S, Brandt GS, Esmaillzadeh A. Immunomodulatory effects of flavonoids: Possible induction of T CD4+ regulatory cells through suppression of mTOR pathway signaling activity. Front. Immunol. 2019;10:51.

Venkatalakshmi P, Vadivel V, Brindha P. Role of phytochemicals as immunomodulatory agents: A review. International Journal of Green Pharmacy. 2016;10(1):1-18.