Ethnopharmacological Survey of Medicinal Plants Used to Treat Human Diseases in the Tivaouane Department, Senegal

Main Article Content

Kady Diatta
William Diatta
Alioune Dior Fall
Serigne Ibra Mbacké Dieng
Amadou Ibrahima Mbaye
Abdou Sarr
Mamadou Bamba Seye


Background: In Africa, particularly in Senegal, 70% of the population resort to traditional medicine.

Aim/Objective: The aim of this study is to inventory the plants used to the the treatment of erectile dysfunction, hypertension, diabetes etc because the populations often resort to phytotherapy.

Methods: Fifty traditional practitioners, fifty herbalists and fifty resources persons were conducted to identify the plants used in the management of affections in the Tivaouane department.

Results: Ninety seven plants could be identified and divided into eighty nine genera and forty eight families. Thus, Fabaceae families with 18 species, Euphorbiaceae (8 species), Combretaceae (5 species), Malvaceae (4 species), Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Asteraceae, Meliaceae Myrtaceae and Poaceae each with 3 species and  Asclepiadaceae, Liliaceae, Lythraceae, Loganaceae and Menispermaceae each with 2 species; Apocynaceae, Balanitaceae, Bignoniaceae, Capparidaceae, Caricaceae, Casuarinaceae, Celastraceae, Cochlospermaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Hypericaceae, Lamiaceae, Loraceae, Lauraceae, Loranthaceae, Moraceae , Moringaceae, Musaceae  Olacaceae, Polygalaceae, Rhamnaceae, Rosaceae, Rutaceae, Sapindaceae, Sapotaceae, Sphenocleaceae, Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae, Verbenaceae and Zingiberaceae are represented by a single species. The most used plant for antipyretic herbal medicine is Senna occidentalis with a citation percentage of 31.72%, followed by Khaya senegalensis (17.18%) and Citrus aurantifolia (11.01%). The most used plant for antalgic herbal medicine is Grewia bicolor with a citation percentage of 19.48%, followed by Acacia nilotica (12.21%) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (9.59%). The most used plant for antihypertensive is Zizyphus mauritiana with a citation percentage of 16.83%, followed by Combrethum micranthum (13.37%) and Oxythenantera abyssinica (11.88%). The most used plant for cicatrizing is Acacia nilotica with a citation percentage of 25.71%, followed by Vernonia colorata (12%) and Leptadenia hastata (10.29%). The most used plant for erectile dysfunction is Flueggea virosa with a citation percentage of 24.14%, followed by Zingiber officinale (18.96%) and Cassia sieberiana (12.07%). The leaves (51%) and barks (18%) are the organs used for the medicinal preparations. The decoction (44%) is the most use followed by maceration (29%) and powder (16%).

Conclusion: Further investigations are needed to explore the bioactive compounds of these herbal medicines. In this aspect, many plants are claimed to be effective in the treatment of many affections.

Ethnopharmacological survey, medicinal plants, human diseases, Tivaouane department, Senegal.

Article Details

How to Cite
Diatta, K., Diatta, W., Fall, A. D., Dieng, S. I. M., Mbaye, A. I., Sarr, A., & Seye, M. B. (2019). Ethnopharmacological Survey of Medicinal Plants Used to Treat Human Diseases in the Tivaouane Department, Senegal. European Journal of Medicinal Plants, 30(3), 1-13.
Original Research Article


Dolatkhahi M, Dolatkhahi A, Nejad JB. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in Arjan–Parishan protected area in Fars Province of Iran. Avicenna J Phytomed. 2014;4:402–412.

Zhang X. Regulatory Situation of Herbal Medicines A worldwide Review. World Health Organization; 1998.
(Accessed 14 November 2019)

World Health Organization. WHO traditional medicine strategy: 2014–2023. Geneva: World Health Organisation; 2013.

Shah A, Marwat SK, Gohar F, Khan A, Bhatti KH, Amin M, Coll. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants of semi-tribal area of Makerwal & Gulla Khel (lying between Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab Provinces), Pakistan. Am J Plant Sci. 2013;4:98–116.
DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.41015

Al-Douri NA, Al-Essa LY. A survey of plants used in Iraqi traditional medicine. Jordan J Pharm Sci. 2010; 3:100–108.

Parvaiz M. Ethnobotanical studies on plant resources of Mangowal, District Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan. Avicenna J Phytomed. 2014;4:364–370.

Bahmani M, Rafieian-Kopaei M, Avijgan M, Hosseini S, Golshahi H, Eftekhari Z, Coll. Ethnobotanical studies of medicinal plants used by Kurdish owner’s in south range of Ilam province, west of Iran. Am Eurasia J Agric Environ Sci. 2012;12:1128–1133.

Newman DJ, Cragg GM. Natural Products as Sources of New Drugs over the Last 25 Years. J Nat Prod. 2007;70:461–477.
DOI: 10.1021/np068054v

Diop EA, Queiroz EF, Kicka S, Rudaz S, Diop T, Soldati T, Wolfender JL. Survey on medicinal plants traditionally used in Senegal for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and assessment of their antimycobacterial activity. J Ethnopharmacol. 2018;216:71-78.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2017.12.037

Seye MB. Contribution to the study of the Senegalese pharmacopoeia: Ethnopharmacology survey in the department of Tivaouane. Thèse Pharmacie, UCAD N°04. 2014;129.

Agence Nationale Statistics and Demographics. Economic and social situation of Senegal: ANSD. 2014;129.

APG III. An update of the Angiosperm phylogeny group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants.

Botan J. the Linnean Society. 2009;104.

Eklu NRD, Balet A, et al. Dictionary and multilingual monographs of the medicinal potential of African plants. West Africa. Geneva: Uniprint Center. 2011; 1030. (Scientific names and synonyms, names in African, French and English languages and traditional medicinal indications, vol.2)

Kerharo J, Adam JG. The traditional Senegalese pharmacopoeia, medicinal and toxic plants. Paris, Ed. Vigot Brothers. 1974;470-472.

Diatta K, Diatta W, Fall AD, Dieng SIM, Mbaye AI, Manga I. Ethnobotanic survey of aids opportunistic infections in the Ziguinchor District, Sénégal. Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2019;8(1-2):1-10.

Hadj SA, Kemassi A, Hadj KY, Harma A.

Infertility treatment: Spontaneous plants from Northern Sahara infertility treatment: Spontaneous Plants of Northern Sahara, Phytothérapie. 2016;14:241-245.
DOI :10.1007/s10298-015-1000-9

David J, Afolabi EO, Olotu PN, Ojerinde SO, Agwom FM, Ajima U. Phytochemical analysis, antidiabetic and toxicity studies of the methanolic leaf extract of Detarium microcarpum guill and perr in wistar albino rats. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research. 2017;9(11):55-60.

Chisom F, Ugochukwu A, Okenwa UI. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial studies of Afzelia africana and Detarium microcarpum seeds. Chemistry International. 2018;4(3):170-176.

Yaro AH, Yusif BB, Mu’azu AB, Matinja AI, Chutiyami M. Anti-Inflammatory and analgesic effect of Detarium microcarpum (Guill. and Perrs.) stem bark methanol extract in rats and mice. International Research Journal of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences. 2017;1(1):7-10.

Narendar K, Hemanth KV, Jamadar MG, Huilgo SV, Nayak N, Saeed M, Yendigeri MS. Antidiabetic and hepatoprotective activities of Tamarindus indica fruit pulp in alloxan induced diabetic rats, Int J Pharmacol and Clin Sci. 2013;2:33-40.

Mbaye AI, Gueye PM, Fall AD, Kane MO, Badji KD, Sarr A, Diattara D, Bassene E. Antioxidative activity of Tamarindus indica L. extract and chemical fractions. African Journal of Biochemistry Research. 2017; 11(2):6-11.
DOI: 10.5897/AJBR2016.0896

Yerima M, Magaji MG, Yaro AH, Tanko Y, Mohammed MM. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic leaves extract of Securinega virosa (Euphorbiaceae). Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2009;8(1):47-53.
[ISSN: 0189-823X]

Ilham Mo Mohammed AS, Abdalla AB. Acaricidal properties of two extracts from Guiera senegalensis JF. Gmel. (Combretaceae) against Hyalomma anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae). Veterinary Parasitology. 2014;199(3-4):201-205.

Mann A, Amupitan JO, Oyewale AO, Okogun JI, Ibrahim K. Antibacterial activity of terpenoidal fractions from Anogeissus leiocarpus and Terminalia avicennioides against community acquired infections. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2009;3(1):022-025.

Sumaia AA, Abdelwahab HM, Galal EEM. Fatty acid composition, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. Seeds, J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res. 2014;1(2):50-57.
DOI : 10.5455/javar.

Muhd Hanis MI, Siti Balkis B, Mohamad O, Jamaludin M. Protective role of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extract against streptozotocin induced sperm damage in diabetic rats. EXCLI J. 2012;11:659– 669.

Moyo M, Ndhlala AR, Finnie JF, Staden JV. Phenolic composition, antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of Sclerocarya birrea and Harpephyllum caffrum (Anacardiaceae) extracts, Food Chemistry. 2010;123(1):69-76.

Moyo M, Finnie JF, Staden JV. Antimicrobial and cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibitory activities of Sclerocarya birrea and Harpephyllum caffrum (Anacardiaceae) plant extracts, South African Journal of Botany. 2011;77(3):592-597.

Koffi A, Traore F, Adjoungoua AL and Diafouka F. Pharmacological effects of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. (Rhamnacees) onblood pressure in rabbits, Phytothérapie. 2017;6(4):219-227.

Zahoui OS, Soro TY, Yao KM, Nene-Bi SA, Traoré F. Hypotensive Effect of an aqueous extract from Combretum micranthum G. Don (Combretaceae), Phytothérapie. 2017;15(3):138-146.

Seck SM, Doupa D, Dia DG, et al. Clinical efficacy of African traditional medicines in hypertension: A randomized controlled trial with Combretum micranthum and Hibiscus sabdariffa. J Hum Hypertens. 2018;32:75–81.

DOI: 10.1038/s41371-017-0001-6

Soladoye MO, Chukwuma EC, Owa FP. An ‘avalanche’ of plant species for the traditional cure of Diabetes mellitus in South-Western Nigeria. J. Nat. Prod. Plant Resour. 2012;2(1):60-72.

Chah KF, Ezeb CA, Emuelosia CE and Esimone CO. Antibacterial and wound healing properties of methanolic extracts of some Nigerian medicinal plants, Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2006;104(1–2):8: 164-167.

Pushpangadan P, Mehrota S, Rawat AKS, Rao CV, SK, Ojha, Aziz I. Herbal composition for cuts, burns and wounds, US 7344737; 2008.

Maud KM, Hannington OO. Traditional herbal remedies used in the management of sexual impotence and erectile dysfunction in western Uganda, African Health Sciences. 2005;5(1):40-49.

Ramandeep S, Sarabjeet S, Jeyabalan G, Ashraf A. An overview on traditional medicinal plants as aphrodisiac agent, Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2012;1(4):1-14.

Diatta K, Diatta W, Fall AD, Dieng SIM, Mbaye AI, Fall PA. Traditionally used anti-hepatitis plants species in Dakar District, Senegal. European Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2019;29(2):1-8.
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2019/v29i230150

Thirumalai T, Beverly CD, Sathiyaraj K, Senthilkumar B, David E. Ethnobotanical study of anti-diabetic medicinal plants used by the local people in javadhu hills Tamilnadu, India. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2012;2(2):S910-S913.

Cunningham AB. People, wild plant use and conservation. people and plants. Conservation Manuel, Applied Ethnobotany, Earthscan. 2001;300.

Béné K, Camara D, Fofie NBY, Kanga Y, Yapi AB, Yapo YC, Ambe SA, Zirihi GN. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in the Department of Transua, Zanzan District (Côte d'Ivoire). Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences. 2016;27(2): 4230-4250.

Tilahun TJ, Moa M. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used to treat human diseases in Berbere District, Bale Zone of Oromia Regional State, South East Ethiopia. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2018;16:Article ID 8602945.