HPLC Evaluation of Phenolic Compounds in Physalis angulata Linn. and Physalis micrantha Linn. (Solanaceae)

Main Article Content

Chimezie Ekeke
Gordian C. Obute
Chinedum A. Ogazie


Physalis angulata Linn. and Physalis micrantha Linn. (Solanaceae) used for different medicinal purposes in Nigeria and other parts of the world were subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis to determine their phytochemical profiles. Forty five (45) alkaloids, 36 flavonoids, 18 glycosides and 44 phenolic acids were observed in the plants. P. angulata had the highest concentrations of flavonoids, phenolic acids and alkaloids while P. micarantha had the highest concentration of glycosides. The presence and concentration of these chemicals in these studied species confirm their medicinal and ethno-botanical uses and make them potential sources of raw materials for the pharmaceutical industries.

Alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenolic acids, Physalis, phytochemicals.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ekeke, C., Obute, G. C., & Ogazie, C. A. (2019). HPLC Evaluation of Phenolic Compounds in Physalis angulata Linn. and Physalis micrantha Linn. (Solanaceae). European Journal of Medicinal Plants, 29(2), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.9734/ejmp/2019/v29i230151
Original Research Article


Chopra JC. Glossary of Indian medicinal plants. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Dehli; 1956.

Agarwal VS. Drug plants of India vol. II. Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi; 1997.

Van den Eynden V, Cueva E, Cabrero O. Wild foods from southern Ecuador. Econ. Bot. 2003;57:576-603.

John S. Biodiversity of food species of the Solanaceae Family: A preliminary taxonomic inventory of subfamily Solanoideae. Resources. 2015;4:277-322.

Todd. Martindales: The extra pharmacopeia; 1993.

Chiang HC, Jaw SM, Chen CF, Kan WS. Antitumor agent, Physalin F from Physalis angulata L. Anticancer Research. 1992a;12:837-844.

Chiang HC, Jaw SM, Chen PM. Inhibitory effects of Physalin B and Physalin F on various human Leukemia cells in vitro. Anticancer Research. 1992b;12:1155-1162.

Vessal M, Mostafavi-Pour Z, Kooshesh F. Age and sex dependence of the effects of an aqueous extract of Physalis alkekengi fruits on rat hepatic glucose 6-P dehydrogenase activity. Comparative Biochemical Physiology. 1995;111(4):675-680.

Vessal M, Rasti M, Kooshesh F. Modulation of the pituitary and basomedial hypothalamic Lysyl-Aminopeptidase activities by β-estradiol and/or an aqueous extract of Physalis alkekengi fruits. Comparative Biochemical Physiology. 1996;115(2):267-271.

Burkill HM. The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. Vol. 5 (Edition 2). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, United Kingdom; 2000.

Ezeonu CS, Ejikeme CM. Qualitative and quantitative determination of phyto-chemical contents of indigenous Nigerian softwoods. New Journal of Science; 2016.

Samadi AK, Tong XQ, Mukerji R, Zhang HP, Timmermann BN, Cohen MS. Withaferin A, a cytotoxic steroid from Vassobia breviflora, induces apoptosis in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Journal of Natural Products. 2010;73:1476-1481.

Ekeke C, Ogazie CA. Phytochemical study on Commelina diffusa Burn. F. subsp. diffusa J. K. Morton and Commelina erecta L. (Commelinaceae). Nig. J. Life Sc. 2018;8(1).

Aliyu AB, Musa AM, Oshanimi JA, Ibrahim HA, Oyewale AO. Phytochemical analysis and mineral elements composition of some medicinal plants of Northern Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2008;7(1):119–125.

Hsua Y, Wub C, Changc H, Kumara K, Linb M, Cheni C, Choi H, Huangi C, Huangd C, Leee H, Hsiehf W, Chungg J, Wangh H, Yangi H. Inhibitory effects of Physalis angulata on tumor metastasis and angiogenesis. Journal of Ethno-pharmacology. 2011;135:762–771.

Leong LP, Shui G. An investigation of antioxidant capacity of fruits in Singapore markets. Food Chemistry. 2002;76:69- 75.

Jin Z, Mashuta M, Stolowich N, Vaisberg A, Stivers N, Bates P, Lewis W, Hammond G. Physangulidines A, B, and C: Three new antiproliferative withanolides from Physalis angulata L. Organic Letters. 2012;14:1230–1233.

Hsu C, Wua LY, Farh Y, Dua W, Tseng C, Wuf FC. Physalin B from Physalis angulata Triggers the NOXA-related apoptosis pathway of human melanoma A375 cells. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2012;50: 619–624.

Kähkonen MP, Hopia AI, Vuorela HJ, Rauha JP, Pihlaja K, Kujala TS, Heinonen M. Antioxidant activity of plant extract containing phenolic compounds. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 1999;47: 3954-3962.

Balao F, Valente LM, Vargas P, Herrera J, Talavera S. Radiative evolution of polyploid races of the Iberian carnation Dianthus broteri (Caryophyllaceae). New Phytologist. 2010;187:542–551.

Wang D. The genes of Capsicum. Hort. Sci. 2006;41:1169–1187.

Soobrattee MA, Neergheen VS, Luximon-Ramma A, Aruoma OI, Bahorun T. Phenolics as potential antioxidant therapeutic agents: Mechanism and actions. Mutation Research. 2005;579: 200–213.

Misra LN, Lal P, Kumar D. Isolation and characterization of steroids of nutraceutical value in Physalis minima. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 2006;11:133-139.

Kelly K, Quinn L, Steve C, Kirsten B, Hillary L, Mark C, Barbara NT. The ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology of wild Tomatillos, Physalis longifolia Nutt., and related Physalis species: A review. Economic Botany. 2012;20(10):1-13.

Basey K, McGaw BA, Woolley JG. Phygrine, an alkaloid from Physalis species. Phytochemistry. 1992;31:4173-4176.

Asano N, Kato A, Oseki K, Kizu H, Matsui K. Calystegins of Physalis alkekengi var. francheti (Solanaceae): Structure determination and their glycosidase inhibitory activities. Eur. J. Biochem. 1995;229:369-376.

Dinan LN, Sarker SD, Šik V. 28-hydroxywithanolide E from Physalis peruviana. Phytochemistry. 1997;44:509-512.

Qiu L, Zhao F, Jiang ZH, Chen ZLXQ, Liu HX, Yao XS, Qiu F. Steroids and flavonoids from Physalis alkekengi var. franchetii and their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production. J. Nat. Prod. 2008;71:642-646.

Pérez-Castorena AL, García M, Martínez M, Maldonado E. Physalins from Physalis solanaceus. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 2004;32: 1231-1234.

Zhang H, Samadi AK, Gallagher RJ, Araya JJ, Tong X, Day VW, Cohen MS, Kindscher K, Gollapudi R, Timmermann BN. Cytotoxic withanolide constituents of Physalis longifolia. Journal of Natural Products. 2011;74:2532-2544.

Misico RI, Nicotra VE, Oberti JC, Barboza G, Gil RR, Burton G. Withanolides and related steroids. Progress in the Chemical of Organic Natural Products. 2011;94:127-229.

Chen LX, Hao H, Qiu F. Natural withanolides: An overview. Natural Products Reports. 2011;28:705–740.