Main Article Content
This study was conducted to carryout preliminary phytochemical analysis and in vitro antimicrobial activities of aqueous and ethanolic root and stem bark extracts of Ficus sycomorus. Qualitative phytochemical analysis for tannins, saponin, terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, phenols, and reducing sugar was done using standard methods. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts were tested against four micro- organisms; Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysentrae, and Salmonella typhi. Agar well diffusion method was used for the antimicrobial studies. Phytochemical screening of both root and stem bark aqueous extracts showed the presence of tannin, saponin, terpenoid, flavonoid, alkaloids, glycoside, steroid, reducing sugar, and phenol. Glycoside was not detected in both the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the root bark. The result of the antimicrobial studies showed that the aqueous root extract have higher antimicrobial activity ranging from (2-12 mm) on the tested microorganisms than aqueous stem bark extract (3-9 mm), while for ethanol extract both stem and root bark extract has almost the same effect or antimicrobial activity on the tested pathogens ranging from (2-15 mm) which is having higher activity compared to the aqueous extracts. The Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of both the extracts were found to be 50 mg/mL and 100 mg/mL respectively. From this study, it can, therefore, be concluded that the root and stem bark extract is a potential antimicrobial agent which support the claim of the traditional users of this plant in herbal medicine for the treatment of diseases that are of microbial origin.
Doss A. Preliminary phytochemical screening of some Indian medicinal plants. Anc Sci Life. 2009;29:12-1.
Pandey P, Mehta R, Upadhyay R. Physico-chemical and preliminary phytochemical screening of Psoralea corylifolia. Journal of Arch Applied Science Research. 2013;5: 261-265.
World Health Origination (WHO). The world health report. Bridging the gap. WHO general I. 1995;118.
Rabiu MK, Safiyya A, Sani AK, Gambo C. Phytochemical compositions in some Nigerian medicinal plants and their pharmacological properties: A review. Journal of Anesthesiology. 2018;6(1):15-25.
Sofowora A. Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa, 3rd Edition, Spectrum Books Ltd., Ibadan, Nigeria. 2008;23-25.
Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Simons A. Agroforestree Database:a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0 [Online]; 2009.
Available:http://wwwWorldagroforestry.org/treedb2/speciesprofile.php?Spid=620# [Accessed 19 August, 2017]
Hassan SW, Lawal M, Muhammad BY, Umar RA. Antifungal activity and phyto-chemical analysis of Column Chromato-graphic fractions of stem bark extracts of Ficus syncomorus L (Muraceae). Journal of Plant Sciences. 2007;2(2):209-215.
Oyeleke SB, Dauda BEN, Boye OA. Antibacterial activity of Ficus capensis. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 2008;7:1414-1417.
Sandabe UK, Onyeyili PA, Chibuzo GA. Phytochemical screening and effect of aqueous extract of Ficus sycomorus L (moraceae) stem bark on muscularActivity in laboratory animals. Journal of Ethno-pharmacology. 2006;104:203-285.
Solomon-Wisdom GO, Shittu GA, Agboola YA. Antimicrobial and phytochemical screening activities of Ficus sur (Forssk). New York Science Journal. 2011;4(1):15-18.
Udobi CE, Onaolapo JA, Agunu A. Antibacterial activities and bioactive Components of the aqueous fraction of the stem bark of Parkia bigblobosa (JACQ) (Mimosaceae). Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2008;7(1):49-55.
Fatope MO, Ibrahim H, Takada Y. Screening for higher plants reported as Pesticides using the brine shrimp lethally Assay. International Journal of Pharmaco-logy. 1993;11(6):250-254.
Nguta JM, Mbaria JM, Gakuya DW, Gathumbi PK, Kabasa JD, Kiama SG. Biological screening of Kenya Medicial plants using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae). Pharmacology Online. 2011;2:458-478.
Trease GE, Evans WC. Pharmacognosy. 15th Ed. Saunders Publishers, London. 2002;42-44,221-229,246-249,304-306, 331-332,391-393.
Nweze ET, Okafor JI, Njoku O. Antimicrobial activities of methanolic extract of Trumeguineesis (Schumm and Thorn) and Morinda lucinda Benth used in Nigerian herb medicinal practice. Journal of Biological Research and Biotechnology. 2004;2(1):34-46.
Senthilkumar PK, Reetha D. Screening of antimicrobial properties of certain Indian medicinal plants. J. Phytol. 2009;1(3):193-198.
National Committee for Clinical Standards. Reference method for both dilution antifungal susceptibility testing of yeast Approved Standard M27-APA: National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards Wayne; 2000.
Ibekwe VI, Nnanyere NF, Akujobi CO. Studies of antibacterial activity and phyto-chemical qualities of extracts of orange peels. International Journal of Environment and Human Health. 2001;2(1):41-46.
Essawi T, Srour M. Screening of some Palestinian medicinal plants for anti-bacterial activity. Journal of Ethnopharma-cology. 2000;70:343-349.
Kone WM, Atindehou KK, Terreaux C, Hostettmann K, Traore D, Dosso M. Traditional medicine in North Cote-d'Ivoire: Screening of 50 medicinal plants for antibacterial activity. Journal of Ethno-pharmacology. 2004;93:43-49.
Abubakar US, Danmalam UH, Musa KY, Banni Z, Yahaya I, Abba A, Sani A. Phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of methanol root bark extract of Ficus sycomorus linn. (moraceae). Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2015; 14(2):1-6.
Dahiru D, Thagriki D. In vitro biochemical assessments of methanol stem bark extracts of Ficus sycomorus plant. Jordan J Biol Sci. 2016;9(1):63–8.
Rauha JP, Remes S, Herinonen W, Hopia M, Kgjala T, Pitinlaja K. Antimicrobial effects of finished plant extract containing flavanoids and other phenolic compounds. Int. J Food Microbiol. 2000;56:3-12.
Fateh AL, Rahman F, Magbool, Elamin IE, Shayoub ME, Salah EOH. Phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of stem bark and leaves extracts from Ficus sycomorus. World Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research. 2017;3(11):234-239.
Ogunleye DS, Ibitoye SF. Studies of antimicrobial activity and chemical constituents of Ximenia Americana. Trop. J Pharm Res. 2003;2:239-241.
Dharmananda S. Gallnuts and the uses of tannins in Chinese medicine. A paper Delivered at the Institute for Traditional Medicine, Portland, Oregon; 2003.
Abdullahi M. Susceptibility profiles of some bacteria isolated from stool of diarrhoeal patients to the stem and root barks extracts of Ficus sycomorus Linn (Moracae). M.Sc. Thesis Submitted to the School of Postgraduate Studies (unpublished), Ahmadu Bello, University, Zaria; 2014
Adeshina GO, Okeke CLE, Osuagwu NO, Ehinmidu JO. Preliminary in vitro antibacterial activities of ethanolic extracts of Ficus sycomorus Linn and Ficu platyphylla (Moraceae). African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2010;4(8):598-601.
Bello OM, Ojediran OJ, Dada OA, Olatunya AM, Awakan OJ. In vivo toxicity studies and phytochemical screening of stem bark of Ficus sycomorus Linn (Moraceae). Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology. 2015;9(3):72-74.