Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis and In vitro Antimicrobial Study of the Root and Stem Bark Extracts of Ficus sycomorus Linn

Main Article Content

I. Toma
D. Dahiru
M. A. Madusolumou

Abstract

This study was conducted to carryout preliminary phytochemical analysis and in vitro antimicrobial activities of aqueous and ethanolic root and stem bark extracts of Ficus sycomorus. Qualitative phytochemical analysis for tannins, saponin, terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, phenols, and reducing sugar was done using standard methods. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts were tested against four micro- organisms; Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysentrae, and Salmonella typhi. Agar well diffusion method was used for the antimicrobial studies. Phytochemical screening of both root and stem bark aqueous extracts showed the presence of tannin, saponin, terpenoid, flavonoid, alkaloids,  glycoside, steroid, reducing sugar, and phenol. Glycoside was not detected in both the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the root bark. The result of the antimicrobial studies showed that the aqueous root extract have higher antimicrobial activity ranging from (2-12 mm) on the tested microorganisms than aqueous stem bark extract (3-9 mm), while for ethanol extract both stem and root bark extract has almost the same effect or antimicrobial activity on the tested pathogens ranging from (2-15 mm) which is having higher activity compared to the aqueous extracts. The Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of both the extracts were found to be 50 mg/mL and 100 mg/mL respectively.  From this study, it can, therefore, be concluded that the root and stem bark extract is a potential antimicrobial agent which support the claim of the traditional users of this plant in herbal medicine for the treatment of diseases that are of microbial origin.

Keywords:
Ficus sycomorus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysentrae, Salmonella typhi, phytochemical screening, antimicrobial activity

Article Details

How to Cite
Toma, I., Dahiru, D., & Madusolumou, M. A. (2019). Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis and In vitro Antimicrobial Study of the Root and Stem Bark Extracts of Ficus sycomorus Linn. European Journal of Medicinal Plants, 28(3), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.9734/ejmp/2019/v28i330136
Section
Original Research Article

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